Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control. T.S. Moreira, A.C. Takakura, R.S. Damasceno, B. Falquetto, L.T. Totola, C.R. Sobrinho, D.T. Ragioto and F.P. Zolezi.
Figure 1. Main cardiorespiratory regions of the pons and medulla. The pontomedullary neurons that regulate the heart and vasomotor sympathetic outflow occur in a connected structure that extends from the spinomedullary junction to the dorsolateral pons. This parasagittal section from a rat lies about 1.8-1.9 mm lateral to the midline. The motor outflow to diaphragm and intercostal and airway respiratory muscles is generated within the same brain regions. The pre-Bötzinger region (Pre-BotC) contains neurons that are essential to inspiratory rhythm generation. A1/CPA = region containing the A1 group of noradrenergic neurons also called caudal pressor area; BotC = Bötzinger region; CVLM = caudal ventrolateral medulla; cVRG = caudal ventral respiratory group; C3-C5 = cervical spinal cord; KF = Kölliker-Fuse nucleus; LC = locus coeruleus; LPBN = lateral parabrachial nucleus; LRN = lateral reticular nucleus; Mo5 = mesencephalic nucleus; nA = nucleus ambiguus; NTS = nucleus tractus solitarii; RVLM = rostral ventrolateral medulla; RTN = retrotrapezoid nucleus; rVRG = rostral ventral respiratory group; T2-T8 = thoracic spinal cord; 7 = facial motor nucleus; 7n = seventh nerve.