Figure 1. Brazilian expenditures in science and technology. Categories are defined according to the Canberra Manual (26). The total investment per year is the sum of expenditures from the following funding sources: federal government, industry, tax incentives granted to industries, state funding agencies and salaries for private university teachers. Values were converted to 1997 US dollars as explained in the Methods section. Source: CNPq-1 (federal expenditures) MCT/FINEP (tax incentives) and MCT-2 (other investments).