ISSN 1984-4689 online version



Scope and policies

Scope. ZOOLOGIA, the scientific journal of the Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (SBZ), publishes original articles on Zoology authored by both members and non-members of the Society. Manuscripts should have a scientific character. A priori, the following types of articles are not acceptable for publication: simple occurrence notes, new records (e.g. geographical, host), notes on distribution, case studies, species lists, or merely descriptive studies, unless very well qualified by the authors. Justifications should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief before submission. Short communications are acceptable, whereas review articles will be considered by direct invitation. Manuscripts will be analyzed by at least two ad hoc Reviewers, and the decision to accept or reject the manuscript will be based on the recommendations by the Associate Editor and the ad hoc Reviewers.

Responsibility. For a manuscript to be submitted to ZOOLOGIA, it is required that: 1) all authors approved the submission; 2) the results or opinions therein are original; 3) the manuscript has not been published before, is not currently under review by other journal, and will not be submitted elsewhere unless it was rejected by ZOOLOGIA or removed from the reviewing process by written notification to the Editor-in-Chief; 4) it was prepared according to the Instructions to Authors; 5) if accepted for publication and published, the article or part of it will not be published elsewhere unless there is written permission by the Editor-in-chief; 6) the reproduction and use of articles published in ZOOLOGIA is allowed for demonstrated educational and non-commercial purposes. All remaining uses require agreement and fees will be applied when appropriate; 7) the publication and page charges and review fees are agreed upon by the authors; 8) the authors are entirely responsible for the scientific and grammatical content of the article; 9) the authors agree with additional fees whenever a revision of the English grammar is deemed necessary.

Language. The manuscript should be written exclusively in English. To avoid delays in publication, we suggest that, before it is submitted, the manuscript should be reviewed by a specialist in the field who is a native speaker. After recommendation for publication, the manuscript will be reviewed and a final revision of the language might be requested.

Sections. Systematics and evolution, Taxonomy and nomenclature, Biogeography, Morphology and physiology, Biology, Ecology, Symbiosis, Conservation, Behavior, Genetics, Applied Zoology, and fisheries.

Fees. The submission of manuscripts is free of charges. However, when the manuscript is accepted for publication fees may be applied as follows explained. Members of the Brazilian Society of Zoology publishing alone or sponsoring a non-member co-author (in a 1:1 or 1:2 member/non-member ratio) are not required to pay page charges. However, whenever the proportion of members is less than that, page charges apply as indicated: up to 1:2 = no fees, 1:3 = R$ 30,00, and 1:4 and up (and if all are non-members) = R$ 60,00 per published page.

Submission. Only online submissions will be accepted, through the following address: Using this submission system, you can submit the manuscript and monitor its status during the editorial process, ensuring speed and privacy in the manuscript submission and accelerating the review process.The manuscript should be prepared according to the Instructions to Authors.

When submitting a manuscript to the journal, the authors should acknowledge that, if accepted for publication, all content of the journal, except where identified, will be licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type BY. The journal will not deny legitimate request by the authors to reproduce their work.

For more information on the format and style of the journal, please check a recent issue of the journal or its website at Additional information can be obtained from the editors or through the email


Form and preparation of manuscripts


ZOOLOGIA, the journal of the Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (SBZ), publishes original scientific articles on Zoology, authored by members and non-members of the Society. Members of the SBZ publish free of charge, whereas non-members are required to pay page charges, as indicated in the updated price list published in the Society’s homepage (

Manuscripts should be prepared solely in American English. Manuscript submission to ZOOLOGIA is available online only at The system is user-friendly and allows authors to monitor the submission process. If you have any difficult with the system, there are many tutorials at the SBZool site that can help you. All documents should be prepared with a word-processor software (preferably MS Word or compatible).

ZOOLOGIA refrains from publishing simple occurrence notes, new records (e.g. geographic, host), distribution notes, case studies based on observation of few specimens, list of species, and similar purely descriptive studies, unless well justified by the authors. Justification should be sent prior submission to the Managing Editor.


Manuscripts are received by ZOOLOGIA with the understanding that:

– all authors have approved submission;
– the results or ideas contained therein are original;
– the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere and will not be submitted elsewhere unless rejected by ZOOLOGIA or withdrawn by written notification to the Managing Editor;
– the manuscript has been prepared according to these instructions to authors;
– if accepted for publication and published, the article, or portions thereof, will not be published elsewhere unless consent is obtained in writing from the Managing Editor;
– reproduction and fair use of articles in ZOOLOGIA are permitted provided the intended use is for nonprofit educational purposes. All other use requires consent and fees where appropriate;
– the obligation for page charges and text revision fees is accepted by the authors.
– the authors are fully responsible for the scientific content and grammar of the article.
– the authors agree with additional fees associated with English revisions, if necessary.


Articles: original articles on all areas of the Zoology.

Short Communications: this form of publication represents succinct, definitive information (as opposed to preliminary results) that does not lend itself to inclusion in a typical, more comprehensive article. A new or modified technique may be presented as a research note only if the technique is not to be used in ongoing studies. Ordinarily, techniques are incorporated into the materials and methods section of a regular article.

Review articles: only invited reviews are published. Unsolicited reviews should not be submitted, but topics may be suggested to the editor or members of the editorial board.

Opinion: letters to the editor, comments on other publications and ideas, overviews and other texts that are characterized as the opinion of one or a group of scientists.

Book reviews: books having a broad interest to the membership of the Society are reviewed by invitation.
Short biography/Obituary: biography and/or obituary of important zoologists that significantly contributed with the knowledge on animal sciences.


The text must be left-justified and the pages should be numbered. Use Times New Roman font, 12 points. The front page must include: 1) the title of the article including the name(s) of the higher taxonomic category(ies) of the animals treated; 2) the name(s) of the author(s) with their professional affiliation, only for correspondence purposes, additional affiliations should be included in the Acknowledgments section; 3) name of the Corresponding Author with complete addresses for correspondence, including e-mail; 4) an abstract in English; 5) up to five key words in English, in alphabetical order and different of those words used in the title. The total information on the items 1 to 5 cannot exceed 3,500 characters including the spaces, except if authorized by the Managing Editor.

Literature citations should be typed in small capitals, as follows: SMITH (1990), (SMITH 1990), SMITH (1990: 128), SMITH (1990, 1995), LENT & JURBERG (1965), GUIMARÃES et al. (1983). Articles by the same author or sequences of citations should be in chronological order.

Only the names of genera and species should be typed in italics. The first citation of an animal or plant taxon in the text must be accompanied by its author’s name in full, the date (of plants, if possible) and the family.

The manuscript of scientific articles should be organized as indicated below. Other major sections and subdivisions are possible but the Managing Editor and the Editorial Committee should accept the proposed subdivision.

Articles and Invited Review

Title. Avoid verbiage such as “preliminary studies on...”, “aspects of...”, and “biology or ecology of...”. Do not use author and date citations with scientific names in the title. When taxon names are mentioned in the title, it should be followed by the indication of higher categories in parenthesis.

Abstract. The abstract should be factual (as opposed to indicative) and should outline the objective, methods used, conclusions, and significance of the study. Text of the abstract should not be subdivided nor should it contain literature citations (exceptions are analyzed by the editors). It should contain a single paragraph.

Key words. Up to five key words in English, in alphabe­tical order and different of those words used in the title, separated by semicolon. Avoid using composite key words.

Introduction. The introduction should establish the context of the paper by stating the general field of interest, presenting findings of others that will be challenged or expanded, and specifying the specific question to be addressed. Accounts of previous work should be limited to the minimum information necessary to give an appropriate perspective. The introduction should not be subdivided.

Material and Methods. This section should be short and concise. It should give sufficient information to permit repetition of the study by others. Previously published or standard techniques must be referenced, but not detailed. If the material and methods section is short, it should not be subdivided. Avoid extensive division into paragraphs and sub items.
Results. This section should contain a concise account of the new information. Tables and figures are to be used as appropriate, but information presented in them should not be repeated in the text. Avoid detailing methods and interpreting results in this section.

Taxonomic papers have a distinct style that must be adhered to in preparing a manuscript. In taxonomic papers the results section is to be replaced by a section headed TAXONOMY, beginning at the left-hand margin. The description or redescription of species, in a single paragraph, is accompanied by a taxonomic summary section. The taxonomic summary section comprises a listing of site, locality and specimens deposited (with respective collection numbers). The appropriate citation sequence and format include: COUNTRY, Province or State: City or County (minor area as locality, neighborhood, and others, lat long, altitude, all in parenthesis), number of specimens, sex, collection date, collector followed by the word leg., collection number. This is a general guideline that should be adapted to different situations and groups. Several examples can be found in the previous numbers of the ZOOLOGIA. The taxonomic summary is followed by a remarks section (Remarks). The Remarks section replaces the discussion of other articles and gives comparisons to similar taxa. Museum accession numbers for appropriate type material (new taxa) and for voucher specimens (surveys) are required. Type specimens, especially holotypes (syntypes, cotypes), paratypes, and a representative sample of voucher specimens, should not be maintained in a private collection; deposition of specimens in established collections is required. Appropriate photographic material should be deposited if necessary. Frozen tissues must also include accession numbers if deposited in a museum/collection.

Discussion. An interpretation and explanation of the relationship of the results to existing knowledge should appear in the discussion section. Emphasis should be placed on the important new findings, and new hypotheses should be identified clearly. Conclusions must be supported by fact or data. Subdivisions are possible. A section labeled Conclusion is not allowed in ZOOLOGIA.

Results and Discussion. The combination of Results and of Discussion into a single section should be avoided. It will ONLY be acceptable if well justified and when the separation is clearly impossible.

Acknowledgments. These should be concise. Ethics require that colleagues be consulted before being acknowledged for their assistance in the study.

Literature Cited. Citations are arranged alphabetically. All references cited in the text must appear in the literature cited section and all items in this section must be cited in the text. Citation of unpublished studies or reports is not permitted, i.e., a volume and page number must be available for serials and a city, publisher, and full pagination for books. Abstracts not subjected to peer review may not be cited. Work may be cited as “in press” only exceptionally and until the copyediting stage when the reference should be completed or suppressed if not published by then. If absolutely necessary, a statement may be documented in the text of the paper by “pers. comm.”, providing the person cited is aware of the manuscript and the reference to his person therein. Personal communications do not appear in the Literature Cited section. The references cited in the text should be listed at the end of the manuscript, according to the examples below. The title of each periodical must be complete, without abbreviations.

Online Supplementary Material. Tables, movies, photographs, documents, and any other electronic supplementary material may be associated to the manuscript in the moment of submission and, upon approval and publication, will be made available in the site of the journal for free access by the readers.


Always add DOI whenever available (as shown below).

GUEDES D.; YOUNG RJ, STRIER KB(2008) Energetic costs of reproduction in female northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Primates: Platyrrinhi: Atelidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25(4): 587-593. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752008000400002

LENT H, JURBERG J (1980) Comentários sobre a genitália externa masculina em Triatoma Laporte, 1832 (Hemiptera, Redu-viidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 40(3): 611-627.

SMITH D.R (1990) A synopsis of the sawflies (Hymenoptera, Symphita) of America South of the United States: Pergidae. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 34(1): 7-200.


HENNIG W (1981) Insect phylogeny. Chichester, John Wiley, XX+514p.

Chapter of book

HULL, D.L. (1974) Darwinism and historiography, p. 388-402. In:  GLICK TF  (Ed.). The comparative reception of Darwinism. Austin, University of Texas, IV+505p.

Electronic publications

MARINONI L. (1997) Sciomyzidae. In: SOLIS A (Ed.). Las Familias de insectos de Costa Rica. Available online at: [Accessed: DD/MM/YYYY].

Illustrations. Photographs, line drawings, graphs, and maps should be termed figures. Photos must be clear and have good contrast. Please, organize, whenever possible, line drawings (including graphics, if it is the case) as plates of figures or pictures considering the size of the page of the journal. The size of an illustration, if necessary, should be indicated using horizontal or vertical scale bars (never as a magnification in the caption). Each figure must be numbered in Arabic numerals in the lower right corner. When preparing the illustrations, authors should bear in mind that the journal has a matter size of 17.0 by 21.0 cm and a column size of 8,3 by 21,0 cm including space for captions. Figures must be referred to in numerical sequence in the text; indicate the approximate placement of each figure in the margins of the manuscript. Half-tone illustrations must be saved and sent as separate TIFF files with LZW compression; vectorial images (maps, graphics, line drawings, diagrams) should be preferentially provided as vectors in Adobe Illustrator (AI), Corel Draw (CDR) or EPS formats. The required final resolution is 600 dpi for color photos and 600 dpi for half-tone photos or line art. The illustration files should be uploaded to the submission. Upload is limited to 10 MB per file. Color figures can be published if the additional costs are covered by the authors. Alternatively, the authors may choose to publish black and white illustrations in the paper version of the manuscript and retain the color versions in the electronic version at no additional cost. Captions of the figures should be typewritten right after the Literature Cited. Use a separate paragraph for the caption of each figure or group of figures. Please, note previous publications and follow the pattern adopted for captions.

Tables. Tables should be generated by the table function of the word-processing program being used, numbered in Arabic numerals and inserted after the list of figures captions. Do not use paragraph marks inside of table cells. Legends are provided immediately before each respective table.

Short Communications

Manuscripts are to be organized in a format similar to original articles with the following modifications.

Text. The text of a research note (i.e. Introduction + Material and Methods + Discussion) is written directly, without sections. Acknowledgments may be given, without heading, as the last paragraph. Literature is cited in the text as described for articles.

Literature cited, figures captions, tables, and figures. These items are in the form and sequence described for articles.


Title. Simply provide a title for the opinion.

Text. Should be concise, objective and contain no figures (unless absolutely necessary).

Name and address of author. This information follows the text or, if present, the literature cited section. The reviewer’s name should be in bold type.

Book reviews

Title. Give the title of the book, cited as indicated below:

Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Man, by DUBEY JP & BEATTIE CP (1988) Boca Raton, CRC Press, 220p.
The words “edited by” are substituted for “by” when appropriate.

Text. The text usually is not subdivided. If literature must be cited, a headed literature cited section follows the text in the style described for articles. Figures and tables should not be used.

Name and address of author. This information follows the text or, if present, the literature cited section. The reviewer’s name should be in bold type.

Short biographies/Obituaries

Title. Give the name of the person for which this biography/obituary is being written in boldface, followed by the date of birth and death (if it is the case), in parenthesis: Lauro Travassos (1890-1970) Text. The text usually is not subdivided. If literature must be cited, a headed literature cited section follows the text in the style described for articles. Figures and tables should not be used.

Name and address of author. This information follows the text or, if present, the literature cited section. The reviewer’s name should be in bold type.


Manuscripts submitted to ZOOLOGIA will be initially evaluated by the Administrative Editor for adequacy (for the scope) and formatting. A first evaluation of the English (if it is the case) is performed also at this moment by the Language Editor. Manus­cripts with problems may be returned to the authors. The Adminstrator forwards the manuscript to the Managing Editor which will the adequate Section Editor. The Section Editor sends the manuscript to Reviewers. The copies of the manuscript with the Reviewers’ comments and the Section Editor’s decision will be returned to the corresponding author for evaluation. The authors have up to 30 days to respond or comply with the revision and return revised version of the manuscript to the adequate area of the electronic system. Once approved, the original manuscript, Reviewers comments, Section Editor’s comments, together with the corrected version and the respective figure files, properly identified, are returned to the Managing Editor. Exceptionally, the Managing Editor may, after consultation with the Section Editors, modify the recommendation of the Reviewers and Section Editor, based on adequate justification. Later changes or additions to the manuscript may be rejected. A copyedited version of the manuscript is sent to authors for approval. This version represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text, as the next stage is restricted to typographic and formatting corrections. Electronic proofs will be submitted to the corresponding author prior to publication for approval.


The corresponding author will receive an electronic reprint (in PDF format) after publication. Authors may print and distribute hardcopies of their article on demand. Authors may also send the electronic file to individuals, as one would send a printed reprint. However, we would appreciate if you refrain from distributing PDF files via discussion groups and bulk-mail systems. It is important for ZOOLOGIA that users access the journal homepage at for statistical purposes. By doing this, you are helping increase the indexes of quality of ZOOLOGIA.


Specimens including types (where appropriate) or vouchers that have received authoritative identification are the foundations for all biological studies from taxonomy and systematics to ecology and biogeography and including all aspects of biodiversity survey and inventory. Representative individuals (or parts of entire specimens that retain diagnostic information for identification) used in any study reported in the Journal should be deposited in a recognized biological collection, so that such are freely available to the research community. Vouchers should also be deposited to substantiate records of sequence data in all molecular studies (e.g., phylogeography and diagnostics), and ideally the physical voucher should be the remaining portion(s) of individual specimens that have been processed for DNA extraction. It is recommended that such specimens not be limited to the holotype and a limited number of paratypes in descriptions, or relatively few specimens derived from survey or from ecological studies. It is a requirement of ZOOLOGIA that all manuscripts must document the collection(s) where the specimens (types or vouchers) are deposited along with their respective catalogue or accession numbers in those repositories.


Submission of manuscripts

Only online submissions will be accepted, through the following address:


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