Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control. T.S. Moreira, A.C. Takakura, R.S. Damasceno, B. Falquetto, L.T. Totola, C.R. Sobrinho, D.T. Ragioto and F.P. Zolezi. Braz J Med Biol Res 2011; 44: 883-889.

Figure 1. Main cardiorespiratory regions of the pons and medulla. The pontomedullary neurons that regulate the heart and vasomotor sympathetic outflow occur in a connected structure that extends from the spinomedullary junction to the dorsolateral pons. This parasagittal section from a rat lies about 1.8-1.9 mm lateral to the midline. The motor outflow to diaphragm and intercostal and airway respiratory muscles is generated within the same brain regions. The pre-Bötzinger region (Pre-BotC) contains neurons that are essential to inspiratory rhythm generation. A1/CPA = region containing the A1 group of noradrenergic neurons also called caudal pressor area; BotC = Bötzinger region; CVLM = caudal ventrolateral medulla; cVRG = caudal ventral respiratory group; C3-C5 = cervical spinal cord; KF = Kölliker-Fuse nucleus; LC = locus coeruleus; LPBN = lateral parabrachial nucleus; LRN = lateral reticular nucleus; Mo5 = mesencephalic nucleus; nA = nucleus ambiguus; NTS = nucleus tractus solitarii; RVLM = rostral ventrolateral medulla; RTN = retrotrapezoid nucleus; rVRG = rostral ventral respiratory group; T2-T8 = thoracic spinal cord; 7 = facial motor nucleus; 7n = seventh nerve.