ISSN 0102-3306 printed version
ISSN 1677-941X online version



Scope of the journal

Experimental, theoretical and applied papers on all aspects of plant (including algae) and fungi
biology are welcome. The submitted manuscript or its essential content must not have been
published previously or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Contributions
should be substantial, written in English and show general interest. Manuscripts that report
aspects of local interest are discouraged unless the implications of the findings are wide-
reaching. Manuscripts with agronomic subjects are expected to contain a substantial amount
of basic plant biology. Please see below some details for specific area.

Algae, cyanobacteria and fungi

Acta Botanica Brasilica considers studies on algae and cyanobacteria and all aspects of fungi
and lichens. The main topics covered are biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, ecology
(mainly interactions like mycorrhizas and endophytes), evolution, physiology and taxonomy.
Hypothesis-driven papers and studies based on an interdisciplinary research are encouraged.
The journal also welcome studies related to the development and test of new methodologies
and those studies on practical themes, whose results are applicable, for example, in
aquaculture or in environmental management and conservation. The manuscripts purely
descriptive, such as those focused on species lists, are discouraged.

Mycological Diversity Description (MDD): the new modality for the publication of novel fungi

Mycological Diversity Description (MDD) is a series of articles that describe new taxa (with or
without keys), and new geographical, substrate and/or host records for fungi and related
organisms. This series is intended to stimulate the publication of these discoveries using
phylogenies based on morphological and molecular data.

Manuscripts submitted for MDD will be accumulated for up to 150 days, at which point they
will be grouped together in a larger article, which will include the description of several taxa by
numerous authors. The intention is to provide these taxa and the authors more visibility. The
author of the first manuscript to be submitted will be the first author of the article, with the
subsequent authors appearing in alphabetic order. The authorship of taxa will remain
according to the submitted manuscripts, since the grouping of several authors will be limited
to the entire article, not the individual descriptions of taxa.


We welcome manuscripts spanning all ecological levels, from individuals to ecosystems.
Experimental and observational studies with ecological basis/background of fungi, algae, and
plant taxa from all biogeographic regions will be considered for publication. Interaction studies
should be focused on the plants point of view. We encourage the submission of hypothesis-
driven manuscripts that advance ecological knowledge, rather than submissions that describe
particular cases that are too geographically or taxonomically-focused. Studies dealing with
species conservation, management and restoration will also be considered for publication.
Please define clearly the ecological context of the study, questions/hypotheses, scope and
statistical methods reasoning, and advances obtained.


By recognizing ethnobotany as an area of interface between different fields of study, we
welcome the submission of manuscripts where the botanical component is clearly present.
Whenever appropriate, manuscripts should present information regarding prior informed
consent and the procedures related to the access to the traditional knowledge associated with

biodiversity. Essentially descriptive and regional studies will not be accepted, such as lists of
useful species. We strongly recommend manuscripts with a clear theoretical framework and
with innovative combinations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

Plant Physiology

Acta Botanica Brasilica publishes manuscripts concerning plant physiological studies related to
aspects of germination, growth and development, plant nutrition, plant water relations, plant
molecular biology, plant metabolism and biochemistry, ecophysiology, plant-environment and
plant-biotic interactions. Merely descriptive studies or simply agricultural approaches without
a substantial physiological mechanism, will not be considered for publication.

Plant Structure (morphology and anatomy)

Acta Botanica Brasilica publishes original contributions on all aspects of plant structure
(morphology and anatomy), including cell biology and palynology. Innovative research on plant
structure, including studies related to evolution, ontogenesis (morphogenesis and
embryogenesis) and taxonomy are welcomed. Illustrations must be of high quality for
manuscripts to be considered. Purely descriptive manuscripts are discouraged.

Taxonomy and Systematics

Acta Botanica Brasilica publishes original papers related to systematics, taxonomy, floristics,
nomenclature and phytogeography, including theoretical papers and methodology, phylogeny,
short monographs, revisions, history of botanical explorations, analyses of characters,
phytogeographic studies, descriptions of new taxa and typification. Floras may be accepted
provided they be of general interest and combine the results in an integrative way with other
issues, such as taxonomy, conservation, ecology or biogeography.


Why publish in Acta Botanica Brasilica?

  • Acta bot. bras. is an indexed, open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing high quality research in Plant Biology.
  • There is no cost for publication.
  • All manuscripts published by Acta bot. bras. are open-access, maximizing the impact of your research.
  • The submissions are peer-reviewed by at least two experts who evaluate scientific quality and novelty.
  • Our review process is very efficient. It will only take about two months for the first decision on your manuscript.
  • The manuscripts are advertised to all members of the SBB, available in the journal website, in the SciELO database and in social media.
  • Acta bot. bras. is indexed in Scopus and Web of Science among others.
  • Increasing impact factor: Acta bot. bras. IF has been increasing in the last evaluations (from 0.374 in 2012 to 0.545 in 2014).


Language editing

If English is not your first language, it is strongly recommended to have your manuscript edited for language before submission. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


Types of articles

Original Articles




Short Communications



For Mycological Diversity Description (MDD)

Instructions for the text and figures for this publication follow all the currently
stablished guidelines. The body of the text of descriptions of new taxa will include:
taxon name, authorities (up to five), etymology, MycoBank number(s)
(, description, material examined (including holotype,
culture ex-type, etc. deposited in reference herbarium and/or culture collections), notes,
GenBank accession number(s) for DNA sequences, authors names (full name), e-mail
addresses, affiliations, acknowledgements, references, and figure legend (mainly photo
plates with macro- and/or microscopic characteristics and phylogeny. Other photos,
such as of hosts, environments, etc., may be added upon pre-approval by the Editor).
New records should follow the instructions for the description of new taxa, with the
exception of the exclusion of an etymology and MycoBank number(s). For phylogenetic
analyses, at least one region of the DNA should be used, but multilocus analyses are
encouraged. Authors are requested to include, in the legend for the phylogeny,
information about the analyses used to verify the phylogenetic relationships of the
relevant taxon(a) and to use only black, grey and/or green for the layout of the tree. For
the caption for images with macro- and/or microscopic characteristics, it is requested
the addition of a brief methodology, such as reagents, culture media, etc. Please consult
the most recent issue of Acta Botanica Brasilica for layout and style and access the
journal's website to find a model.


Summary of submission processes

Submission management and evaluation of submitted manuscripts will involve the Journal’s online manuscript submission system. The manuscript text should be prepared in English (see PREPARING THE ARTICLE FILE below for details) and submitted online ( Figures, tables and other types of content should be organized into separate files for submission (see Preparing Tables, Figures and Supplementary material below for details). If you are using the online submission system for the first time please go to the login page and generate a login name and password after clicking on the “New user - register here” link. If you are already registered but need to be reminded of your login name or password please go to the login page and inform your email in “password help”. Please never create a new account if you are already registered.

If you are unable to access our web-based submission system, please contact the Editorial Office (


Cover letter

All manuscripts must be submitted with a cover letter, which should include an approximately 80 word summary of the scientific strengths of the paper that the authors believe qualify it for consideration by Acta Botanica Brasilica. The cover letter should also include a statement declaring that the manuscript reports unpublished work that it is not under active consideration for publication elsewhere, nor been accepted for publication, nor been published in full or in part (except in abstract form).


Preparing the article file

(Please consult a last issue of Acta Botanica Brasilica for layout and style)

All manuscripts must follow these guidelines: the text should be in Times New Roman font, size 12, double-spaced throughout and with 25 mm margins; the paper size should be set to A4 (210 x 297 mm). All pages should be numbered sequentially. Each line of the text should also be numbered, with the top line of each page being line 1. For text files .doc, .docx and .rtf are the only acceptable formats. Files in Adobe® PDF format (.pdf files) will not be accepted. When appropriate, the article file should include a list of figure legends and table heads at the end. This article file should not include any illustrations or tables, all of which should be submitted in separate files.Do not include field code either.

The first page should state the type of article (Original Article, Review, Viewpoint, Method, Short communication or MDD) and provide a concise and informative full title followed by the names of all authors. Each name should be followed by the Orcid number an identifying superscript number (1, 2, 3 etc.) associated with the appropriate institutional address to be entered further down the page. Only one corresponding author should be indicated with an asterisk and should always be the submitting author. The institutional address(es) of each author should be listed next, each address being preceded by the superscript number where appropriate. The address must be synthetic and in English with institution, postal code, city, state and country. Do not translate laboratory, department and university. Titles and positions should not be mentioned. This information is followed by the e-mail address of the corresponding author.

The second page should contain a structured Abstract not exceeding 200 words in a single paragraph without references. The Abstract should outline the essential content of the manuscript, especially the results and discussion, highlighting the relevance of main findings.

The Abstract should be followed by between five and ten Key words. Note that essential words in the title should be repeated in the key words.

Original articles should be divided into sections presented in the following order:

Title page
Materials and methods
Tables and Figure legends
Supplementary Data
(if applicable)

Material and methods and Results should be clear and concise. The Discussion section should avoid extensive repetition of the results and must finish with some conclusions. This section can be combined with results (Results and discussion), however, we recommend authors consult the Editoral Board for a previous evaluation.

Plant names must be written out in full in the abstract and again in the main text for every organism at first mention but the genus is only needed for the first species in a list within the same genus (e.g. Hymenaea stigonocarpa e H. stilbocarpa). The authority (e.g., L., Mill., Benth.) is required only in Material and Methods section. Use The International Plant Names Index ( for correct plants names. Cultivars or varieties should be added to the scientific name (e.g. Solanum lycopersicum 'Jumbo'). Authors must include in Material and Methods a reference to voucher specimen(s) and voucher number(s) of the plants or other material examined.

Abbreviations must be avoidexceptfor usual cases (see recent issues) and all terms must be written out in full when used to start a sentence. Non-conventional abbreviations should be spelled out at first mention.

Units of Measurement. Acta bot. bras. adopts the Systéme International d'Unités (SI). For volume, use the cubic metre (e.g. 1 × 10–5 m3) or the litre (e.g. 5 μL, 5 mL, 5 L). For concentrations, use μM, μmol L–1 or mg L–1. For size and distance use meters (cm, mm, um, etc) and be consistent in the manuscript.

Numbers up to nine should be written out unless they are measurements. All numbers above ten should be in numerals unless they are starting sentences.

Citations in the text should take the form of Silva (2012) or Ribeiro & Furr (1975) or (Mayer & Wu 1987a; b; Gonzalez 2014; Sirano 2014) and be ordered chronologically. Papers by three or more authors, even on first mention, should be abbreviated to the name of the first author followed by et al. (e.g. Simmons et al. 2014). If two different authors have the same last name, and the article have the same year of publication, give their initials (e.g. JS Santos 2003). Only refer to papers as 'in press' if they have been accepted for publication in a named journal, otherwise use the terms 'unpubl. res.', giving the initials and last name of the person concerned (e.g., RA Santos unpubl. res.).

References should be arranged alphabetically based on the surname of the author(s). Where the same author(s) has two or more papers listed, these papers should be grouped in year order. Letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., should be added to the date of papers with the same  citation in the text. Please provide DOI of ‘in press’ papers whenever possible.

For papers with six authors or fewer, please give the names of all the authors. For papers with seven authors or more, please give the names of the first three authors only, followed by et al.

Please follow the styles:


Smith GM. 1938. Cryptogamic botany. Vol. II Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. 2nd. edn. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Chapters in books

Schupp EW, Feener DH. 1991. Phylogeny, lifeform, and habitat dependence of ant-defended plants in a Panamanian forest. In: Huxley CR, Cutler DC. (eds.) Ant-plant interactions. Oxford, Oxford University Press. p. 175-197.

Research papers

Alves MF, Duarte MO, Oliveira PEAM, Sampaio DS. 2013. Self-sterility in the hexaploid Handroanthus serratifolius (Bignoniaceae), the national flower of Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27: 714-722.

Papers in press (ahead of print)

Alves JJ, Sampaio MTY. 2015. Structure and evolution of flowers. Acta Botanica Brasilica (in press). doi: 10.1590/0102-33062015abb3339

Online-only journals

Wolkovich EM, Cleland EE. 2014. Phenological niches and the future of invaded ecosystems with climate change. AoB Plants 6: plu013 doi:10.1093/aobpla/plu013

Thesis (citation should be avoided)

Souza D. 2014. Plant growth regulators. PhD or MSc Thesis, University of Brazil, Brazil.

Websites and other sources (citation should be avoided)

Anonymous. 2011. Title of booklet, leaflet, report, etc. City, Publisher or other source, Country.

References to websites should be structured as: author(s) name author(s) initial(s). year. Full title of article. Full URL. 21 Oct. 2014 (Date of last successful access).

Acknowledgements should be preferably in fewer than 80 words. Be concise: “we thank…” is preferable to “The present authors would like to express their thanks to…”. Funding information should be included in this section.

The following example should be followed:

We acknowledge the Center of Microscopy (UFMG) for providing the equipment and technical support for experiments involving electron microscopy. We also thank J.S. Santos for assistance with the statistical analyses. This work was supported through a research grant from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (ID number).

For SHORT COMMUNICATIONS note that the editorial guidelines applying to original papers must also applying here. In general, the difference between original papers and short communications is the lack of subsections in the text and limited space for illustrations in the latter. Figures and tables can be present, assuming that the overall size of the manuscript does not exceed the five printed page limit (supplementary material can be added). The abstract (as described for original articles) must be followed by a “running text” (a single section, without subheadings), followed by the acknowledgments and references.


Preparing Figures, Tables and Supplementary material

All figures (photographs, maps, drawings, graphs, diagrams, etc.) and tables must be cited in the text, in ascending order. Citations of figures in the text should appear in an abbreviated, capitalized form (e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2A-D, Fig. 3A, Figs. 3A, 4C, Tab.1).

The maximum dimensions of individual figures should be 170 × 240 mm. The width of an individual component can be 170 mm or 85 mm, without exception, whereas the height can be ≤ 240 mm. For continuous tone images (e.g., photographs), please supply TIFF files at 300 dpi. More complex drawings, such as detailed botanical illustrations will not be redrawn and should be supplied as 600 dpi TIFF files.

Grouping of related graphics or images into a single figure (a plate) is strongly encouraged. When a block of illustrative material consists of several parts, each part should be labelled with sequential capital letters, in the order of their citation in the text (A, B, C, etc.). The letters that identify individual images should be inserted within white circles in the lower right-hand corner. For separate the grouped images, authors should insert white bars (1mm thickness).

Individual images (not grouped as a plate) should be identified with sequential Arabic numerals, in the order of their citation in the text (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, etc.), presented in the same manner as the letters identifying individual images (described above).

The number that identifies a grouped figure (e.g., Fig. 2) should not be inserted into the plate but should rather be referenced only in the figure caption and the text (e.g., Fig. 2A-C).

Scale bars, when required, should be positioned in the lower right-hand corner of the figure. The scale bar units should be given either at the end of the figure caption or, when a figure contains multiple scale bars with different units, above each bar.
Details within a figure can be indicated with arrows, letters or symbols, as appropriate.

Tables should be preceded by titles, indicated with sequential Arabic numerals (Table 1, 2, 3, etc.; do not abbreviate). Tables should be created using the Table function of Microsoft Word™. Columns and rows should be visible, although no dark lines should be used to separate them. Horizontal rules should be used only at the top (below the title) and bottom (below the final row) of the table. Do not use fills, shading or colors in the tables.

When appropriate, excess (but important) data can be submitted as Supplementary Files, which will be published online and will be made available as links. This might include additional figures, tables, or other materials that are necessary to fully document the research contained in the paper or to facilitate the readers' ability to understand the work.

Supplementary Materials are linked from the main article webpage. They can be cited using the same DOI as the paper.

Supplementary Materials should be presented in appropriate .doc file for text and tables and .tiff file at 300dpi for figures and graphics. The full title of the paper and author names should be included in the header. All supplementary figures and tables should be referred in the manuscript body as “Table S1” and/or “Figure S1”.

Acta bot. bras. intends to maintain archives of Supplementary Materials but does not guarantee their permanent availability. Acta bot. bras. reserves the right to remove Supplementary Materials from a published article in the future.



The Review Process

All authors will receive an email acknowledging the submission of the manuscript, with its correspondent reference number. The Editor-in-Chief will evaluate manuscript adherence to instructions, quality and novelty and will decide on the suitability for peer reviewing. Manuscripts failing to adhere to the format will be returned to the authors. Manuscripts are sent to at least two anonymous referees that are given 21 days to return their reports.


Submitting a revised paper

After peer review, go to “click here to submit a revision” and upload the new manuscript version. Remember to delete the documents in duplicate.


Publication and printing process

After acceptance, a PDF proof will be sent to corresponding authors as an e-mail attachment. Corrected proofs should be returned within 72 h. It is the sole responsibility of the corresponding author to check for errors in the proof.

Each article is identified by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a code used in bibliographic referencing and searching.

The dates of submission and acceptance will be printed on each paper.

The corresponding author will receive a free PDF or URL that gives access to the article online and to a downloadable PDF.

The corresponding author is responsible for distributing this PDF or URL to any co-authors.



Misconduct on submitted manuscripts will lead to immediate rejection. Duplicate publication, plagiarism, figure manipulation, dual-submission, and any other fraudulent method will not be tolerated.

If misconduct is detected after the manuscript publication, the article will be retracted and a retraction note will be published.

ubmitted manuscripts can be scanned to detect plagiarism and verify the papers' originality.


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Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627
Campus Pampulha UFMG
Biblioteca Central 300B

31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Phone (55 31) 3409 3960, (55 31) 3409 2683