ISSN 1676-0611 online version in english



Scope and editorial policy

Since March 1st 2007 the Editorial Board of Biota Neotropica established a charge per printed page. From 1st of January 2012 onwards this charge will be of US$ 25.00 (twenty five American dollars). From July 20th the cost has changed to US$ 500.00 independently of the size of the manuscript.  This is the cost per page of PDF production. Payment details will be informed to authors at the final stages of the editing process.

BIOTA NEOTROPICA does not publish papers that include description of new species of taxonomic groups which Nomenclatural Code requires printed copies. Authors are responsible to check if the specific requirements of the Nomenclatural Code of the organism they are working with. If your taxonomic group does require printed copies of your publication you should look for another journal to submit your paper. From volume 13 (2013) onwards the production, and deposit in reference libraries, of the printed version of Biota Neotropica will be discontinued.

BIOTA NEOTROPICA publishes eight types of papers, from which only Editorials are written by the Editorial Commission or by an invited researcher, and have therefore distinct rules of submission.

Papers submitted in all categories must be written entirely in English. Along with the English version author(s) should also submit Title, Abstract and Keywords in Portuguese or Spanish. Authors are responsible for the correct use of English, and it is strongly recommended that the review of the final manuscript is made by specialized services, such as American Journal Experts/AJE, Nature Publishing Group Language Editing or Edanz. If the Editorial Board considers that English does not meet the standards of the journal a paper may be refused, even after being approved by the Area Editor.


Preparation of manuscripts

Publication Policy

BIOTA NEOTROPICA appears four times a year and publishes original research papers on all aspects of Neotropical biodiversity characterization, conservation, restoration and sustainable use. We aim to bring important work on Neotropical biodiversity to a wide international audience and therefore only publish papers that transcend the limits of case studies. Both experimental and theoretical studies are accepted, as are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into issues of general interest.

Papers should have a broad interest, and submission of reports that break new ground or advance our understanding of Neotropical biodiversity is particularly welcomed.

All submissions will be assessed by one or more editors to determine whether they fall within the broad remit of BIOTA NEOTROPICA and meet the above-mentioned requirements. Papers that do not fulfill these criteria are likely to be rejected without review. This reduces the burden on both the refereeing community and the editorial system and enables authors to submit, without delay, to another journal. After this initial screening, all types of papers are subject to peer review and authors can expect a decision, or an explanation for the delay, within three months of receipt. If a revision is requested, the correspondence author should submit the revised manuscript within twp months. Otherwise, revisions may be treated as new submissions and sent for further evaluation by new referees, unless there are special reasons for prolonged delay agreed, in advance, with the editor.

Types of papers

Here is presented a brief description of what the Editorial Commission understands by each type of paper:


For each volume of BIOTA NEOTROPICA, the Editor-in-Chief can invite a researcher to write an Editorial paper on relevant themes, both from scientific and policies on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in Neotropical region point of views. This Editorial, with no more than 3000 words, must be written in English.

Point of View

This section will serve as forum to academic discussion of relevance to the Journal. In this section the researcher must write a short manuscript expressing in a provocative way his (her) points of view on the theme chosen. The Editorial Commission may publish reply or considerations of other researchers stimulating the discussion on the theme. The content inside each Point of View and of all responses to it is of full responsibility of their authors.


Articles are submitted spontaneously by their authors in the System of Submission of the Journal at The manuscript must bring new data, not published or submitted to publication, in part or entirely, in other journals or books, and must be results of research in characterization, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity in Neotropical region. It is expected that the manuscript elaborates on a theme of scientific interest inside the scope of the Journal, includes a review of the specialized bibliography of the theme, and discuss with other recent papers published on international literature.

Thematic Reviews

Thematic Reviews also are submitted spontaneously by their authors in the System of Submission of the Journal. It is expected that this kind of manuscript manages to systemize the development of concept or scientific theme related to the scope of the journal based on the essential references to the understanding of the theme of review and includes also recent publications on the matter.

Short Communications

Those are short articles spontaneously submitted by their authors. The manuscript must bring new data, not published or submitted to publication, in part or entirely, in other journals or books, and must be results of research in characterization, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity in Neotropical region. It is expected that the manuscript indicates in a succinct way a new component in the themes of scientific interest related to the scope of Biota Neotropica based on recent literature.

Papers that bring only the register of a species in an area not reported before, but within its expected distribution ranger, will not be considered for publication in BIOTA NEOTROPICA.

Identification Keys

Identification Keys are submitted spontaneously by their authors in the System of Submission of the Journal. It is expected that the manuscript elaborate in the best possible way the taxonomic group that is being characterized by the Identification Key. It must be solidly based on taxonomic literature of the group.


Inventories are submitted spontaneously by their authors in the System of Submission of the Journal. The manuscript must bring new data, not published or submitted to publication, in part or entirely, in other journals or books, and must be results of research in characterization, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity in Neotropical region. It is also expected that the manuscript presents not only the list of species, but also the criteria used by authors (taxocenose, guild, locality etc.), the method used and the geographical coordinates of the studied area. It must be strongly based on the best taxonomic literature available for the group, and must inform clearly the institution where testimony specimens are deposited.

Taxonomic Reviews

Taxonomic Reviews are submitted spontaneously by their authors in the System of Submission of the Journal. The manuscript must bring new data, not published or submitted to publication, in part or entirely, in other journals or books, and must be results of research in characterization, conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity in Neotropical region. It is expected that the manuscript elaborate extensively on information about the taxon reviewed, elucidate the major taxonomic issues, and highlight the importance and necessity of the review. It must be solidly based on taxonomic historical and recent literature of the group, and must inform clearly the institution where the testimony specimens are deposited.

Manuscripts that are in accordance with the rules will be sent by the Chief Editor to Associate Editors, which will select at least two reviewers. The Associate Editors are responsible for evaluation of the manuscript, sending feedback to authors and reformulated versions of the work to the reviewers. Once all requirements and recommendations made by reviewers and the Associate Editors are met, the manuscript is preliminarily accepted and forwarded to the Chief Editor. It is for the Editor in Chief, in agreement with the Editorial Board, to finally accept the paper. These rules apply to papers in all categories whose manuscripts are submitted spontaneously.

Once the paper is definitely accepted, the Portuguese or Spanish and the English versions of the Abstract will be published on the current online volume of Biota Neotropica, but before that the authors will do a final review of the Summary / Abstract, Keywords, institutional affiliations and the author for correspondence. It is vital that authors insert in Submission System the definitive version of the work (including text, tables and figures), incorporating the latest changes / corrections suggested by reviewers and/or the Associate Editor, because it is this version that will be forwarded by the Editor in Chief to publication. All the care took in this step will significantly reduce the need for changes in the proofs of the manuscript.

Files preparation

The manuscripts must be sent in DOC or RTF format (MS Word for Windows version 6.0 or higher). All texts should use Times New Roman font, size 10, and for Titles and subtitles use size 12. Bold, italics, underline, subscript and superscript can be used where appropriate, but refrain te excessive use of these resources. In special cases (see formula below) can be used the following sources: Courier New, Symbol and Wingdings. Articles may have hyperlinks that the author deems appropriate. The inclusion of electronic links is encouraged by editors to make the manuscript richer. Links must be included using the resources available in MS-Word for it.

During submission, the manuscript sent to the Biota Neotropica must be divided into several files: a file containing the entire text of the manuscript, including the main body of the text (first page, abstract, introduction, material, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments and references),  tables, with titles in Portuguese/Spanish and English; and another file containing the figures and their captions in Portuguese and English. It is essential that the author check the files carefully whether the figures, graphs or tables are effectively in the desired format. Detailed descriptions of the two files follow.

Main File

A single file called Principal.rtf or Principal.doc with the titles, abstracts and keywords in Portuguese or Spanish and English, full text of the manuscript, references and tables. This file should not contain figures that must be in separate files, as described below. The manuscript should follow the following format:

  • Concise and informative Title: Titles in Spanish or Portuguese and English (use capital letters only in the first word and when appropriate, from the orthographic or scientific standpoint);
  • Authors: Complete name of authors with numbering (superscript) to indicate their affiliations
  • Institution and full addresses with electronic links to the institutions. Indicate the author for correspondence and his (hers) e-mail;
  • Abstract - with a maximum of 350 words in both languages.
  • Keywords: The keywords should be separated by a comma and should not repeat words from the title. Use capital letters only when appropriate, from the orthographic or scientific standpoint;

Body of the Manuscript

1. Sections

Material and Methods

2. Special cases

At the discretion of the author, in the case of “Short Communications”, the Results and Discussion may be merged. Do not use footnotes, and include the information directly in the text, this makes reading easier and reduces the number of electronic links of the manuscript.

In the case of “Inventories" a list of species, environments, descriptions, pictures, etc. must be sent separately so they can be organized in accordance with specific formatting. Furthermore, to allow the use of electronic tools to search, such as XML, the Editorial Board will send, to the authors of papers accepted for publication, specific instructions for formatting the list of species cited on the manuscript.

In the category “Identification keys”, the key itself must be sent separately so it can be properly formatted. In the case of reference to collected material, it is mandatory to include the geographic coordinates of the sampling sites. Whenever possible, the citation should be in degrees, minutes and seconds (e.g. 24° 32' 75" S and 53° 06' 31" W). In case of endangered species only degrees and minutes should be presented.

3. Numbering of headings

The title of each section should be written without a number, in bold, with only the initial capital (e.g. Introduction, Methods, etc.) Only two subtitle levels are accepted, after the title of each section. The subtitles must be numbered in Arabic numerals followed by a period to assist in identifying the hierarchy when formatting the document. E.g. Methods: 1. Subtitle; 1.1. Sub-subtitle).

4. Names of species

Citations of species names must comply with the respective Codes of Nomenclature. In the area of Zoology, all species cited on the manuscript must necessarily be followed by author and date of original publication of the description. In the case of Plant names, they must be followed by author and / or reviewer of the species. In the area of microbiology, it is necessary to consult specific sources such as the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

5. Reference citations

Use the following standard for reference citation:

Silva (1960) or (Silva 1960)
Silva (1960, 1973)
Silva (1960a, b)
Silva & Pereira (1979) or (Silva & Pereira 1979)
Silva et al. (1990) or (Silva et al. 1990)
(Silva 1989, Pereira & Carvalho 1993, Araújo et al. 1996, Lima 1997)

When making citation to unpublished results or manuscripts submitted use the following format: (A.E. Silva, unpublished data). In taxonomic papers, describe the citations of specimens examined, according to the specific rules to the type of organism studied.

6. Numbers and units

Quote numbers or units as follows:

  • write numbers up to nine, unless they are followed by units;
    use comma for decimal Articles in Portuguese or Spanish (10,5 m) or period if the article is in English (10.5 m);
  • Use the International System of Units, separating the units of value with a space (except for percentages, degrees, minutes and seconds);
  • use abbreviations whenever possible. Do not add spaces to change the line if the unit does not fit in the line.

7. Formulas

Formulas that can be written in a single line may be part of the text, even if they require special fonts (Symbol, Courier New and Wingdings). E.g.: a = p.r2 or Na2HPO, etc. Any other type of formula or equation should consider a figure, and, therefore, follow the rules established for figures.

8. Figures and tables

Write words in full (e.g. Figura 1, Tabela 1, Figure 1, Table 1)

9. References

Adopt the format presented in the following examples, putting all the data requested, in the sequence and with signalization indicated, not adding items not mentioned:

FERGUSON, I.B. & BOLLARD, E.G. 1976. The movement of calcium in woody stems. Ann. Bot. 40(6):1057-1065.

SMITH, P.M. 1976. The chemotaxonomy of plants. Edward Arnold, London.

SNEDECOR, G.W. & COCHRAN, W.G. 1980. Statistical methods. 7 ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

SUNDERLAND, N. 1973. Pollen and anther culture. In Plant tissue and cell culture (H.F. Street, ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, p.205-239.

BENTHAM, G. 1862. Leguminosae. Dalbergiae. In Flora Brasiliensis (C.F.P. Martius & A.G. Eichler, eds). F. Fleischer, Lipsiae, v.15, pars 1, p.1-349.

MANTOVANI, W., ROSSI, L., ROMANIUC NETO, S., ASSAD-LUDEWIGS, I.Y., WANDERLEY, M.G.L., MELO, M.M.R.F. & TOLEDO, C.B. 1989. Estudo fitossociológico de áreas de mata ciliar em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil. In Simpósio sobre mata ciliar (L.M. Barbosa, coord.). Fundação Cargil, Campinas, p.235-267.

STRUFFALDI-DE VUONO, Y. 1985. Fitossociologia do estrato arbóreo da floresta da Reserva Biológica do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, SP. Tese de doutorado, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.

FISHBASE. (last access at dd/mmm/aaaa)

Shorten periodic titles according to the "World List of Scientific Periodicals" ( or according to the database of the Catálogo Coletivo Nacional (CCN -IBICT) (search available at

For citation of papers published in BIOTA NEOTROPICA use the following example:

Rocha-Mendes, F.; Mikich, S. B.; Quadros, J. and Pedro, W. A. 2010. Ecologia alimentar de carnívoros (Mammalia, Carnivora) em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica do sul do Brasil. (last access at dd/mm/aaaa)

All papers published in Biota Neotropica have an individual electronic address that appears immediately below the name(s) of author(s) in PDF file. This unique code is composed of the number received by the manuscript when submitted (002 in the example above), the volume number (10), the issue number (04) and year (2010).

10. Tables

In manuscripts in Spanish or Portuguese, the table headings should be bilingual, conducted in Portuguese/Spanish and English, and must be on top of their tables. The use of two languages facilitates understanding of the content for foreign readers when the paper is in Portuguese. Tables should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals.

If a table has a sub-title, this must be included in that file, in a single paragraph, being identified by a paragraph starting with Table N, where N is the number of the table.

11. Figures

Maps, photos, graphics are considered figures. Figures should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals.

In the case of boards, texts inserted in the figures must use sans-serif fonts, such as Arial or Helvetica, for readability. Figures consisting of several others must be identified by letters (e.g. Figure 1a, Figure 1b). Use bar scales to indicate size. Figures should not have sub-titles; these must be specified in a separate file.

Figure sub-titles should be part of the text file Principal.rtf or Principal.doc inserted after the references. Each legend must be contained in a single paragraph and should be identified in the beginning of the paragraph as Figure N, where N is the number of the figure. Single images that are part Composite Figures may or may not have independent legends.

This publication is sponsored by the BIOTA/FAPESP Program from the State of São Paulo Research Foundation/FAPESP.


Sending the manuscripts

Online submission and review of manuscripts is now mandatory for all types of paper. Please prepare your manuscript following the instructions for authors given below before submitting it online at

All subsequent correspondence should be sent to the Managing Editor, Tiago E. M. Duque Estrada at


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