The growing competition in Brazilian science: rites of passage, stress and burnout. L. de Meis, A. Velloso, D. Lannes, M.S. Carmo and C. de Meis. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36 (9): 1135, 2003.

Figure 3. Number of institutions offering undergraduate courses (A), Academic staff (B) and Student enrollment (C) in government (open circles) and private Brazilian institutions (filled circles). In 2001 there were 939,225 students enrolled in federal and state universities and 2,091,521 students in private universities. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP) - 2001 Census.