ISSN 1806-9290 online version



Scope and Editorial policies


Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia-Brazilian Journal of Animal Science (RBZ) encompasses all fields of Animal Science Research. The RBZ publishes original scientific articles in the areas of Aquaculture; Biometeorology and Animal Welfare; Forage; Animal Genetics and Breeding, Animal Reproduction; Ruminant and Non-Ruminant Nutrition; Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness.

Open access and peer review

The RBZ is sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Animal Science, which provides readers or their institutions with free access to peer-reviewed articles published online by RBZ. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia is included in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).

All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, are licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type BY (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A peer-review system is exerted on manuscripts sent for appreciation to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. We use the double-blind style of reviewing by concealing the identity of the authors from the reviewers, and vice versa. Communication with authors should only be through the Scientific Editor (named as Editor-in-chief). Authors are given the chance to designate names to be considered by the Editor-in-chief as preferred or non-preferred reviewers. Reviewers should notify the editor about conflicts of interest (either positive or negative) that may compromise their ability to provide a fair and an unbiased review.

Assurance of contents and assignment of copyright

When submitting a manuscript for review, authors should make sure that the results of the work are original, and that the total or partial content of the manuscript, regardless of the language, has not been/ is not being considered for publication in any other scientific journal. Additionally, the authors assure that if they have used the work and/or words of others this has been appropriately cited or quoted warranting absence of plagiarism, which constitutes unethical publishing behavior.

Papers already published or that have been submitted to any other journal will not be accepted. Fractioned or subdivided studies should be submitted together because they will be assigned to the same reviewers.

The content of the articles published by Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia is of sole responsibility of their authors.

Authors who have a manuscript approved by RBZ are also requested to authorize that the right of total or partial electronic and graphic reproduction (copyright) of the paper be transferred to the Brazilian Society of Animal Science, which ensure us the rights necessary for the proper administration of electronic rights and online dissemination of journal articles.

After completing the submission of the manuscript by using the Manuscript Central™ online system, the corresponding author will be asked to email the file named Assurance of Contents and Copyright and will be responsible for stating the information required in the document regarding the manuscript and all co-authors. A template with the same name has been already prepared by the Brazilian Society of Animal Science and is available on the journal website at

The original text of the template must not be altered but only completed with the necessary information. The corresponding author must fill it out properly, sign it, initial all pages, scan and email it to RBZ’s office e-mail address confirming all authors’ participation in the manuscript.

The manuscript will not be considered for peer reviewing without this form. The deadline will be set allowing a period of 15 days for delivery of forms after which the editorial office will act by withdrawing the manuscript.


Submissions will only be accepted in the English language (either American or British spelling). The editorial board of RBZ reserves the right to demand that authors revise the translation or to cancel the processing of the manuscript if the English version submitted contains errors of spelling, punctuation, grammar, terminology, jargons or semantics that can either compromise good understanding or not follow the Journal's standards. It is strongly recommended that the translation process be performed by a professional experienced in scientific writing familiar with Animal Science, preferably a native speaker of English.

Publication costs

Processing fee

The payment of the processing fee is a prerequisite for submitting manuscripts to referees. The processing fee is of R$ 53.00 (Fifty-three reals and no cents) for both members and non-members of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science (BSAS). Payment must be done according to guidance available on the SBZ website (

Publication fee

Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia adopt an Open Access policy and OA articles are freely accessible through the journal’s website at at the time of publication. The current article publication fee in the journal is of R$ 160.00 (One hundred and sixty reals and no cents) per page if at least one author is a member of the BSAS. The member must be the first author or the corresponding author of the manuscript. If no authors are BSAS members, the publication fee is of R$ 260.00 (Two hundred and sixty reals and no cents) per journal page. The Real is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$.

Care and use of animals

Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia is committed to the highest ethical standards of animal care and use. Research presented in manuscripts reporting the use of animals must guarantee to have been conducted in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and policies governing the care and use of animals. The author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and, whenever pertinent, that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them before commencement of the study.

Types of articles

Full-length research article: A full-length research paper provides a complete account of the experimental work. The text should represent the research process and foster its cohesive understanding and a coherent explanation regarding all the experimental procedures and results and must provide the minimal information necessary for an independent reproduction of the research.

Short communication: A succinct account of the final results of an experimental work, which has full justification for publication, although with a volume of information which is not sufficient to be considered a full-length research article. The results used as the basis to prepare the short communication cannot be used subsequently, neither partially nor wholly, for the presentation of a full-length article.

Technical note: An evaluation report or proposition of a method, procedure or technique that correlates with the scope of RBZ. Whenever possible, one should show the advantages and disadvantages of the new method, procedure or technique proposed, as well as its comparison with those previously or currently employed, presenting the proper scientific rigor in analysis, comparison, and discussion of results.

Board-invited reviews: An approach that represents state-of-the-art or critical view of issues of interest and relevance to the scientific community. It can only be submitted by invitation of the editorial board of RBZ. The invited reviews will be subjected to the peer-review process.

Editorial: Notes to clarify and establish technical guidelines and/or philosophy for designing and making of articles to be submitted and evaluated by RBZ. The editorials will be drafted by or at the invitation of the editorial board of RBZ.


Guidelines to prepare the manuscript

Structure of a full-length research article

Figures, Tables, and Acknowledgments should be sent as separated files and not as part of the body of the manuscript.

The article is divided into sections with centered headings, in bold, in the following order: Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments (optional) and References. The heading is not followed by punctuation.

Manuscript format

The text should be typed by using Times New Roman font at 12 points, double-space (except for Abstract and Tables, which should be set at 1.5 space), and top, bottom, left and right margins of 2.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 2.5 cm, respectively.

The text should contain up to 25 pages, sequentially numbered in arabic numbers at the bottom. The file must be edited by using Microsoft Word® software.


The title should be precise and informative, with no more than 20 words. It should be typed in bold and centered as the example: Nutritional value of sugar cane for ruminants. Names of sponsor of grants for the research should always be presented in the Acknowledgments section.


The name and institutions of authors will be requested at the submission process; therefore they should not be presented in the body of the manuscript. Please see the topic Guidelines to submit the manuscript for details.

The listed authors should be no more than eight.

The list of authors must contain all authors’ full name with no initials, current email address, and complete information about their afiliation. This list must follow the same authorship order presented in the Assurance of Contents and Copyright.

Spurious and "ghost" authorships constitute an unethical behavior. Collaborative inputs, hand labor, and other types of work that do not imply intellectual contribution may be mentioned in the Acknowledgments section.


The abstract should contain no more than 1,800 characters including spaces in a single paragraph. The information in the abstract must be precise. Extensive abstracts will be returned to be adequate with the guidelines.

The abstract should summarize the objective, material and methods, results and conclusions. It should not contain any introduction. References are never cited in the abstract.

The text should be justified and typed at 1.5 space and come at the beginning of the manuscript with the word ABSTRACT capitalized, and initiated at 1.0 cm from the left margin. To avoid redundancy the presentation of significance levels of probability is not allowed in this section.

Key Words

At the end of the abstract list at least three and no more than six key words, set off by commas and presented in alphabetical order. They should be elaborated so that the article is quickly found in bibliographical research. The key words should be justified and typed in lowercase. There must be no period mark after key words.


The introduction should not exceed 2,500 characters with spaces, briefly summarizing the context of the subject, the justifications for the research and its objectives; otherwise it will be rerouted for adaptation. Discussion based on references to support a specific concept should be avoided in the introduction.

Inferences on results obtained should be presented in the Discussion section.

Material and Methods

Whenever applicable, describe at the beginning of the section that the work was conducted in accordance with ethical standards and approved by the Ethics and Biosafety Committee of the institution.

Please provide ethics comittee number as follows: “Research on animals was conducted according to the institutional committee on animal use (protocol number).

As for the location of the experiment, it should contain city, state, country, and geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude, elevation). Names of universities, laboratories, farms or any other intitutions must not be mentioned.

A clear description on the specific original reference is required for biological, analytical and statistical procedures. Any modifications in those procedures must be explained in detail.

The presentation of the statistical model as a separate sentence from the text and as a numbered equation is mandatory whenever the research is about designed experiments, observational studies or survey studies. All terms, assumptions, and fitting procedures must be fully described to allow readers for a correct identification of the experimental unit.


The author must write two sections by separating results and discussion. In the Results section, sufficient data, with means and some measure of uncertainty (standard error, coefficient of variation, confidence intervals, etc.) are mandatory, to provide the reader with the power to interpret the results of the experiment and make his own judgment. The additional guidelines for styles and units of RBZ should be checked for the correct understanding of the exposure of results in tables. The Results section cannot contain references.


In the Discussion section, the author should discuss the results clearly and concisely and integrate the findings with the literature published to provide the reader with a broad base on which they will accept or reject the author's hypothesis.

Loose paragraphs and references presenting weak relationship with the problem being discussed must be avoided. Neither speculative ideas nor propositions about the hypothesis or hypotheses under study are encouraged.


Be absolutely certain that this section highlights what is new and the strongest and most important inferences that can be drawn from your observations. Include the broader implications of your results. The conclusions are stated by using the present tense.

Do not present results in the conclusions, except when they are strictly important for the generalization.


This section is optional. It must come right after the conclusions.

The Acknowledgments section must not be included in the body of the manuscript; instead, a file named Acknowledgment should be prepared and then uploaded as “supplemental file NOT for review”. This procedure helps RBZ to conceal the identity of authors from the reviewers.

Use of abbreviations

Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract, and again in the body of the manuscript, and in each table and figure in which they are used.

The use of author-defined abbreviations and acronyms should be avoided, as for instance: T3 was higher than T4, which did not differ from T5 and T6. This type of writing is appropriate for the author, but of complex understanding by the readers, and characterizes a verbose and imprecise writing.

Tables and Figures

It is essential that tables be built by option "Insert Table" in distinct cells, on Microsoft Word® menu (No tables with values separated by the ENTER key or pasted as figure will be accepted). Tables and figures prepared by other means will be rerouted to author for adequacy to the journal guidelines.

Tables and figures should be numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals, presented in two separate editable files to be uploaded (one for the tables and one for the figures), and must not appear in the body of the manuscript. They may be uploaded separately and in a higher number of files if the size of the files hampers the upload.

The title of the tables and figures should be short and informative, and the descriptions of the variables in the body of the table should be avoided.

In the graphs, designations of the variables on the X and Y axes should have their initials in capital letters and the units in parentheses.

Non-original figures, i.e., figures published elsewhere, are only allowed to be published in RBZ with the express written consent of the publisher or copyright owner. It should contain, after the title, the source from where they were extracted, which must be cited.

The units and font (Times New Roman) in the body of the figures should be standardized.

The curves must be identified in the figure itself. Excessive information that compromises the understanding of the graph should be avoided.

Use contrasting markers such as circles, crosses, squares, triangles or diamonds (full or empty) to represent points of curves in the graph.

Figures should be built by using Microsoft Excel® to allow corrections during copyediting, and uploaded as a separate editable Microsoft Word® file, named “Figures” during submission. Use lines with at least 3/4 width. Figures should be used only in monochrome and without any 3-D or shade effects. Do not use bold in the figures.

The decimal numbers presented within the tables and figures must contain a point, not a comma mark.

Mathematical formulas and equations must be inserted in the text as an object and by using Microsoft Equation or a similar tool.


Reference and citations should follow the Name and Year System (Author-date).

Citations in the text

The author's citations in the text are in lowercase, followed by year of publication. In the case of two authors, use ‘and'; in the case of three or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author, followed by the abbreviation et al.

Single author: Silva (2009) or (Silva, 2009)
Two authors: Silva and Queiroz (2002) or (Silva and Queiroz, 2002)
Three or more authors: Lima et al. (2001) or (Lima et al., 2001)

The references should be arranged chronologically and then alphabetically within a year, using a semicolon (;) to separate multiple citations within parentheses, e.g.: (Carvalho, 1985; Britto, 1998; Carvalho et al., 2001).

Two or more publications by the same author or group of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date, e.g., (Silva, 2004a,b).

Personal communication can only be used if strictly necessary for the development or understanding of the study. Therefore, it is not part of the reference list, so it is placed only as a footnote. The author's last name and first and middle initials, followed by the phrase "personal communication", the date of notification, name, state and country of the institution to which the author is bound.

References section

References should be written on a separate page, and by alphabetical order of surname of author(s), and then chronologically.

Type them single-spaced, justified, and indented to the third letter of the first word from the second line of reference.

All authors' names must appear in the References section.

The author is indicated by their last name followed by initials. Initials should be followed by period (.) and space; and the authors should be separated by semicolons. The word ‘and' precedes the citation of the last author.

Surnames with indications of relatedness (Filho, Jr., Neto, Sobrinho, etc.) should be spelled out after the last name (e.g., Silva Sobrinho, J.).

Do not use ampersand (&) in the citations or in the reference list.

As in text citations, multiple citations of same author or group of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date.

In the case of homonyms of cities, add the name of the state and country (e.g., Gainesville, FL, EUA; Gainesville, VA, EUA).

Sample references are given below.


The journal name should be written in full. In order to standardize this type of reference, it is not necessary to quote the website, only volume, page range and year. Do not use a comma (,) to separate journal title from its volume; separate periodical volume from page numbers by a colon (:).

Miotto, F. R. C.; Restle, J.; Neiva, J. N. M.; Castro, K. J.; Sousa, L. F.; Silva, R. O.; Freitas, B. B. and Leão, J. P. 2013. Replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran in diets for feedlot young bulls. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 42:213-219.

Articles accepted for publication should preferably be cited along with their DOI.
Fukushima, R. S. and Kerley, M. S. 2011. Use of lignin extracted from different plant sources as standards in the spectrophotometric acetyl bromide lignin  method. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemitry, doi: 10.1021/jf104826n (in  press).


If the entity is regarded as the author, the abbreviation should be written first accompanied by the corporate body name written in full.

In the text, the author must cite the method utilized, followed by only the abbreviation of the institution and year of publication.
e.g.: "...were used to determine the mineral content of the samples (method number 924.05; AOAC, 1990)".

Newmann, A. L. and Snapp, R. R. 1997. Beef cattle. 7th ed. John Wiley, New York.

AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. AOAC International, Arlington, VA.

Book chapters

The essential elements are: author (s), year, title and subtitle (if any), followed by the expression "In", and the full reference as a whole. Inform the page range after citing the title of the chapter.

Lindhal, I. L. 1974. Nutrición y alimentación de las cabras. p.425-434. In: Fisiologia digestiva y nutrición de los ruminantes. 3rd ed. Church, D. C., ed. Acríbia, Zaragoza.

Theses and dissertations

It is recommended not to mention theses and dissertations as reference but always to look for articles published in peer-reviewed indexed journals. Exceptionally, if necessary to cite a thesis or dissertation, please indicate the following elements: author, year, title, grade, university and location.

Castro, F. B. 1989. Avaliação do processo de digestão do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar auto-hidrolisado em bovinos. Dissertação (M.Sc.). Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba.

Palhão, M. P. 2010. Induced codominance and double ovulation and new approaches on luteolysis in cattle. Thesis (D.Sc.). Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
Bulletins and reports

The essential elements are: Author, year of publication, title, name of bulletin or report followed by the issue number, then the publisher and the city.

Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). Agriculture Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, D.C., USA.

Conferences, meetings, seminars, etc.

Quote a minimal work published as an abstract, always seeking to reference articles published in journals indexed in full.

Casaccia, J. L.; Pires, C. C. and Restle, J. 1993. Confinamento de bovinos inteiros ou castrados de diferentes grupos genéticos. p.468. In: Anais da 30ª Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia, Rio de Janeiro.

Weiss, W. P. 1999. Energy prediction equations for ruminant feeds. p.176-185. In: Proceedings of the 61th Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. Cornell University, Ithaca.

Article and/or materials in electronic media

In the citation of bibliographic material obtained by the Internet, the author should always try to use signed articles, and also it is up to the author to decide which sources actually have credibility and reliability.

In the case of research consulted online, inform the address, which should be presented between the signs < >, preceded by the words "Available at" and the date of access to the document, preceded by the words "Accessed on:".

Rebollar, P. G. and Blas, C. 2002. Digestión de la soja integral en rumiantes. Available at: <> Accessed on: Oct. 28, 2002.

Quotes on statistical software

The RBZ does not recommend bibliographic citation of software applied to statistical analysis. The use of programs must be informed in the text in the proper section, Material and Methods, including the specific procedure, the name of the software, its version and/or release year.

"... statistical procedures were performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.2.)"

Structure of the article for short communication and technical note

The presentation of the title should be preceded by the indication of the type of manuscript whether it is a short communication or a technical note, which must be centered and bold.

The structures of short communications and technical notes will follow guidelines set up for full-length papers, limited, however, to 14 pages as the maximum tolerated for the manuscript.

Processing and publishing fees applied to communications and technical notes are the same for full-length papers.

Additional guidelines for style and units - Use of percentage

Additional guidelines for style and units - Representation of dispersion

Additional guidelines for style and units - Abbreviation


Guidelines to submit the manuscript

The Manuscript Central™ online system

The journal editorial office of Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia is now using an online system, The Manuscript Central™, to manage the submission and peer review the manuscripts. Manuscript Central™ is a product of the ScholarOne® platform of Thomson Reuters (

Manuscripts are submitted online by accessing either the Journal page ( or by using the portal of the Scientific Electronic Library, SciELO at By doing so, author will find a logo of Manuscript Central™,

User can access the author quick start guide by clicking the link in the top right corner of the page named Get Help Now.

Those who are not registered must proceed by Creating an Account. RBZ allows their users to create their own accounts. You will see a Create Account link in the top right corner of the page. Follow the step-by-step instructions for creating your account. To keep your account information current, use the Edit Account link in the upper right corner (Create Account changes to Edit Account after your account is created). You can also change your User ID and password here.

Please retain your new password information. Manuscript Central will not send your password via email. After completing the registration process, the user will be notified by e-mail and immediately will have the access to the author center and then submit a manuscript, if is the case.

The name and institutions of authors will be asked to be filled in the step 3 of the submission process, named Authors & Institutions; therefore it should not be presented in the body of the manuscript. The corresponding author should provide co-authors' information. Manuscript Central™ will help the corresponding author to check whether an author already exists in the journal's database, just by entering the author's e-mail address and clicking "Find." If the author is found, their information will be automatically filled out.

All information in respect to the manuscript title and ID, the authors’ full names and institutional affiliations must be sent in a separate file, named “Title page”. The institutional affiliations must be presented in descending order (example: Universiy, Department, city, country). Please upload this file in the step 6 (File Upload) as Title page.

The cover letter

It is expected that the corresponding author writes a letter that explains the reasons why the editor would want to publish your manuscript.

See an example of what should go in this letter:

• Inform the title of the manuscript and the last name of the author;
• Primarily it is important to emblazon the relevance of the subject studied in a concise manner.
• If there is any novelty on your work, please report this to the editor. It is also important to stress the originality of the research, if it is the case.
• What is the main finding of the study?
• Additional results but less relevant shall be mentioned then.
• What is the implication of the findings of the study?
• Inform the editor if there is any patent related to your study.
• If any part of this study has already been published, tell the editor that this is the case of preliminary result, or only partial. Also inform the location, the event and the date of such publication. Otherwise, state that this is an original study that has not been published either in part or as a whole.

In the step 5 (Details & Comments) the corresponding author will be asked to upload a file containing the Cover letter.

In the step 6 (File Upload) of the submission process the corresponding author will upload files.

Files that ought to be sent besides the Main body: Figures, Tables, Title page, and Acknowledgments should be sent as separated file and not as part of the body of the manuscript.

The corresponding author will sign the Assurance of Contents and Copyright on behalf of all authors and email the document. Manuscript will not be considered for peer reviewing without this form. The deadline will be set allowing a period of 15 days for delivery of forms after which the editorial office act by withdrawing.


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Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Departamento de Zootecnia
36571-000 Viçosa  MG - Brasil
Tel.: (55 31) 3899-2271
Fax: (55 31) 3899-2270