ISSN 1679-6225 printed version
ISSN 1982-0224 online version



Scope and policy

Neotropical Ichthyology is the official journal of the Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia (SBI). It is an international peer-reviewed Open Access periodical that publishes original articles and reviews on Neotropical freshwater and marine fishes. It constitutes an International Forum to disclose and discuss results of original research on the diversity of marine, estuarine and freshwater Neotropical fishes. We give priority to articles on native species in their original basins. Articles focusing on aquaculture should be submitted to journals focusing on Animal Science.

Submitted manuscripts must represent original research and provide clear theoretical foundations, describe the objectives and/or hypotheses under consideration, and employ sampling and analytical designs consistent with the proposal. Descriptive original works of high quality and relevance will be considered for publication. Casual observations, scientific notes or descriptive studies not associated with relevant theoretical issues will not be considered.


Submission of manuscripts

All Neotropical Ichthyology submission system is exclusively online through the portal ScholarOne. Manuscripts must be submitted as digital files at The Editor-in-Chief will screen each manuscript submitted to Neotropical Ichthyology verifying whether it is within the journal’s scope, presents original research and follows the instructions of the journal to authors. After passing through the initial screening, articles will be assigned to a Section Editor, who will assign an Associate Editor and start the single blind review process. The journal is open for submissions to all researchers on Neotropical ichthyofauna.

  With each new manuscript submission, authors must include a cover letter stating that the article constitutes original research and is not being submitted to other journals. Your letter should also explain to editors why your article should be published, highlight the strengths of your research and outline the recommendations that can be drawn from your work. In multi-authored papers, the author responsible for submission must declare in the cover letter that all coauthors are aware of and agree with the submission. To that end, please ensure that all your coauthors have read and approved the final version.

The mailing addresses and valid e-mail addresses for all authors must be entered in the appropriate forms during manuscript submission. We strongly encourage you to register in, ask your coauthors to do the same and provide ORCID numbers for all authors during submission. At least the ORCID of the corresponding author is mandatory. Do not translate Institution names. During the submission, indicate at least five possible reviewers, providing name, institution, country, and valid e-mail addresses. You may also indicate your opposition to particular reviewers or conflicts of interests, if applicable.

Please, read carefully and follow all applicable rules prior to submission. Manuscripts that do not meet the journal formatting requirements, lack required files, or are written in poor English will be returned to authors without review


Paper charges will be billed to the corresponding author upon initial distribution of page proofs with costs of R$400 reais for articles of up to 20 printed pages, adding R$5 reais for each page added. For authors from outside Brazil the values will be converted to US dollars based on the official quotation of the budget day.

All charges are waived when one or more authors are current SBI members (with the membership fee of the current year paid) or when the paper has been invited through the system. Contact the SBI Secretary ( for membership rates and payment procedures.

Form and preparation of manuscripts

General form and preparation of manuscripts

Do not duplicate information among the text, figures and tables. Submit only figures and tables that are strictly necessary. Supplementary files such as appendices, and videos should be uploaded already formatted, as pdf or video files in MP4 formatt. They will be available only in the online version.

For taxonomic papers, please also refer to: Neotropical Ichthyology taxonomic style below.


Since 2015, Neotropical Ichthyology publishes under a Creative Common BY license (Attribution). Articles accepted for publication become property of the journal.


By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright for their article and images will be transferred to Neotropical Ichthyology upon article acceptance.



Please, be sure you have carefully read all the items below

Manuscript files must be in the DOC, DOCX or RTF formats. Do not lock or protect the file. Formats such as XLS, XLSX or PDF will NOT be accepted.

The document file cannot include headers, footers, or footnotes (except page number). Do not format text in multiple columns. Although no page limit is imposed, manuscripts should always be as concise as possible.

Text should be aligned to the left (except if otherwise mentioned), not fully justified, not indented by tab or space and not underlined. Do not hyphenate words at line breaks (though hyphens can be used in compound constructions, such as dorsal-fin rays, as appropriate).

All text must be Times New Roman font size 12, with 1.5 line spacing. Do not number lines. The font “symbol” can be used to represent the following characters: χ μ θ ω ε ρ τ Ψ υ ι ο π α σ δ Φ γ η φ κ λ ∋ ϖ β ν ≅ Θ Ω Σ Δ Φ. Spell out numbers from one to nine, except those that refer to numerical values, scale counts, and when referencing figures and tables. Also, spell out numbers that begin a sentence.

Abbreviations used in the text must be listed under Material and Methods; except for those in common use (e.g., min, km, mm, kg, m, sec, h, ml, L, g). For measurements, use the metric system.


Text must be submitted in English. Avoid clichés, slang, and colloquial words or expressions such as “In the present study”. If none of the authors are native English speakers, we recommend that you contract with a professional language editing and copyediting services or have the manuscript read by a native English speaking colleague prior to submission. Authors are free to choose any certified service, but Neotropical Ichthyology authors receive a discount from these two companies.

(10% discount)
(CODE: PESQUISA, 20% discount)



New taxa names should not appear in the title or abstract. Center the title and present it in boldface, without quotation marks, with sentence-style capitalization, and with subordinate taxa separated by “:”. Titles must reflect the contents of the paper and use scientific names rather than vernacular names. Do not provide taxonomic authorship in the title. E.g.:

A new species of loricariid catfish from the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes)

As the submitting author will be responsible for completing information at submission, it is mandatory that all authors have reviewed, discussed, and agreed with the contents of the manuscript and the order of authorship prior to submission. All co-authors must have contributed substantially to all article steps.
Capitalize only the initial letters of authors’ names. Do not abbreviate first name of authors and separate the names of the last two authors by “and”. We encourage presenting the full middle names of the authors, except when the number of authors is more than four. In case of authors from different institutions, use superscript numerals to identify each one in regular font (not italics). Superscript numerals can also be used to identify multiple addresses for each individual author. For Hispanic surnames, insert a hyphen between the paternal and the maternal surname if the author wishes to be cited with both. E.g.:

Heraldo Antônio Britski1, Naércio Aquino de Menezes1, Javier Maldonado-Ocampo2 and John Lundberg3


Full mailing addresses and a valid email of all authors must be provided, including institution name, ZIP codes, cities (no comma between ZIP and city), states and countries. For Brazilian and American states, use standard abbreviations preceded by comma, and always present the country name in English. Footnotes should not be used. List emails as part of the institutional address. When there is more than one author at a given institution, insert initials of each author name before their respective email address. At least for the submission author is mandatory to provide the ORCID number. If you are not registered yet, you can register in Indicate the corresponding author by adding (corresponding author) after the ORCID. If you have ORCIDs of the other authors it is recommended to provide everyone you have. Do not use period. E.g.:

1 Seção de Peixes, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Nazaré, 481, Ipiranga, 04263-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. (HAB), ORCID (corresponding author), (NAM)
2Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática (UNESIS), Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Edf. 53, Laboratorio de Ictiología 108B, Carrera 7 No. 43-82, Bogotá, Colombia.
3Department of Ichthyology, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, 19103-1195 Philadelphia, PA, USA.


The body of text may employ named heading and subheadings, which cannot be lettered or numbered. All sections are left justified, except the primary headings, which should appear centered in small caps and bold font. Employ the following heading, in the cited order:


Abstracts must appear as a single paragraph with fewer than 200 words in English. Do not include new taxa names, authorship or references. Do not indent. Remember that this is the first piece of your article that will be viewed by each potential reader. Include information showing the importance and relevance of your article to encourage the reader to read your entire paper.

Resumo or Resumen

Provide a concise (maximum 200 words) and accurate Portuguese or Spanish translation of the English abstract.

Keywords, Palavras-chave ou Palabras clave

Provide up to five capitalized keywords in English, in alphabetic order and separated by commas. Do not use words already contained in the title, nor Neotropical (which appears in the name of the journal). If the article provides an identification key, include that as keyword in the English and translated lists. According to the language you provide the Resumo or Resumen, choose present Palavras-chave or Palabras clave. The order of them also is arranged alphabetically, and then the sequence of the words might differ from those in English. E.g.:

Keywords: Conservation, Identification key, Ostariophysi, Taxonomy
Palavras-chave: Chave de identificação, Conservação, Ostariophysi, Taxonomia OR
Palabras clave: Clave de identificación, Conservación, Ostariophysi, Taxonomía

Running Head

Provide a suggested running head of up to 50 characters. It must concisely reflect the content of the article. Do not include vernacular names or species authorship here. E.g.:

New Astyanax species from the rio Ribeira de Iguape


Provide taxonomic authorship in the first appearance of species names in the text. See Nomenclature Section below for further instructions.

Material and Methods

If two heading levels are used, follow this format:

Sampling sites. Collections were carried out in…
Statistical analyses. Data were analyzed…
In case of listing Examined Material, provide a list of institutional acronyms in Material and Methods section OR a reference to a published paper with a list of acronyms in Material and Methods. Also, reference(s) for species identification and classification used must be provided.


Do not unite Results and Discussion as a unique section.


Do not provide a separate Conclusion section. However, we encourage highlighting conclusions as the last paragraph(s) of the Discussion.


Acknowledgments are optional but encouraged. If included, they must be concise and include both first and last names of persons. If you wish to provide the institutions of people thanked, use abbreviate names for institutions, which the full name has been provided in the Material and Methods. Names of sponsor institutions should be listed in their original spelling and not translated to English. Collections permit numbers and approvals of ethics committees can be listed here OR in the Material and Methods section.


See detailed rules bellow.

Voucher specimens of all species examined must be deposited in a recognized scientific research collection, even in studies focusing on a single well-known species. A list of catalog numbers of voucher specimen(s) must be furnished in all manuscripts.

Species, genera, and Latin terms (et al., in vitro, in vivo, vs., i.e, e.g.) must be in italics. Cite scientific names according to the ICZN (
Authorship should be given at the first reference to a species or genus. Spelling, valid names and authorship of species must be checked in the Catalog of Fishes at Latin terms presented between the generic and specific names (cf., aff., etc.) are not in italics (e.g., Hoplias aff. malabaricus).
The genus name must always be fully spelled at its first appearance, at the beginning of a sentence and at least once in each figure and table caption(s). After first mention, the first letter of the genus name followed by the full species name may be used (e.g., H. aff. malabaricus) as long as the abbreviation leaves no possibility of confusion with another generic name mentioned in the manuscript. In the case of possible confusion, the abbreviation can include more than the first letter to allow the differentiation of genera beginning with the same letter.

Tables must be numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals according to the order of citation in the text and be cited in the text using the following formats: Tab. 1, Tabs. 1–2, Tabs. 1, 4. Approximate locations where tables should be inserted must be indicated in upper case, along the right margin of the text, as in:

Note: Use an n-dash for ranges (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number)).

In table captions, the word Tab., its respective number and final period after the number should be in bold (e.g., Tab. 1....). End the caption in a period. Captions must be self-explicative. If genus names appear in a caption, spell out the name at least once.
Tables must be constructed in cells using lines and columns. Do not format tables with “tab” or “space”. Tables should not contain visible vertical lines or footnotes [contents of footnotes must be included in the caption].
List all captions at the end of the manuscript, in the following format. E.g.:

Tab. 1. Monthly variation of the gonadosomatic index in Diapoma pyrrhopteryx and D. speculiferum...

Figures cannot be submitted as images inserted in Word files. Figures must be submitted as high quality individual files. For b&w figures, they must be saved in TIFF format, gray scale, 8.5 or 17.5 cm width, 600 dpi. Color figures must be in TIFF format, CMYK, 8.5 or 17.5 cm width and 300 dpi.
Composed figures must fit either the page (17.5 cm) or column width (8.5 cm). Text included in graphs and pictures must have a font size compatible with reductions to page or column width.
Figures must be numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals according to their order of citation in the text. Cite figures in the text using the following formats: Fig. 1, Figs. 1–2, Fig. 1a, Figs. 1a–b, Figs. 1a, c. Indicate the approximate locations where figures should be inserted in upper case, along the right margin of the text, as in:

Note: Use an n-dash for ranges (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number)).

In each figure caption, the word Fig., its respective number and period are in bold (e.g., Fig. 1.…). End each caption with a period. Captions must be self-explicative. If genus names appear in a caption, spell out the name at least once. Do not include symbols in the caption, but rather replace them with text (e.g., black triangle) or include a legend in the figure itself.
Indicate figure subsections in lower case and bold letters in both in the figure and caption. Do not use capital letters, or parentheses after letters. Cite figures from other articles using the same formats as figures published in the present article, but do not capitalize them.
Illustrations must include either a scale or reference to the size of the item in the figure caption. List all captions at the end of the manuscript, in the following format. E.g.:

Fig. 1. Otoliths of representatives of Otophysi. a. Brycon hilarii; b. B. orbignyanus; c. Pimelodus maculatus; and d. Sternopygus macrurus. (Scale bars = 1 mm), lapillus (black triangle), asteriscus (white dot) and sagittal (red star), according to fig. 2 of Campana (2001).


Upload appendices, videos, datasets and other complementary materials as supplementary files. Provide the files formatted as you wish it appear, but in some format that allow edition. Videos must be in MP4 format. Identify these files in the text by a bolded letter S followed by sequential numbers in Arabic numerals. Indicate in the text that those will appear only in the online version (e.g.… as shown in the video S1, available only in the online version,…). List all captions at the end of the manuscript. E.g.:

S1. Video of variation of tides...
S2. Spreadsheet with catalog numbers of all voucher specimens collected in…


Personal communication should be included in the text of your document – cited in text only and not included in your reference list. Inform the full name, first and family name in full, and initials of middle names when applicable, and year of the personal communication. E.g.:

The sample site had scarce riparian vegetation (Carlos A. R. Silva, 2018, pers. comm.).

Note: It is recommended you get permission from the source/author of your personal communication.

Ensure that all citations in the text and the References coincide before submitting a manuscript.
References must be cited in the following formats in the text: Eigenmann (1915, 1921) or (Eigenmann, 1915, 1921; Fowler, 1945, 1948; Carvalho, 2001) or Eigenmann, Norris (1918) or, for more than two coauthors, Eigenmann et al. (1910a,b), always in chronological order and then in alphabetical order in case of more than one author cited.
Do not include undergraduate monographs, conference papers, abstracts or technical reports. Include Masters Thesis or Ph.D. dissertations only if extremely necessary. Do not format references with “tab” or “space” and present references in rigorous alphabetical order. In case of authors with surnames with prepositions, in Portuguese do not include the preposition (e.g., Carlos Alberto da Silva = Silva CA), in Spanish do not include “de” (e.g., María de Rueda = Rueda M), but include “Del” (e.g., Angel Del Río = Del Río A), except for authors who usually self cite differently. Ignore prepositions for the purpose of alphabetization, as in the following example:

E.g. of sequence    De Carli F
                            Devincenzi GJ
                            Eigenmann CH
                            Maldonado-Ocampo J
                            De Pinna MCC
                            Del Río A
                            Rueda M
                            Silva CA

Note: In case of self-citations using a convention other than those exemplified, please cite using your usual convention and, in the cover letter, mention your intention to maintain and standardize that usage in al your self-citations in this and other journals.

For more than six authors you can use et al. from the seventh in all categories of references, or inform all the authors. Choose one pattern and follow for all references.

Who uses managers of references and citations, Vancouver is the style closest to the NI for references, but the citations must be as described above. For users of the Mendeley manager, which is free, the Neotropical Ichthyology style for citations and references is available, which must be obtained and included as instructed at

Note: Do not forget to put the scientific names of references in italics in Mendeley before importing the reference. To do this, use the HTML <i> tags at the beginning of the word and </i> at the end. E.g.:

Reproductive biology of two species of <i>Mugil</i>: <i>M. curema</i> and <i>M. liza</i> =
Reproductive biology of two species of Mugil: M. curema and M. liza.

Example formats are listed below.


Baumgartner G, Pavanelli CS, Baumgartner D, Bifi AG, Debona T, Frana VA. Peixes do baixo rio Iguaçu. Maringá: EDUEM; 2012.

Edited book

Reis RE, Kullander SO, Ferraris CJ, Jr., editors. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs; 2003.

Chapter in a book

Pires T, Ohara W. Gasteropelecidae. In: Queiroz L, Torrente-Vilara G, Ohara W, Pires T, Zuanon J, Doria C, editors. Peixes do rio Madeira. São Paulo: Dialeto Latin America Documentary; 2013. p.206–11.

Note: You must present only two digits for last page if the previous digits coincide with the previous digits of the first page, separated by an n-dash (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number)).

Journal Articles

Journal titles may be abbreviated according to the style used in the sites:,,, or others.
In case you do not find the journal name in the above links, provide the full name of the journal and highlight it in yellow. DO NOT USE POINTS IN JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS.

Ota RR, Deprá GC, da Graça WJ, Pavanelli CS. Peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná e áreas adjacentes: Revised, annotated and updated. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2018; 16(2):e170094.

Note: You must provide only the e-location if there are no page numbers.

Sawakuchi AO, Hartmann GA, Sawakuchi HO, Pupim FN, Bertassoli DJ, Parra M, et al. The Volta Grande do Xingu: Reconstruction of past environments and forecasting of future scenarios of a unique Amazonian fluvial landscape. Sci Drill. 2015; 20:21–32.

Note: You can use et al. for articles with more than six authors, and the page numbers separated by an n-dash (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number)).

Abudayah WH, Mathis A. Predator recognition learning in rainbow darters Etheostoma caeruleum: specific learning and neophobia. J Fish Biol. 2016; 89(3):1612–23.

Note: You must present only two digits for last page if the previous digits coincide with the previous digits of the first page, separated by an n-dash (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number)).

Koike Y, Koya Y. Viable periods of fertilizability of eggs and sperm of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. Japan J Ichthyol. 2014; 61(1):9–14. Available from:

Note: You must provide the issue number, and can present the URL of online articles without DOI number, preceded by Available from:..

Journal article – in press

Birindelli JL, Britski HA, Provenzano F. New species of Leporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the highlands of the Guiana Shield in Venezuela. Neotrop Ichthyol. Forthcoming 2019.

Note: You must cite only if the paper is about to be published.

Reports and other Government Publications

Eayrs S. A Guide to bycatch reduction in Tropical shrimp-trawl fisheries [Internet]. Rome; 2007. Available from:

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th ed. London: International trust for zoological nomenclature Natural History Museum [Internet]. London; 1999. Available from:

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Standards and petitions subcommittee. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 13 [Internet]. Gland; 2017. Available from:


Oliveira AG. Predizendo impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a diversidade funcional de peixes de água doce: um panorama "down under". [PhD Thesis]. Maringá: Universidade Estadual de Maringá; 2018. Available from:
Note: You must provide a hyperlink when available.

Figueiredo PICC. Decifrando a relação evolutiva entre Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870) e Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba 1988 (Cichlidae: Geophagini). [Master Dissertation]. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2018.


Fricke R, Eschmeyer WN, Van der Laan R. Eschmeyer’s catalog of fishes: genera, species, references [Internet]. San Francisco: California Academy of Science; 2019. Available from:


Taxonomic style instructions

This summary provides information specific to taxonomic manuscripts. For large taxonomic revisions and reviews, see additional recommendations below. Items with * are required, others are recommended whenever applicable.
Taxon accounts should be in alphabetical order. For original descriptions, the words “new genus” or “new species” should appear after the name of the new genus or species, preceded by a comma. The designation also must to appear in the caption of the holotype’s figure, in the case of a new species. For species mentioned in the Diagnosis section but for which no comparative material was examined, please formally cite their original descriptions and provide the full references.

Note: Prior to submitting a description of a new taxon, please register new nomenclatural act(s) and the paper (as unpublished manuscript) at URL: and provide the nomenclatural act code just below the new taxon name. E.g.:

After publication, you must update the ZooBank article status from unpublished to published. This must be done by the author who made the initial registration.

Generic accounts

Order of presentation:

Genus Author, year (or new genus; do not abbreviate) (bolded and centered) (in case of new genus only) (centered)

Type species.*
Etymology. for new genus only*
Key to species.

Comments on the above:


Provide a complete synonymy listing all validly published names that have been applied to the genus, including all references in systematic treatments or identification guides that can help link the present concept of the genus to past concepts. The senior synonym is usually the correct and valid name. If applicable, include invalid names and mistakes in identity with suitable annotation to indicate their nature. For each name listed, include minimally: the original form of the name; the author and date of publication; reference and page number; basic information on the genus in the paper cited (modified from Wiley EO, Lieberman BS. Phylogenetics: theory and practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. 2nd edition. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011). Provide full references of all listed sources as part of the References section. If applicable, discuss the synonymy and cite relevant literature in the Remarks section. E.g.:

Parodon Valenciennes, 1849

Parodon Valenciennes, in Cuvier, Valenciennes, 1849:50 (original description; type-species by original designation and monotypy: Parodon suborbitalis Valenciennes). —Günther, 1864:31 (redescription). —Eigenmann, 1912:274 (diagnosis). —, Miles, 1943:251 (diagnosis in key). —Schultz, 1944:288 (diagnosis in key). —Campos, 1945:440 (diagnosis). —Miles, 1947:132 (diagnosis). –Travassos, 1955:4 (synonymic list). —Böhlke, 1958:83 (comments). —Ringuelet et al., 1967:180 (diagnosis in key). —Roberts, 1974b:433 (osteology). —Godoy, 1975:451 (diagnosis in key). —Géry, 1977:202 (diagnosis in key). —Britski et al., 1988:26 (diagnosis in key).

Nematoparodon Fowler, 1943:226 (original description; type-species by original designation and monotypy: Parodon apolinari Myers).
Note: Precede each quotation with an m-dash (Type an m-dash using Shift-Option-hyphen on a Mac. In Windows, use ALT + 0151).


For proposed new genera, the original name of the proposed type-species, followed by author and year of publication (or new species) is sufficient. For previously proposed generic names, the following additional information is required (in this order): Nature of type designation (e.g., original designation, monotypy, absolute tautonymy, etc). Whether the type-species was not designated in the original publication, the author, year and page of the subsequent designation should be cited (e.g.,Type by subsequent designation by Jordan, 1919: 45).


Diagnosis should NOT be written in telegraphic style (for purposes of clarity). A generic diagnosis should preferably list the unique synapomorphies of the genus, followed by homoplastic derived characters and/or other useful distinguishing characteristics.


In telegraphic style (i.e., no verbs nor articles).


For new names, state the gender, even though it may be obvious from the construction. Do not give an etymology for preexisting names. If it is necessary to discuss the etymology of an old name (for example, to justify an interpretation of its gender), include that in the Remarks section.

Key to species

If a key for identification of species is provided and it was not mentioned in the title, add “dichotomous key” or “identification key” as a keyword.

Specific accounts

Order of presentation:

Species Author, Year (or new species - do not abbreviate) (bolded and centered) (in case of new species only)

Holotype.* for new species only; include full collection data (see details, below)
Paratype(s). for new species only; include full collection data (see details, below)
Non-types. for new species only; include reduced collection data (see details, below) (Justification for separating non-types from types should be provided in the Material and Methods section)
Diagnosis.* see below for instruction on how to prepare a species diagnosis
Coloration in alcohol.*
Coloration in life.
Sexual dimorphism.
Geographical distribution.*
Ecological notes.
Etymology. for new species only*
Conservation status. for new species only*

Material examined. for accounts of previously named species

Comments on the above:


Provide a complete synonymy listing all validly published names that have been applied to the species, including all references in systematic treatments or identification guides that can help link the present concept of the species to past concepts. The senior synonym is usually the correct and valid name. If applicable, include invalid names and mistakes in identity with suitable annotation to indicate their nature. For each name listed, include minimally: the original form of the name; the author and date of publication; reference and page number; country or basin and basic information on the species in the paper cited (modified from Wiley EO, Lieberman BS. Phylogenetics: theory and practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. 2nd edition. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011). Provide full references of all listed sources as part of the References section. If applicable, discuss the synonymy and cite relevant literature in the Remarks section. E.g.:

Parodon caliensis Boulenger, 1895

Parodon caliensis Boulenger, 1895:480 (original description; type-locality: near Cali, Colombia). —Eigenmann, 1922(reprint 1976):109 (partim; Paila, río Cauca basin; diagnosis in key). —Miles, 1943:47 (río Cauca; redescription). —Miles, 1947:132 (río Magdalena; meristics). —Roberts, 1974b:416 (osteology; osteological illustrations). —Roberts, 1975:269 (dentition).

Parodon saliensis [sic]. —Roberts, 1975:269 (dentition).

Parodon Parodon caliensis. —Géry, 1977:203 (diagnosis in key).
Note: Precede each quotation with an m-dash (Type an m-dash using Shift-Option-hyphen on a Mac. In Windows, use ALT + 0151).


For new species, list types separately from other comparative material examined. Indicate when you have cleared and stained (c&s) specimens or genetic sequences in some online depository. Group paratypes by country or basin, in alphanumeric order of museum acronym and catalog numbers inside each group. Include full collection data, in the following order:

Museum acronym and catalog number, number of specimens (except for holotype), size range separated by an n-dash (to automatically create n-dash in Word type “something – something” (number-space-hyphen-space-number), number and size range of measured specimens, if different (in parentheses along with size range) locality (country, state, municipality, locality, basin, coordinates), date of collection [in dd, Month (3 letter abbreviation) and yyyy], and collector(s). E.g:

Paratypes. LIRP 5640, 25, 38.5–90.3 mm SL (12, 75.0–90.3 mm SL), Brazil, São Paulo, Município de Marapoama, rio Tietê basin, ribeirão Cubatão at road between Marapoama and Elisiário, 21º11'35"S 49º07'22"W, 10 Feb 2003, A. L. A. Melo.

Note: Except in cases where no actively-curated scientific research collection exists, Holotypes must be deposited in collections in the country of origin of the species. When a species occurs in multiple countries, the holotype must be deposited in the country of the type-locality, with paratypes distributed among countries in which the species occurs. Even in cases of species endemic to one country, we encourage dissemination of paratypes.


Do NOT write the diagnosis in telegraphic style (for purposes of clarity). A species diagnosis is typically a paragraph constructed of full sentences that list the most important traits that allow the reader to unequivocally identify the species. Ideally, the diagnosis includes one or more features that are unique to the species, preferably autapomorphic characters. If unique features were not discovered, the next best option is a differential diagnosis, within which a series of direct comparisons are made among species and the alternative character states specified by contrasts are stated explicitly (using "vs." followed by the condition found in the species, or group of species, being compared, for each diagnostic feature). Diagnoses that consist only of a combination of characters (i.e., traits listed sequentially which, when considered together, distinguish the species from congeners) should be avoided.

Note: In the event of listing species in the diagnosis without associated comparative material, please formally cite their original descriptions and provide full references.


Write the description section in telegraphic style (i.e., without verbs and articles). Treat bilaterally paired structures in the singular (e.g., pelvic fin short, not pelvic fins short). Compound adjectives that include a noun should be connected by a hyphen (e.g., pectoral-fin spine, NOT pectoral fin spine). Fin-ray formulae should be reported with unbranched rays in lower case Roman numerals, spines in upper case Roman, and branched rays in Arabic numerals. Transitions between different types of rays should be indicated by a comma (,) and not a plus sign (+), or dash (-). We treat the catfish spinelet as a spine, so dorsal fin counts that include a spinelet should be reported as II,6 (or whatever the branched ray count is). E.g.:

iii,7 or II,9. Not iii–7 or iii+7 (no spaces should be inserted after the comma).

Note: Do not include space between numerals and % (e.g., 25%, not 25 %).


Write this section in telegraphic style (i.e., without verbs or articles). This section may be divided into Coloration in alcohol and Coloration in life.

Geographic distribution

Geographic descriptors must NOT be translated and should be capitalized or not according to the standard usage in the language in question. English usage typically uses capitals (e.g., Amazon River, Parana River, Paraguay River) while Portuguese and Spanish do not (e.g., rio Solimões, río Magdalena, rio Paraná, río Parana, río Paraguay, rio Paraguai). When referring to a municipality or geopolitical region that includes the names of a water body, capitalize the entity as a proper noun in all languages (e.g., Municipality of Arroio dos Ratos, State of Rio Grande do Sul).


For new names, state the usage (adjective, noun, patronym, etc.), even though it may be obvious from the construction. For more information, see article 31 of the online International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( Do not provide an etymology for preexisting names, unless the etymology is necessary to justify the spelling. In such cases, include this information in the Remarks Section and not as a separate heading.

Conservation status

Please consider providing the conservation status, at least for new species, based on the IUCN criteria and categories. E.g.:

Conservation status. Provide information on the conservation status assessment and finalize with… According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee, 2017 [or later]), Genus species can be classified as Category (category abbreviation)].

Note: In such case, provide the full reference in the References.

Material examined

Provide only taxa, museum acronym, catalog number, number of specimens and size range.
Indicate any types by: (Holo- Syn-, etc.) type of Genus species Author, date. For lectotypes or neotypes, also cite the source of designation.
Specimen lots should be arranged taxonomically, and then by country or basin (in bold), in alphanumeric order of museum acronym and catalog numbers inside each group proposed. E.g.:

Auchenipterichthys coracoideus: Peru: CAS 220574, 2, 104.0–107.0 mm SL, syntypes of Trachycorystes coracoideus Eigenmann, Allen, 1942).

Note: Deviation from this order is permissible only if an alternate arrangement shortens the text. If another arrangement is chosen, its use must be explained and justified in the Material and Methods section.
List material of non-focal species as Comparative material examined, using the same rules of arrangement stated above.

Large taxonomic revisions and reviews

Before presenting the taxonomic accounts, provide a table at the beginning, cited early, that lists all the species included in the revision that are new and those that are being redescribed. Taxon accounts can be arranged in two ways: presenting the new species descriptions first (in alphabetic order) and then the redescribed species (in alphabetic order), OR reporting all the species in alphabetic order without separating new and redescribed ones. In either case, mentioning the words new genus or new species after the name of each new taxon presented, preceded by a comma. The chosen order of presentation should focus on brevity and comprehensibility.

Further information

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