ISSN 0100-4158 printed version
ISSN 1678-4677 online version



Scope of this journal

Fitopatologia Brasileira (FB) is dedicated to publishing technical and scientific articles that describe original research in all areas of Plant Pathology that may contribute significantly to its progress. Although Fitopatologia Brasileira is an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Phytopathology, authors are not required to be members of the Society. FB accepts papers written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Submitting a paper implies that the authors accept the guidelines of the journal and that they are not submitting the paper for publication in any other journal. It also implies that during the development of the study, the authors respect and follow the rules and legislation regarding ethics, copyright, and all regulations concerning consumer safety. Manuscripts which have not been developed in accordance with these rules will not be considered for publication.



FB publishes articles, short articles, notes, reviews (prepared by invited authors) and letters to the editor, as described below. With the exception of the last two, all other types of papers will undergo a preliminary evaluation by the Editorial Board and will be submitted to critical analysis by at least two ad hoc consultants who will be chosen from among the specialists in the subject area of the submitted work. The acceptance or rejection of a paper will be decided upon by a designated Associate Editor and the president of the Editorial Board after reviewing the evaluation of the ad hoc consultants. Letters to the editor and reviews will be analyzed by the president of the Editorial Board who will submit it to two ad hoc consultants selected among the Associate Editors.

Articles: describe a complete, original study, in which the replication of the results has clearly been established. It is recommended that the authors who prepare the manuscripts observe the following format: six to eight printed pages (15 to 20 typed pages, double-spaced), including up to 30 bibliographic references, four figures and/or graphics and four tables. Please refer to any recent issue of FB for models of format.

Short Articles: should provide conclusive results and not preliminary data. This is an alternative format for describing, in a more concise way, partial results of a larger work, or reporting conclusive results based upon a smaller amount of data. The complete text should not be more than four printed pages (12 to 15 typed pages, double-spaced) and should not have more than two figures/graphs, one table, and no more than 15 bibliographic references. Please refer to a recent issue of FB for models of format.

Notes: are aimed at quickly passing on information such as: the first report of a known disease in a region; biological, chemical, and cultural tests, descriptions of resistant cultivars and quarantine data. All text and the illustration (one figure or table) should be contained on one printed page (two typed pages, double-spaced). It should contain the following sections: a title, the names of the authors, addresses, acceptance date, a short abstract or summary if not written in Portuguese, and the text. The bibliographic references should be incorporated into the text, as concisely as possible, including only the names of the authors, year, and in which journal the work was published.

Reviews: are articles written by invited authors, aimed at reporting on a single subject.

Letters to the Editor: have the objective of dealing with technical and scientific issues, among other things, in a more informal manner. These issues should be of interest to SBF and their publication will be determined by the president of the Editorial Board.


Submission of Manuscripts

1. Manuscripts should be submitted to:

Ludwig H. Pfenning, Editorial Board
Tropical Plant Pathology - Fitopatologia Brasileira
Universidade Federal de Lavras
Cx. Postal 3066
37200-000 Lavras MG, Brazil

2. A submission package sent to the Editorial Office must contain:

a. A cover letter signed by all authors stating that they have approved the submission of the manuscript and that the findings have not been published or are not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
b. A hard copy of the manuscript, including original figures.
c. A copy of any unpublished or in-press companion articles referred to in the submission.
d. An electronic copy of the text, tables and figures. Formats for text are Word or RTF, in Windows platform. Images in TIFF or JPEG formats should be sent in separate files (For Figures, see detailed instructions in 3.1.h). Mailed disks must be labeled with the first author's last name, platform and software (see detailed instructions below).

Failure to adhere to these guidelines can delay the handling of your contribution and manuscripts may be returned before being reviewed.

The Editorial Board accepts submission by E-mail.


Preparation of manuscripts


The manuscripts should be submitted in three copies (the original and two copies) typed, double-spaced, and printed; both the lines of text and the pages should be numbered. Use of the "Times New Roman" 12-point font is recommended. The text should be written in the past tense of the verb and in the passive voice. The author should follow his own style of writing, keeping in mind the importance of a clear, concise text. As a guide to the style and format of various kinds of text, the authors should examine the most recent issues of the journal and take into account the guidelines concerning each section of the manuscript whose example they are following.

The author should neither abbreviate nor translate the name of the institution, if the publication happens to be written in Spanish or English. Finally, indicate a fax number and/or an e-mail address if there is one.

Abstract: should be informative and condensed and should explain the objectives, material and methods, results and conclusions of the work in a maximum of 250 words all written in one paragraph. It must be self-sufficient and should, therefore, be written with the utmost care. The abstract will be available to general public on the homepage of the SBF.

Keywords: should not repeat words that are already in the title. These may include phrases as well as individual words and should be separated by commas.

Resumo: should be concise, not exceeding 250 words, be of an informative nature, and should be a free version, in Portuguese, of the abstract.

Introduction: should present a concise vision of the current level of knowledge that has been achieved within the subject area that the paper will discuss. It should neither give an extensive review nor should it include details about the results and discussion. It should clearly indicate the objectives of the research that was carried out.

Materials and Methods: should provide enough information so that others can repeat the trials. This section can contain subdivisions, with subtitles in bold print, but there should not be an excessive amount of these. Methods which are already well-established or have been published in journals of world-wide circulation should be described in brief, with sources for additional information cited and any new methods described must be presented in greater detail.

Results: should describe, in a concise manner, the logic behind the research and its discoveries. It should not repeat, but only make reference to, the data illustrated in the tables, graphics and figures. The interpretation of the results must be given in the discussion. This section can have subsections which begin with concise, descriptive titles in bold print. There must be a statistical analysis of the data which will prove the potential for a replication of the data, whenever relevant.

Discussion: should relate the results to previous studies and interpret them. It may introduce a hypothesis based upon the data from this study and may repeat parts of the introduction and sum up essential aspects from the results section.

These two latter sections can be combined and divided into subsections with concise, descriptive subtitles.

Acknowledgements: a section dedicated to acknowledgements is permitted.

Bibliographic References: within the text, they should have the following format: Esau & Hoeffert (1977) or (Esau & Hoeffert, 1977). When there are more than two authors, use a reduced form, like the following: Duarte et al. (1984) or (Duarte et al., 1984). References to studies done by the same author in the same year should be noted in the text and in the list of references by the letters a, b, c, etc. (for example, Smith 1995a or Smith 1995a; b). In the Bibliography, references should be listed in alphabetical order by last name, without numbering them. Papers that have two or more authors should be listed in chronological order, following all the papers of the first author, second author, and so on. The reference should include the title, as well as the numbers of the first and last page of the text; the title of the journal where it was published should be given, and written out in full. The order of items in each bibliography should follow the examples:


KITAJIMA, E.W., FERREIRA, A.P.M., OLIVEIRA, L., BERTUOL, L. & OLIVEIRA, L.H.R. Natural infection of Gloxinia sylvatica by pepper ringspot tobravirus and its in situ immunolocalization. Fitopatologia Brasileira 23:489-491. 1998.

SMITH, S. Bacterial etiology of X disease. Phytopathology 34: 452. 1944 (Abstract).


ALEXOPOULOS, C.J. Introductory Mycology. 2nd ed. New York. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1966.

Chapters of Books

ULLSTRUP, A.J. Diseases of corn. In: Sprague, G.F. (Ed.) Corn and Corn Improvement. New York. Academic Press. 1955. pp. 465-536.

Articles and Summaries from Scientific Events

PAULA JR., T.J. Mancha angular do feijoeiro no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Anais, International Workshop on Angular Leaf Spot of Common Beans, Cali, Colômbia, CIAT. 1995. p.6.

SALOMÃO, T.A. Soil transmission of artichoke yellow band virus. Proceedings, 2nd International Meeting on Glove Artichoke, Bary, Italy. 1975. Pp 21-24.


DIAS, J.A.C.S. The relationship of potato leaf roll virus concentration in the host and vector to disease spread. " (Ph.D. Thesis). Madison. University of Wisconsin. 1988.

Only papers that have been accepted for publication, but that have not yet been published, may be cited as "in press" in the references and should be accompanied by the name of journal and proof of acceptance. Papers which have not yet been accepted can be cited in the text as unpublished results. These should be listed by using the initials and complete last names of all of the authors. However, the use of this type of reference is not recommended. References of the following types: "submitted manuscripts", "manuscripts in progress", as well as quotes of quotes, are not allowed to be listed among the references. Any "personal communication" should be confirmed by written statement of the person cited.

Illustrations: the size of the pages printed in the journal is 176 x 235 mm and the text is laid out in two columns of 85 x 235 mm each. The diagramming of photographs and graphics should be based on these dimensions. The illustrations should follow the same style; they should be framed with clear, straight lines, and be accompanied by their respective subtitles underneath and have the names of the authors identified on the back. Graphics should be displayed on white paper.

Tables: should have a concise title and be self-explanatory, without reference to the text. Explanatory footnotes should be short and preferably marked with letters or symbols. Horizontal lines should only be used to separate the title (at the top of the table) from the information in the table (double lines) and then again, at the bottom of the table to close it up (single line). The vertical lines to separate the columns should not appear. The author should avoid the use of large or long tables having columns and/or lines without data. Tables should be printed using a double-spaced format, on a separate sheet of paper, and be numbered in the order that they appear in the text.

Figures: should be used selectively to demonstrate important, specific points and take into account the importance of clarity and conciseness. The legends should be printed on separate pages and should not be repetitions from the information provided in the section of Materials and Methods. They must be numbered in the order that they appear in the text and multiple parts of a single figure should be designated (a), (b), etc. and marked this way next to the figure. Figures that duplicate information found in the tables or text will not be accepted.

Drawings: should have a high level of quality that allows them to be easily reproduced and they should be presented at twice the size that they will actually appear in the final, printed form. They may be submitted in the following formats: (a) an original drawing of black lines on white paper: (b) a direct photograph of the original drawing, and (c) a drawing that has been created on a computer and printed with a high level of quality that allows them to be easily reproduced. Graphics and/or drawings which are excessively elaborate or those having an unnecessary three-dimensional format when only referring to two variables will not be accepted. When choosing the size of the symbols and the distance between lines, clarity and proportions should be kept in mind.

Photographs / Micrographs: photographs should be in black and white, on glossy paper, and have a clear deep contrast with the background of the paper, loose, not mounted; they should be approximately the same size as other photographs that appear in the journal. Any notations on the photographs should be made in "letterset" or similar style. If there are several photographs, the author should try to mount them as close together as possible, forming a set. In addition, the photographs should all have the same tone, and there should not be white space between the photographs. When submitting micrographs, indicate the degree of magnification with a reference bar on the photograph itself. Photographs that have been scanned will only be accepted if accompanied by the originals. Number the photographs consecutively, in the same order that they will appear in the text. The cost involved in copying and printing colored photographs will be paid by the author.

Serological Reactions and Pictures of Gel Electrophoresis: should be submitted in the form of well-contrasted photographs. Representative drawings will not be accepted.

Graphics and Computerized Images: should be created on programs that are compatible with the Microsoft Windows system, preferably with Corel Draw. They may be submitted in the form of a copy on diskette, but the author must also provide a high-quality hard copy, which allows printing the image directly in the journal. The author should take into account the page dimensions of the journal and consider the proportions of the figures in relation to the size of the letters, numbers, and symbols. Likewise, the author should avoid extremely elaborate graphics, involving an excessive number of lines, slash marks, symbols, and unnecessary three-dimensional figures.


After analysis, the manuscript is always returned to the author with a copy of the ad hoc reviewer reports and the final decision made by the Senior Editor and the president of the Editorial Board. If the paper is accepted, with or without additional corrections, the author should still produce a final version which takes into account the suggestions and comments provided by the reviewers and the Senior Editor, including all the changes and editing that are necessary. Two copies of this final version should be sent to the Editorial Board along with a diskette that contains a copy of the text and an indication of the type of software used. Manuscripts which have not been accepted for publication will not be returned to the author.

Use of the version copied on a diskette: the following guidelines should be taken into account when the final version is sent on a diskette:

(a) The diskette should only be sent to the Editorial Board when the authors are sending the final version.

(b) The Editorial Board will only accept 3.5-inch diskettes that have the files copied on them using software that uses a format compatible with IBM computers.

(c) Each diskette can only contain a copy of one manuscript, preferably using the word processing program Microsoft Word.

(d) The diskette should be clearly labeled, with the number of the manuscript, the name(s), of the author(s), the software that was used, and the name of the file.

It is entirely the author's responsibility to make sure that the version recorded on the diskette is an exact copy of the hard copy which has been accepted for publication. Diskettes will not be returned.

Galley Proof: a copy of the manuscript's galley proof will be sent to the first author who should make any necessary corrections and send it back within 48 hours. Extensive corrections of the manuscript's text, whose format and content have already been approved for publication, will not be accepted. Alterations, additions, deletions and editing implies that a new examination of the manuscript must be made by the Editorial Board. Errors and omissions which are present in the text of the corrected galley proof that has been returned to the Editorial Board are entirely the responsibility of the author.

Expenses: a processing fee of US$35,00 is due for each paper submitted for publication and should be sent together with the manuscript. The guest authors who are submitting reviews will not be charged this fee. Manuscripts submitted by authors who are not members of the SBF will have to pay an additional charge of US$50,00 per printed page. This fee will be sent together with the galley proof of the manuscript.


Unconventional abbreviations should be avoided and, if they are used, they should be defined the first time that they appear in the text. Conventional abbreviations will be discussed below. Quantities, units, and symbols, from the decimal metric system, should follow the international norms. There should always be a space between a number and a unit, for example 37 ºC instead of 37ºC.

Scientific names should be in italics, following the common name of the organism. The citation of a scientific name will be according to the rules of Latin binomial nomenclature, including the genus name as well as the species name the first time they appear in the abstract as well as in the text. The specific name should be followed by the name of the authority who described it when cited for the first time in the text. The following citations can have the generic name abbreviated (Ex. Sclerotium rolfsii Saac. and S. rolfsii).

The names of virus species should be written out completely in italics with the first letter from the first name capitalized in the title of the paper as well as the first time they appear in the abstract and in the text following the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) recommendations. When written for the first time in the abstract and in the text, the virus species name should be followed by its abbreviation recommended by the ICTV in parenthesis. Examples: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). After that, only the abbreviation of their name should be used. The names of the taxon, family and genus, should be written in italics and preceded by the name of the taxonomy unit. For example, family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus.

When cited for the first time in the text, each virus should be identified using family, genus and species terms. Example: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus.

The names of cultivars should be between apostrophes (inverted commas) or preceded by the word cultivar or cv (ex. `Carioca', the cultivar Carioca or cv Carioca).

Molecular Mass, Mr. And K

The molecular mass can be expressed in two ways: (a) Mr (relative molecular mass), which is a pure number without units or (b) molecular mass, that is to say, the absolute molecular mass of a molecule, expressed in Daltons (Da)


Use only technical names and/or their main, active ingredients. It is not acceptable to mention the commercial names of products or companies that produce them and that recommend the exclusive use of the products. Chemical formulas should be written out on one line and obey the nomenclature that is most widely accepted at the present time.


Guidance concerning any unforeseen situations in this list of guidelines will be given by the Editorial Board over the course of the examination of each manuscript.



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