GENERAL CRITERIA FOR PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
"The Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology subscribes to the Clinical Trials Registration policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), acknowledging the importance of these initiatives for the international registration and communication of information on clinical trials, in an open access basis. Thus, as of 2007 we will only accept for publication those papers on clinical trials which received an identification number from one of the Clinical Trial Registers validated by WHO and ICMJE criteria, which addresses are available at: http://www.icmje.org/. The identification number must be registered at the end of the abstract."
The BJORL accepts the following types of paper:
Original papers - original papers are defined as reports from original studies, and such information must be significant and valid. Readers must be able to learn from a general paper what was firmly established and from what significant questions remain unanswered. Speculation must be kept to a minimum.
Review papers (Theme reviews) - review papers are usually published. They are expected to cover the existing literature in one speªcific topic. The review must assess the basis and validity of the opinions published, and must point the differences in interpretation and opinion.
Case Reports - we will only publish uncommon and especially significant cases. Priority shall be given to reports of multidisciplinary and/or practical interest. For a more detailed explanation of the BJORL editorial board's expectations, the paper's format and the criteria utilized by the editorial board in their assessment, consult the text: "Criteria for the creation and assessment of a scientific paper" in the following link: http://www.rborl.org.br/criterios.asp.
Letter to the Editor - this section aims at fostering a healthy debate between our readers and authors. The texts submitted by the reader to this section will be sent to the authors of the papers commented, so that they can answer to the criticism or praise. The publication of letªters to the Editor in the journal will be at the discretion of the editorial board, and only when there is an answer from the author.
The text is divided in two parts: Format and Content.
Size and Layout
The complete paper must not exceed 25 pages of A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) size paper, written in size 12 Times New Roman type, double spacing between the lines. If the reviser deems pertaining, he/she may suggest the author to suppress graphs and tables or even to condense the text.
Title and authors
A good title enables the readers to identify the topic and helps the documentation center classify and catalogue the material. The title must be limited to a maximum of ten words, and its content should describe in a concise and clear way the topic discussed by the paper. Please, avoid titles which are too general, acronyms and abbreviations.
Only those who actually participated in the study must be deªclared authors. Other means of mentioning may be used at the end of the paper. A paper with more than 7 authors will only be accepted if the topic is multidisciplinary in nature or involving basic sciences.
Those responsible for the paper should state the professional position of each one of the authors who participated in the study. Those who perform the following tasks can and should be considered authors:
- Conceive and plan the project, as well as those who analyze and interpret the data,
- Organize the text or critically review the manuscript's content,
- Provide support and final approval of the paper to be submitted.
All three criteria must be met for the individual to be considered an author or coauthor.
The criteria which do not qualify the individual as author are the following:
- Provide funds or supports the study,
- Collect data for the study,
- Provide general supervision to a study group,
- Be the head of the service or Head of the Department.
If the individual does not fit the description for author, but is nevertheless relevant for the paper, he/she may be acknowledged at the end of the paper.
Summary and Keywords
The abstract should not have any information that is not in the text. It must be written in an unbiased way and it MUST NOT contain abbreviations or bibliographic references. The abstract must be able to help the reader decide whether or not the entire paper is worth readªing. It will be, together with the title, the only part of the study that will be available in most libraries and cataloguing and indexation agencies, therefore, it represents the very business card of the study published.
Original and review papers MUST have a summary (abstract) in Portuguese and another one in English with approximately 200 words, with its topics duly highlighted (structured), and the following must be clearly indicated:
- The theoretical assumptions and justifications for the study (Introduction);
- The study goals (Objective);
- Basic method utilized and description of the paper - review or original - (Method);
- Main results and their statistical interpretation - optional for narrative review studies - (Results) and
- Conclusion reached (Conclusion).
The abstract structure of a review paper must be: Introduction / Objective / Methodology / Conclusion.
After the abstract, three to five keywords must be listed, and they should be based on the DeCS (Health Sciences Keywords) and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), which can be accessed at the BIREME (Regional Medical Library) website: www.bireme.org or at the BJORL website, during the step 4 of the paper submission process.
ORIGINAL PAPERS must be in the so called IMRDC format: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.
It is in the Introduction that we establish the objective and the reasons for doing the study. In it we must have the reasons and the very pertinence for the study, its importance and scope, gaps, controversies, theoretical incoherencies and assumptions or personal experiences which led the author to investigate the topic. The goal (s) must be discussed in the last paragraph of the introduction.
In the Methods section, one expects to find a description of the sample studied and enough details concerning the investigation instrument.
In studies involving human beings or animals, the authors must inform the approval protocol number from the Ethics Committee of the institution where the study was carried out.
The sample must be well defined and the inclusion and excluªsion criteria must be clearly informed, as well as the selection criteria and group allocation (pairing, random, sequencing, stratification, etc.).
The method must be coherent vis---vis the issue presented, and the study design must be explained.
Results must be presented in a clear and summarized way. Everything discussed in this item must have come from the method. We encourage the use of graphs and tables, as well as descriptive and comparative statistical analyses.
In the Discussion, we expect the author to present his/her own experience with the subject, explore his/her theories and discuss the results associated with these assumptions. This is also the place to menªtion possible methodological difficulties.
Conclusion must be succinct and confined to the paper's objecªtive. It is paramount that the method and results achieved be enough to support the items listed in the conclusion.
CASE REPORTS must have an introduction with the pertaining review which justifies its importance, because of rarity or clinical impact. The case should be rich in visual details and final remarks, discussing the details which make this case eligible for publication. There is no need to send an abstract for it.
- Title - concise and descriptive, with a maximum of 100 characters. It must not include the words: case report and literature review.
- Keywords - a maximum of 5 and in alphabetical order.
- Case reports should have no more than five authors. If you wish to list more, you have to justify it.
- The text's body must be structured as: introduction, case presentation, discussion and final remarks.
- The complete text, aside from the title and references must not have more than 600 words.
- References - a maximum of 6.
- We accept only one table or figure.
The LETTER TO THE EDITOR should be used by the readers to express their opinions on the topics and papers published in the journal. It is submitted via the Web, just like any other paper, and it must have the following structure:
- The letter will be sent to the paper's author, who will have six weeks to answer it.
- Both the letter and the answer will be published in the same journal issue, and there will be no more replies.
- The letters will not be revised by the editorial board. Nevªertheless, should they be too personal or aggressive, as judged by the Editor, they might not be published.
These are essential to identify the original sources of the conªcepts, methods and techniques mentioned in the text and which are part of previous techniques, investigations or studies; to corroborate the actions and opinions from the author; and to provide the reader with the reference information he/she needs in order to consult primary sources.
References must be pertinent and updated. The Journal accepts a maximum of 50 references for original and review papers, and 6 referªences for case reports.
All references must be mentioned in the text with consecutive superscripted numbers, following the order in which they appear. At the end of the paper the citations will be part of the reference in the following way:
Papers from scientific journals
You need to provide the following information: author (s), paper title, abbreviated title of the journal where it was published; year; volume (in Arabic numbers), issue number, first and last pages. All the informaªtion is given in the original language of the cited paper. The journals' acronyms must be based on the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals", available at http://www.icmje.org. Following, we show some examples which illustrate the Vancouver style for the creation and listing of bibliographic citations. We must stress that when the first and last pages of a citation are in the same tenths, hunªdredths, thousandths, etc. there is no need to write repeated numbers. For instance, a reference which starts on page 1320 and ends on page 1329, shall be listed as 1320-9.
a. From individual authors:
The surnames and initials of the first six authors and, when there are more than six, follow the expression "et al.". Examples: Kerschner H, Pegues JAM. Productive aging: a quality of life agenda. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98(12):1445-8.
Bin D, Zhilhui C, Quichang L, Ting W, Chengyin G, Xingzi W et al. Duracion de la immunidad lograda con la vacuna antisarampionosa con virus vivos: 15 a¼os de observaciðn em la prov¼ncia de Zhejiang, China. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam. 1992;112(5):381-94.
b. With many parts:
Lessa A. I. Epidemiologia do infarto agudo do mioc+rdio na cidade do Salvador: II, Fatores de risco, complica¼¬es e causas de morte. Arq Br+s Cardiol. 1985;44:225-60.
c. From a corporate author:
When there are numerous elements, list them from the larger to the smaller. In journals published by governmental or international agencies, you can assign the authorship to the organization responsible for the study, without mentioning the author.
Pan American Health Organization, Expanded Program on Immunization. Strategies for the certification of the eradication of wild poliovirus transmission in the Americas. Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1993;27(3):287-95.
Organisation Mondiale de la Sant+, Groupe de Travail. D+ficit en glucose-6-phosphatase d+shydrogenase. Bull World Health Organ. 1990;68(1):13-24.
d. When there is no author:
Use only when there are details about what is written, so that readers can request and obtain it. It is important to mention the exact name of the collective agency responsible for the document, besides its complete title, city, year and number. If possible, please inform the document's source.
Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J. 1994;84:15.
e. Volume with a supplement:
Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102 Suppl 1:275-82.
f. Issue number with supplement:
Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reacªtions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.
g. Volume with a part:
Ozben T, Nacitarhan S, Tuncer N. Plasma and urine sialic acid in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Clin Biochem. 1995;32(Pt 3):303-6.
h. Number with part:
Poole GH, Mills SM. One hundred consecutive cases of flap lacªerations of the leg in ageing patients. N Z Med J. 1994;107(986 Pt 1):377-8.
i. Number without a volume:
Turan I, Wredmark T, Fellander-Tsai L. Arthroscopic ankle arªthrodesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop. 1995;(320):110-4.
j. Without number or volume:
Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg. 1993:325-33.
k. Pagination in roman numbers:
Fisher GA, Sikic BI. Drug resistance in clinical oncology and hematology. Introduction. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1995 Apr;9(2):xi-xii.
l. Type of paper indicated if necessary:
Enzensberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in Parkinsons disease [carta]. Lancet 1996;347:1337. Clement J, De Bock R. Hematological complications of hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) [resumo]. Kidney Int. 1992;42:1285.
m. Paper with a retractation:
Garey CE, Schwarzman AL, Rise ML, Seyfried TN. Ceruloplasmin gene defect associated with epilepsy in EL mice [retrataª-o de Garey CE, Schwarzman AL, Rise ML, Seyfried TN. In: Nat Genet 1994;6:426-31]. Nat Genet. 1995;11:104.
n. Summarized paper:
Liou GI, Wang M, Matragoon S. Precocious IRBP gene expresªsion during mouse development [resumido em Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:3127]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35:1083-8.
o. Paper with an erratum published:
Hamlin JA, Kahn AM. Herniography in symptomatic patients following inguinal hernia repair [erratum published can be seen in West J Med 1995;162:278]. West J Med. 1995;162:28-31.
Books or other monographies
a. Of personals authorship
Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.
b. Editor(s), compiler (s) author (s)
Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
c. Organization as author and publisher
Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washington: The Institute; 1992.
d. Book chapter
Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. Em: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editores. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.
e. Conference proceedings
Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.
When published in Portuguese:
Costa M, Hemodilui¼-o para surdez s+bita. Anais do 46th Conªgresso Brasileiro de Otorrinolaringologia; 2008 Out 23-25; Aracaju, Brasil. S-o Paulo, Roca; 2009.
f. Published oral presentation
Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, priªvacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p. 1561-5.
g. Technical or scientific report
Done with financial support from Company XXX: Smith P, Golladay K. Payment for durable medical equipment billed during skilled nursing facility stays. Relatðrio final. Dallas (TX): Dept. of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Evaluation and Inspections; 1994 Oct. Report No.: HHSIGOEI69200860.
Done with financial support from Company XXX: Field MJ, Tranquada RE, Feasley JC, editors. Health services research: work force and educational issues. Washington: National Academy Press; 1995. Contract No.: AHCPR282942008. Apoiado pela Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the elderlys access and utilization [disserta¼-o]. St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ.; 1995.
Larsen CE, Trip R, Johnson CR, inventors; Novoste Corporation, assignee. Methods for procedures related to the electrophysiology of the heart. US patent 5,529,067. 1995 Jun 25.
Material which has not been accepted for publication is not considered adequate reference, as well as papers or documents which have not yet been published and are not easily accessible by the public. Except for paper which have been already accepted and are waiting pubªlication, and also those documents that even being still unpublished can be easily found. In this category we have dissertations, some documents from workgroups in international organizations, scientific study protocols registered in ethics committees and reports presented in conferences.
a. At prelo
Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med. In press 1996.
Should it be absolutely necessary to cite difficult to find and yet unpublished sources, it can be mentioned in the text (within parenthesis) or in a footnote. The text shall be cited as follows:
"It was observed1 that..."
and at the foot of the same page in the paper you should place the corresponding note:
1 Lanos-Cuentas EA, Campos M. Identification and qualification of the risk factors associated with New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. In: International Workshop on control strategies for Leishmaniasis, Otªtawa, June 1-4, 1987.
1 Herrick JB [and others]. [Letter to Frank R Morton, secretary, Medical Association of Chicago Chicago]. Herrick's documents. . Documents included in: University of Chicago Special collections, Chiªcago, illinois, EUA.
a. Journal paper in electronic format
Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996
Jun 5];1(1):[24 screens]. Found at: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm
34. Dissertation in electronic format
CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated [monografia em CD-ROM]. Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA; 1995.
b. Data base
Compact library: AIDS [CD-ROM data base updated every 3 months]. Version 1.55+. Boston: Massachusetts
Medical Society, Medical Publishing Group; 1980. [1 compact disk; IBM PC, OS/2 or compatible operational system;
640K RAM memory; MS-DOS 3.0 or more recent, Microsoft CD-ROM extension]
The tables must be submitted in .doc (Microsoft Word) or .xls (Microsoft Excel) format. Their purpose is to group values in lines and columns, making it easier to read and interpret, must be presented in an intelligible way to the reader; they must be self-explanatory and complementary - not to repeat the text. They must not bear any excess of statistical information, because then they become incomprehensible and confusing. Use the exact number of lines and columns in order to create the table. Empty or merged lines/columns may deform table, rendering it incomprehensible.
They must have a brief, but complete title, in such a way that the reader may be able to easily determine what was plotted there, and also to indicate place, data and source of information. The title must come on top of the table. The header of each column must include the measurement unit and be as concise and possible; it must clearly indiªcate the bases of the relative measures (percentages, rates and indices), when used. You must only leave blanks those cells corresponding to non-applicable data; you should use three points for missing informaªtion because observations were not inserted. Footnote indices will be done through letters used as exponents in alphabetical order: a, b, c, etc.
Type or print each table with double spacing in a separate sheet of paper. Do not submit tables as photographs. Number the tables consecuªtively in the order they are cited in the text. Give each column a short or abbreviated title. Insert the necessary explanations in the footnote, not in the title. In footnotes, explain all the off-standard abbreviations used in each frame. For footnotes, use the following symbols, in the following sequence:
Identify variation statistical measures, such as standard deviation and mean standard error.
Do not use internal vertical or horizontal lines.
Make sure each table is mentioned in the text.
If you use data from another source, published or unpublished, have permission and fully acknowledge it.
The use of too many tables in relation to the text length may cause difficulties in page layout. Please, remember that the Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology accepts papers with a total of 25 pages.
The editor, upon accepting the paper, may recommend that additional charts which contain important data but very extensive be deposited in a file service, such as the Ancillary Publishing Service in the United States, or make them available to the readers. Should it hapªpen, a proper statement will be added to the text. Submit such charts for appreciation together with the paper.
Illustrations (graphs, diagrams, maps or photographs, amongst others) are used to highlight trends and comparisons in a clear and exact way: they should be easy to understand and add information, not replicate it. Their titles must be as concise as possible, but very explicit at the same time, located in the lower portion of the figure.
Notes are not placed at the foot of the figure, but the source is mentioned if taken from another publication. Having enough room, the explanations for the maps and graphs must be included in the figure.
Figures must be professionally designed or photographed. Free-hand drawings or typed are not acceptable. Titles and detailed explanaªtions must be in the caption, not in the figure.
Microphotographs must bear internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows or letters used in microphotographs must contrast with the background.
If pictures of people are used, either the latter should not be identifiable in the former, or their pictures must come with a written permission for their publication.
The figures must be consecutively numbered according to the order in which they were cited in the text. If a figure has been previously published, the original source must be acknowledged and you must also submit a written permission from the owner concerning copyrights to reproduce the material. Permission is required regardless of authorship or publisher, except for documents in the public domain.
Captions for Illustrations
Type in double spacing, starting in a separate page, with Arabic numbering corresponding to the illustration.
When using symbols, arrows, numbers or letters to identify the parts of the illustrations, you must clearly identify and explain each one in the caption. Explain the internal scale and report on the coloring method used in the microphotographs.
Unit of Measurement
Length measures, such as height, weight and volume must be informed in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.
Temperature must be informed in degrees Celsius. Blood presªsure must be reported in millimeters of mercury.
Blood data and laboratorial analyses values must be shown in the metric system vis---vis the International System (IS).
Abbreviations and acronyms
Use the least possible. The first time an abbreviation or acronym appears in the text, it must be spelled out, being followed by the acronym or abbreviation within parenthesis, e.g. Broad Immunization Program (BIP).