ISSN 0100-879X printed version
ISSN 1414-431X online version




How to submit a manuscript to the BJMBR

Complete and detailed Guidelines for Authors


Scope and policy

The purpose of the BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH is to publish the results of original experimental research that contribute significantly to knowledge in medical and biological sciences. Preference will be given to manuscripts that develop new concepts or experimental approaches and are not merely repositories of data. Papers that report negative results require special justification for publication. Methodological papers shall be considered for publication provided they describe new principles or a significant improvement of an existing method.

Papers that will not be accepted for publication

  • Studies on people not approved by an accredited Ethics Committee or without written informed consent from the subject or legal guardian.
  • Studies on animals not approved by an accredited Ethics and Animal Care Committee.
  • Manuscripts that report preliminary results or only confirm previously reported results.
  • Manuscripts that describe the pharmacodynamics, bioavailability and toxicity of drugs in people or animals.
  • Manuscripts that deal with transcultural adaptation and validation of instruments of measurements.
  • Manuscripts that translate a text published in another language and validate it on local patients.
  • Manuscripts that use questionnaires translated from the language of another country and their validation in local patients.


Publication charges

The authors are responsible for "publication charges" of all accepted papers. Publication charges will be billed to the Corresponding Author when the paper is accepted.

The charge is R$1.800,00 /paper for Brazilian authors and US$1.000,00 /paper for authors outside Brazil and is independent of the length of the paper.

The Journal does not provide reprints to corresponding authors. They will receive a CD containing the issue in which the paper is published. There is no charge for figures in color. Please contact Reinaldo de Souza ( if you have any questions.


Manuscript criteria and information

The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research is a peer-reviewed electronic journal published monthly by the Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABDC).

Submission of a manuscript to the Brazilian Journal implies that the data have not been published previously and will not be submitted for publication elsewhere while the manuscript is under review.

The following represent "prior publication": any printed material in excess of 500 words describing results or methods of a submitted/in press manuscript; published tables or illustrations that duplicate the content of a manuscript; electronic manuscripts or posters available via the Internet. When part of the material in a manuscript has been presented as a preliminary communication or in an unrefereed symposium, this should be cited as a footnote on the title page and a copy should accompany the submitted manuscript.


Manuscript Submission

The cover letter should contain the following information:

  • Title of article.
  • Name(s) of all author(s).
  • A statement signed by the corresponding author that written permission has been obtained from all persons named in the acknowledgements should be sent by fax to +55-16-3633-3825 or 3630-2778.
  • If a version of the manuscript has been previously submitted for publication to another journal, include comments from the peer reviewers and indicate how the authors have responded to these comments.
  • Papers in the area of Clinical Investigation should include a statement indicating that the protocol has been approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee (Hospital with which at least one of the authors is associated) and that written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
  • Animal experimentation should be carried out according to institutional guidelines for experimental use of animals.
  • The authors should obtain written permission to reproduce figures and tables from other sources.



The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (BJMBR) applies the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL) to all works published (read the human-readable summary or the full license legal code). Under the CCAL, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article and can allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles published in the BJMBR, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.


Paper Format

The Brazilian Journal are organized into sections. Authors should specify in the cover letter the specific section in which they prefer to publish their paper.


  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Experimental Biology
  • Immunology
  • Neurosciences and Behavior
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology and Biophysics

Clinical Investigation

  • Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and instruments
  • Blood, immunology and organ transplantation
  • Cardiovascular, respiratory and sport medicine
  • Digestive system
  • Endocrine diseases, nutrition and metabolism
  • Environmental factors of diseases
  • Health care and community medicine
  • Infectious agents and diseases
  • Kidney and extracellular environment
  • Neonatal medicine, growth and development
  • Oncology
  • Psychological processes, behavior and mental diseases
  • Reproductive medicine
  • Skeletal, muscle and nervous systems
  • Skin and connective tissue diseases
  • Surgical procedures, anesthesia and analgesia

Full-length Paper.

Each manuscript should clearly state its objective or hypothesis; the experimental design and methods used (including the study setting and time period, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study, and a section placing the results in the context of published literature.

The manuscript should contain:

  • an abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text should be divided into separate sections (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion), without a separate section for conclusions
  • no more 40 references (without exceptions)

Short Communication

A short communication is a report on a single subject, which should be concise but definitive. The scope of this section is intended to be wide and to encompass methodology and experimental data on subjects of interest to the readers of the Journal.

The manuscript should contain:

  • abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text should be divided into separate sections (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion), without a separate section for conclusions
  • no more 20 references (without exceptions)
  • no more than three illustrations (figures and/or tables)

Review Article

A review article should provide a synthetic and critical analysis of a relevant area and should not be merely a chronological description of the literature. A review article by investigators who have made substantial contributions to a specific area in medical and biological sciences will be published by invitation of the Editors. However, an outline of a review article may be submitted to the Editors without prior consultation. If it is judged appropriate for the Journal, the author(s) will be invited to prepare the article for peer review. A minireview is focused on a restricted part of a subject normally covered in a review article.

The manuscript should contain:

  • abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text should be divided into sections with appropriate titles and subtitles
  • no more 90 references (without exceptions)

Concepts and Comments

The Concepts and Comments section provides a platform for readers to present ideas, theories and views.

The manuscript should contain:

  • abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text may be divided into sections with appropriate titles and subtitles
  • no more 40 references (without exceptions)

Case report

A case report should have at least one of the following characteristics to be published in the Journal:

  • special interest to the clinical research community
  • a rare case that is particularly useful to demonstrate a mechanism or a difficulty in diagnosis
  • new diagnostic method
  • new or modified treatment
  • a text that demonstrates relevant findings and is well documented and without ambiguity.

The manuscript should contain:

  • abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text may be divided into sections with appropriate titles and subtitles.
  • no more 20 references (without exceptions)
  • no more than three illustrations (figures and/or tables).


An overview does not contain unpublished data. It presents the point of view of the author(s) in a less rigorous form than in a regular review or minireview and is of interest to the general reader.

The manuscript should contain:

  • abstract of no more than 250 words
  • no more than 6 key words
  • a running title to be used as a page heading, which should not exceed 60 letters and spaces
  • the text may be divided into sections with appropriate titles and subtitles
  • no more 90 references (without exceptions)


Cell Biology

The main characteristic of research papers in the area of Cell Biology is the emphasis on the integration at the cellular level of biochemical, molecular, genetic, physiological, and pathological information. This section considers manuscripts dealing with either prokaryotic or eukaryotic biological systems at any developmental stage. Papers on all aspects of cellular structure and function are considered to be within the scope of Cell Biology by the BJMBR. The Editors encourage submission of manuscripts defining cell biology as an area of convergence of several other research fields, especially manuscripts providing insights into the cellular basis of immunology, neurobiology, microbial pathology, developmental biology, and disease. Manuscripts containing purely descriptive observations will not be published. Manuscripts reporting new techniques will be published only when adequately validated and judged by the Editors to represent a significant advance.


Biological activity of natural products

The Journal will consider papers for publication which describe the activity of substances of biological origin only if they satisfy all of the following criteria:

  • Papers should describe the separation of the crude material into fractions (not necessarily into homogeneous materials) with the fractions containing biological activity identified clearly in the separation scheme. Phytochemical studies should be accompanied by biological tests. A survey of pharmacological activity of plant extracts or teas will not be considered for publication.
  • In addition to the demonstration of activity in one or more biological system, experiments must be performed attempting to provide information concerning the mechanism(s) of action of the substance(s) being tested.
  • Sufficient experimental information must be provided to permit repetition of the preparation of fractions and the bioassay used.
  • Sources should be identified completely, and, if plant material, a specimen should be classified by an expert and deposited in a local botanical garden, university or research institute. The name and institution of the person who classified the plant and the number of the voucher under which it was deposited should be provided in the Material and Methods section.
  • The Journal does not publish toxicological studies.


Autorship information

Only those persons who contributed directly to the intellectual content of the paper should be listed as authors. Authors should meet all of the following criteria, thereby allowing persons named as authors to take public responsibility for the content of the paper.

  • Conceived, planned and carried out the experiments that led to the paper or interpreted the data it presents, or both.
  • Wrote the paper, or reviewed successive versions.
  • Approved the final version.
  • Holding positions of administrative leadership, contributing patients, and collecting and assembling data, however important to the research, are not by themselves criteria for authorship. Other persons who have made substantial, direct contributions to the work but cannot be considered authors should be cited in the acknowledgment section, with their permission, and a description of their specific contributions to the research should be given.

Permission for Reproduction. The journal is registered with the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Consent is given for the copying of articles for personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition that the copier pays directly to the Center the per copy fee beyond that permitted by US Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copyright, such as for general distribution, resale, advertising, and promotional purposes, or for the creation of new collective works.

All other inquiries regarding copyrighted material from this publication, other than those that can be handled through the Copyright Clearance Center, should be directed in writing to Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Fax: +55-16-3633-3825 or 3630-2778.
E-mail: or

To request permission for reproduction, please send us a request via e-mail, fax or mail with the following information:

  • Name, title, and institution
  • Complete mailing address, phone number, fax number and e-mail
  • Article title
  • Year of publication, volume and issue number
  • Authors' names
  • Page numbers on which the material of interest appears
  • Specific figure number or portion of text (or supply a photocopy)
  • Include the following information about the intended use:
    • Title of book/journal in which Brazilian Journal material will appear
    • Author(s)/editor(s)
    • Publisher


Editorial review and processing

For complete explanation of the Editorial review policies, please see Editorial policies.htm
The receipt of manuscripts is acknowledged immediately. Once a paper has been evaluated by peer review, the authors will be notified of the editorial decision.

Galley proofs will be sent to authors for the correction of errors. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their article, including changes made by the copy editor and authorized by the corresponding author.

The dates of receipt and acceptance will be published for each article. Authors are expected to return manuscripts to the Journal within 15 calendar days after they are sent to them for modifications or for style and copy editing, and to return galley proofs after 72 hours. The total number of "late" days will be added to the submission date at the time of publication.


Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be submitted in English. Authors are requested to use American spelling, except, of course, for references whose titles should appear exactly as published. Guidance on grammar, punctuation, and scientific writing can be found in the following sources: Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 7th edn. Rockefeller University Press, Reston, 2006; Medical Style and Format. Huth EJ (Editor). ISI Press, Philadelphia, 1987, Marketed by Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research follows the reference format of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, which can be found on the website of the National Library of Medicine (

Text Format The text of a manuscript can only be accepted as a Microsoft Word file created with MS Word 6.5 or a later version as a "doc" or "rtf" document.

  • Submit the manuscript, in letter size format (8.5 x 11"), with wide margins of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm), 23 lines per page, which contains approximately 2,156 characters, including spaces.
  • Use a serif font, preferably Times New Roman, 12 point type, including title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, figure legends, and tables. Each page should contain the page number in the upper right-hand corner starting with the title page as page 1.
  • Report all measurements in Système International, SI ( and standard units where applicable (see below).
  • Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text.
  • The length of the manuscript and the number of tables and figures must be kept to a minimum.
  • Ensure that all references are cited in the text.
  • Generic names must be used for all drugs. Instruments may be referred to by proprietary name; the name and country or electronic address of the manufacturer should be given in parentheses in the text.

Footnotes. Text footnotes, if unavoidable, should be numbered consecutively in superscript in the manuscript and written on a separate page following the abstract.

Headings in text

  • Position all headings flush with the left margin.
  • Keep headings short (three or four words).
  • Use only three types of headings in the text. Clearly indicate the type of level of headings by using the following typographic conventions.
    • First-level: Only the 1st letter of the 1st word is capitalized, font size 11, bold type.
    • Second-level: Only the 1st letter of the 1st word is capitalized, font size 9, bold type.
    • Third-level: Only the 1st letter of the 1st word is capitalized, italic type.

Abbreviations and symbols

  • Explain all abbreviations in the text, figure and table legends when they first appear. Keep the number of abbreviations to a minimum.
  • Do not explain abbreviations for units of measurement [3 mL, not 3 milliliters (mL)] or standard scientific symbols [Na, not sodium (Na)].
  • Abbreviate long names of chemical substances and terms for therapeutic combinations. Abbreviate names of tests and procedures that are better known by their abbreviations than by the full name (VDRL test, SMA-12).
  • Use abbreviations in figures and tables to save space, but they must be defined in the legend.

Units. The Système International (SI) ( in metric units is used for units and abbreviations of units. Examples:

  • s for second
  • min for minute
  • h for hour
  • L for liter
  • m for meter
  • kDa for mass in kilodaltons
  • 5 mM rather than 5 x 10-3 M or 0.005 M

Title page.  

The title page should contain the following information:

  • The title should be as short and informative as possible, should not contain non-standard acronyms or abbreviations, and should not exceed two printed lines.
  • Initials and last name(s) of author(s) (matched with superscript numbers identifying institutions).
  • Institution(s) (Department, Faculty, University, city, state, country) of each author (in Portuguese if authors are from Brazil).
  • Acknowledgment of research grants and fellowships (agency and grant number).
  • Name, complete mailing address, including zip code, telephone number, fax number and e-mail of author to whom correspondence should be sent.

Running Title. This short title, to be used as a page heading, should not exceed 60 letters and spaces.

Key words.  A list of key words or indexing terms (no more than 6) should be included. A capital letter should be used for the first letter of each key word, separated by a semicolon. The Journal recommends the use of medical subject headings of Index Medicus for key words to avoid the use of several synonyms as entry terms in the index for different papers on the same subject. Remember, key words are used by the SciELO Database (see; articles search/subject) to index published articles.


  • Since abstracts are published separately by Information Services, they should contain sufficient hard data to be evaluated by the reader.
  • The abstract should briefly and clearly present the problem, experimental approach, new results as quantitative data if possible, and conclusions.
  • The abstract should not exceed 250 words and should be written as a single paragraph double-spaced on a separate page following the title page.
  • Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and must be defined at first citation.
  • If the use of a reference is unavoidable, the full citation should be given within the abstract.
  • Note that the Brazilian Journal publishes unstructured abstracts.
  • Please see <> for suggestions on writing a good abstract.

Introduction. This should state the purpose of the investigation, relationship to other work in the field, and justification for undertaking the research. An extensive listing or review of the literature is not recommended.

Material and Methods. Sufficient information should be provided in the text or by referring to papers in generally available journals to permit the work to be repeated and to determine the suitability of the methods used for the objectives of the research.

Results. The results should be presented clearly and concisely. Tables and figures should be used only when necessary for effective comprehension of the data. In some situations, it may be desirable to combine Results and Discussion in a single section.

Discussion. The purpose of the Discussion is to identify new and relevant results and relate them to existing knowledge. Information given elsewhere in the text, especially in Results, may be cited but all of the results should not be repeated in detail in the Discussion.

Acknowledgments. When appropriate, briefly acknowledge technical assistance, advice and contributions from colleagues to the research. Financial support for the research and fellowships should be acknowledged on the title page.



  • Tables must be submitted in word (.doc) or Excel (.xls).
  • Tables must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the text.
  • Tables must have a concise and descriptive title.
  • All explanatory information should be given in a footnote below the table. Footnotes should be used to explain abbreviations and provide statistical information.
  • All abbreviations must be defined in this footnote, even if they are explained in the text.
  • Tables must be understandable without referring to the text.
  • Each table should be submitted in a separate file. They should be uploaded after the manuscript file, in numerical order. Tables occupying more than one printed page should be avoided, if possible.
  • Vertical and diagonal lines should not be used in tables; instead, indentation and vertical or horizontal space should be used to group data.
  • Adapting/Reproducing Tables and Relevant Permissions. Acknowledgments of original sources of copied material should be given as a reference in the table footnote.
  • Tables in Excel must be cell-based; do not use picture elements, text boxes, tabs, or returns in tables.



Figures must be submitted in high-resolution version (600 dpi). Please ensure that the files conform to our Guidelines for Figure Preparation when preparing your figures for production.

Preparing figure files for submission

Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research encourages authors to use figures where this will increase the clarity of an article. The use of color figures in articles is free of charge. The following guidelines must be observed when preparing figures. Failure to do so is likely to delay acceptance and publication of the article.

  • Each figure of a manuscript should be submitted as a single file.
  • Tables should NOT be submitted as figures but should be provided as separate files in Word (.doc).
  • Figures should be numbered in the order they are first mentioned in the text, and uploaded in this order.
  • Figure titles and legends should be provided in the main manuscript, not in the graphic file.
  • The aim of the figure legend should be to describe the key messages of the figure, but the figure should also be discussed in the text. An enlarged version of the figure and its full legend will often be viewed in a separate window online, and it should be possible for a reader to understand the figure without moving back and forth between this window and the relevant parts of the text. Each legend should have a concise title of no more than 15 words. The legend itself should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods.
  • Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. Cropping figures improves accuracy when placing the figure in combination with other elements, when the accepted manuscript is prepared for publication on our site. For more information on individual figure file formats, see Guidelines for figures.
  • Individual figure files should not exceed 5 MB. If a suitable format is chosen, this file size is adequate for extremely high quality figures.
  • Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures (or tables) that have previously been published elsewhere. In order for all figures to be open-access, authors must have permission from the rights holder if they wish to include images that have been published elsewhere in non-open-access journals. Permission should be indicated in the figure legend, and the original source included in the reference list.

Supported file types

The following file formats can be accepted. Detailed information for each file type can be found by clicking on individual links.

  • EPS (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • PDF (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • Microsoft Word (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF (suitable for images)
  • JPEG (suitable for photographic images, less suitable for graphical images)
  • BMP (suitable for images)

Micrographs should be treated like photographs with the following additional guidelines

  • Details of the magnification should be given as a magnification bar.
  • Details of any stains used and the method of preparation the sample should be given in the figure legend or in the Methods section.
  • Detailed information about the microscope used should be included in the figure legend or in the Methods section.
  • The type of camera, photographic software and details of any subsequent image manipulation should be given in the article text.



Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. When possible, references in English should be cited. The reference list must be numbered consecutively in the order in which the references are first cited in the text, using arabic numerals, and must be typed double-spaced on separate sheets. In the text, citation of two or more references, within parentheses, should be separated by a comma without a space (1,5,7); three or more consecutive references should be separated by a hyphen (4-9).

The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research follows the reference format of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, which can be found on the website of the National Library of Medicine ( Use the Medline journal abbreviations and follow the reference style shown on the Website noted above, with several exceptions. See below for details. If the author uses the program "Reference Manager", copy the file containing the style of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research and place it in the folder of "Styles". When submiting the manuscript, send the file produced in Reference Manager (".rmd" and ".rmx") as an attachment.

The following information must be given in the list of references:

Standard article. Up to the first 6 authors followed by et al., Title, Journal (abbreviation), Year, Volume, Complete Pages.

  • Xu J, Liu M, Liu J, Caniggia I, Post M. Mechanical strain induces constitutive and regulated secretion of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in fetal lung cells. J Cell Sci 1996; 109 (Pt 6): 1605-1613.
  • Poirier P, Lemieux I, Mauriege P, Dewailly E, Blanchet C, Bergeron J, et al. Impact of waist circumference on the relationship between blood pressure and insulin: the Quebec Health Survey. Hypertension 2005; 45: 363-367.
  • The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Australia 1996; 164: 282-284.

Abstract. Up to the first 6 authors followed by et al., Title, Journal (abbreviation), Year, Volume, Complete Pages (Abstract).

  • Lima SM, Bonci DM, Grotzner SR, Ribeiro CA, Ventura DF. Loss of amacrine cells in MeHg-treated retinae in a tropical fish. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44: E-5172 (Abstract).

Article accepted for publication but not yet published. Up to the first 6 authors followed by et al., Title, Journal (abbreviation), Year of expected publication, (in press) at the end of the citation.

  • Janiszewski M, Lopes LR, Carmo AO, Pedro MA, Brandes RP, Santos CXC, et al. Regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase by associated protein disulfide isomerase in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 2005 (in press).

"Unpublished results", "Personal communication" and "Submitted papers". Reference should appear in the text with the individual name(s) and initials and not in the reference list.

  • (Santos CS, da-Silva GB, Martins LT, unpublished results).
  • It is assumed that the author has obtained written permission from the source when "personal communication" is cited.

Book, whole. Authors, Book title, Edition, City, Publisher, Year.

  • Norman IJ, Redfern SJ. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

Book, chapter. Authors, Chapter Title, Editors, Book title, Edition, City, Publisher, Year, Pages of citation.

  • Kintzios SE. What do we know about cancer and its therapy? In: Kintzios SE, Barberaki MG (Editors), Plants that fight cancer. New York: CRC Press; 2004. p 1-14.
  • Scheuer PJ, Lefkowitch JH. Drugs and toxins. In: Scheuer PJ, Lefkowitch JH (Editors), Liver biopsy interpretation. 6th edn. London: WB Saunders; 2000. p 134-150.


  • WHO (World Health Organization), IPCS (International Program in Chemical Safety). Environmental health criteria: 118 Inorganic mercury. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1991.
  • National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Wake up America: a national sleep alert. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1993.


  • Joselevitch C. Visão no ultravioleta em Carassius auratus (Ostariophysi, Cypriformes, Cyprinidae): estudo eletrofisiológico do sistema cone - células horizontais. [Master's thesis]. São Paulo: Instituto de Psicologia, USP; 1999.

Conference, Symposium Proceedings. Cite papers only from published proceedings.

  • Hejzlar RM, Diogo PA. The use of water quality modelling for optimising operation of a drinking water reservoir. Proceedings of the International Conference Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology. 1999 Jun 23-26; Prague. Prague: Institute of Hydrodynamics AS CR; 1999. p 475-482.

Electronic citations (Online Journals). Ensure that URLs are active and available.

Internet communication. Ensure that URLs are active and available. Provide DOI, if available.

Audiovisual material

  • Physician's Desk Reference (PDR). Release 2003.1AX. [CD-ROM]. Montvale: Thomson PDR; 2003.

Computer programs

  • Dean AG, Dean JA, Coulombier D, Brendel KA, Smith DC, Burton AH, et al. Epi info, version 6.04: a word processing database and statistics program for public health on IBM-compatible microcomputers. [Computer program]. Atlanta: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention; 1998.
  • Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Version 12.0. [Computer program]. Chicago: SPSS Inc.; 2006.


  • Larsen CE, Trip R, Johnson CR. Methods for procedures related to the electrophysiology of the heart. Patent No. 5.529.067. Novoste Corporation; 1995.


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