Types of articles accepted
1) Editorials: Critical and thorough comments written by the editors and/or invited authors with renowned experience in the topic being addressed.
2) Trends: Articles published in this section present criticism or address controversies in a trendy topic. These articles are generally invited, but interested contributors are encouraged to contact the Editor.
3) Original Articles: These articles present original research data and should contain all the necessary relevant information so as to enable the reader to repeat the experiment and evaluate results and conclusions. Original articles should include the following sections: Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and other subtitles, when necessary. The authors should clearly describe, in the Methods section, the existence and use of an informed consent form, as well as approval of the study protocol by the ethics committee of the institution where the study was carried out. These articles should be up to 6,000 words long and should contain no more than six tables or figures. These manuscripts should include a structured abstract with no more than 250 words and subtitles that reflect the text structure.
4) Brief Communications: Original but shorter manuscripts, with preliminary results or results of immediate relevance. These communications should be up to 2,000 words long and should include only one table or figure. The text should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. These articles should contain a structured abstract with no more than 200 words and subtitles that reflect the text structure.
5) Review Articles: Systematic and updated reviews about issues considered to be relevant for the journal’s editorial line. These articles are aimed at reviewing and critically assessing the knowledge available on a specific topic, including comments on other authors’ studies. They should be up to 7,000 words long, and the number of tables and figures should not exceed a total of six. There is not a fixed text structure for these articles, but they should be accompanied by a structured abstract with no more than 250 words and subtitles that reflect the text structure.
6) Case Reports: These articles report on professional experience, involving a unique case or a set of peculiar cases, including brief but relevant comments considering the activity of other professionals in the field. Case reports should be up to 1,500 words long. The author should make all possible efforts to protect the patient’s anonymity, without distorting relevant scientific data. Explicit reference should be made to the existence of an informed consent form signed by the patient agreeing with the publication (both in print and electronically), or else the reason for its absence should be clarified. Case reports should include a structured abstract with no more than 200 words and the subtitles Objective, Case description and Comments.
7) Letters to the Editors: These include opinions and comments on material published in the journal, its editorial line, topics of scientific relevance, clinical observations, or new data. Texts should be brief, with no more than 500 words. Only one table and one figure are allowed.
8) Book Reviews: Critical review of recently published books, including a commented synopsis and opinions so as to provide an overview of the publication and guide the reader regarding its characteristics and potential uses. These texts should be brief and written by experts in the field. Complete bibliographic information on the book should be provided before the text, and the name, academic degree and affiliation of the author submitting the book review should be included following the text.
Preparing the manuscript
1. General principles
The text of articles reporting original research should be divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections, but subheadings within these sections may be needed to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats. All pages should be numbered. Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.
2. Authorship and Acknowledgments
The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following four criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process.
All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. It is the collective responsibility of the authors to determine that all people named as authors meet all four criteria. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged.
The Acknowledgments section should disclose any sources of financial support received by the study. In addition, this section should acknowledge people, groups or institutions which have made important contributions to the study but do not meet the criteria for authorship (e.g., technical assistance, statistical analysis, writing, etc.).
3. Reporting guidelines
Reporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Authors are encouraged to follow these guidelines. Moreover, authors of review manuscripts are encouraged to describe the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data; this is mandatory for systematic reviews.
Randomized clinical trials. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy will only accept for publication clinical trials that have been registered in Clinical Trials Registries. The registration number will be disclosed at the end of the abstract. In the text, whenever a registration number is available, authors should list that number the first time they use a trial acronym to refer to the trial they are reporting or to other trials that they mention in the manuscript.
4. Manuscript sections
The following are general requirements for reporting within sections of all study designs and manuscript formats.
General information about an article and its authors is presented on a manuscript title page. This page should include the article title, author information, any disclaimers, sources of support, word count, and the number of tables and figures. Detailed instructions are provided below.
1) Article title. The title should provide a distilled description of the complete article and should include information that, along with the Abstract, will make electronic retrieval of the article sensitive and specific. Whenever deemed appropriate, information about the study design should be a part of the title (particularly important for randomized trials and systematic reviews and meta-analyses).
2) A short title of no more than 50 characters should be provided.
3) Author information should include full names typed exactly as they should appear in print, emails, and main affiliation(s). The name of the department(s) and institution(s) or organization(s) where the work should be attributed should be specified.
4) The corresponding author should be identified, and a full mailing address (including ZIP code), telephone and fax numbers, and an email address should be provided.
5) Source(s) of support. These include grants, equipment, drugs, and/or other support that facilitated conduct of the work described in the article or the writing of the article itself. Any relevant role of the funder in the study should be disclaimed. Studies that have received no financial support should indicate so.
6) Conflict of interest declaration. Conflict of interest information for each author needs to be part of the manuscript. A general statement should be included in the title page, attesting to the existence (or non-existence) of any conflicts of interest concerning the publication of the article. In addition, all authors are required to fill and submit an ICMJE conflict of interest disclosure form (one for each author) at the time of submission.
7) Articles based on academic theses or dissertations, or previously presented at scientific meetings, should disclose this on the title page. Please provide as many details as possible (e.g., the title of the original work, year, name of institution/venue/event, etc.).
8) A word count for the paper's text, excluding the abstract, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references, should be provided.
9) The date of the last literature review performed by the authors on the manuscript topic should be informed.
Abstracts should be no longer than 250 words. The abstract should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study's purpose, basic procedures (selection of study participants, settings, measurements, analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical and clinical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations, note important limitations, and not overinterpret findings. Because abstracts are the only substantive portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the only portion many readers read, authors need to ensure that they accurately reflect the content of the article. For clinical trials, the clinical trial registration number will be disclosed at the end of the abstract.
Following the abstract, three to six keywords should be provided in accordance with the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html). If possible, a Brazilian Portuguese translation of the abstract (resumo) and keywords (palavras-chave) should also be provided; in this case, the palavras-chave should be compliant with the DeCS database (DeCS – Descritores em Ciências da Saúde, http://decs.bvs.br/).
Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as p values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and symbols. Specify the statistical software package and version used. Distinguish prespecified from exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses.
For additional guidance on how to prepare each section of the main text, please refer to the Recommendations.
Authors should provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible. Although references to review articles can be an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature, review articles do not always reflect original work accurately. On the other hand, extensive lists of references to original work on a topic can use excessive space. Do not use conference abstracts as references; they can be cited in the text, in parentheses. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press.” Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the authors.
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by superscript Arabic numerals. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.
References should be listed at the end of the article according to their order of citation in the text and should comply with the style set forth in the NLM's International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals: Sample References webpage. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). These resources are regularly updated as new media develop, and currently include guidance for print documents; unpublished material; audio and visual media; material on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; and material on the Internet. Please consult published issues for style details. An EndNote style can also be downloaded from the Instructions & Forms section at our submission web site (http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/trends-scielo).
Journal article example: Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
Tables should complement, not duplicate information contained in the text. They should not exceed 30,000 characters (including spaces); larger tables may be considered if the authors justify their need. Tables should not be submitted as images, but should be created using specific word processor tools. Do not underline or draw lines inside the tables. Do not insert spaces to separate columns. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text using Arabic numerals and supply a title for each.
Titles in tables should be short but self-explanatory, containing information that allows readers to understand the table's content without having to go back to the text. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use symbols to explain information if needed (*, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, etc.). Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.
Additional tables containing backup data too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication in the electronic version of the journal, as supplementary online material, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An appropriate statement should be added to the text to inform readers that this additional information is available and where it is located. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers.
Digital images of manuscript illustrations (all referred to as “Figure”) should be submitted in a suitable format for print publication (preferably .tif, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi). Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends, not on the illustrations themselves.
Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce it. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain. Photographs should not allow patient identification.
In the manuscript, legends for illustrations should be on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend.
5. Units of Measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury.
6. Abbreviations and symbols
Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.
Drugs should be referred to by their generic name only.