Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0001-376520180006&lang=en vol. 90 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The Exponentiated Power Generalized Weibull: Properties and Applications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602553&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We propose a new lifetime model called the exponentiated power generalized Weibull (EPGW) distribution, which is obtained from the exponentiated family applied to the power generalized Weibull (PGW) distribution. It can also be derived from a power transform on an exponentiated Nadarajah-Haghighi random variable. Since several structural properties of the PGW distribution have not been studied, they can be obtained from those of the EPGW distribution. The model is very flexible for modeling all common types of hazard rate functions. It is a very competitive model to the well-known Weibull, exponentiated exponential and exponentiated Weibull distributions, among others. We also give a physical motivation for the new distribution if the power parameter is an integer. Some of its mathematical properties are investigated. We discuss estimation of the model parameters by maximum likelihood and provide two applications to real data. A simulation study is performed in order to examine the accuracy of the maximum likelihood estimators of the model parameters. <![CDATA[The Lindley Weibull Distribution: properties and applications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602579&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We introduce a new three-parameter lifetime model called the Lindley Weibull distribution, which accommodates unimodal and bathtub, and a broad variety of monotone failure rates. We provide a comprehensive account of some of its mathematical properties including ordinary and incomplete moments, quantile and generating functions and order statistics. The new density function can be expressed as a linear combination of exponentiated Weibull densities. The maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the model parameters. We present simulation results to assess the performance of the maximum likelihood estimation. We prove empirically the importance and flexibility of the new distribution in modeling two data sets. <![CDATA[The phase portrait of the Hamiltonian system associated to a Pinchuk map]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602599&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In this paper we describe the global phase portrait of the Hamiltonian system associated to a Pinchuk map in the Poincaré disc. In particular, we prove that this phase portrait has 15 separatrices, five of them singular points, and 7 canonical regions, six of them of type strip and one annular. <![CDATA[A weighted negative binomial Lindley distribution with applications to dispersed data]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602617&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A new discrete distribution is introduced. The distribution involves the negative binomial and size biased negative binomial distributions as sub-models among others and it is a weighted version of the two parameter discrete Lindley distribution. The distribution has various interesting properties, such as bathtub shape hazard function along with increasing/decreasing hazard rate, positive skewness, symmetric behavior, and over- and under-dispersion. Moreover, it is self decomposable and infinitely divisible, which makes the proposed distribution well suited for count data modeling. Other properties are investigated, including probability generating function, ordinary moments, factorial moments, negative moments and characterization. Estimation of the model parameters is investigated by the methods of moments and maximum likelihood, and a performance of the estimators is assessed by a simulation study. The credibility of the proposed distribution over the negative binomial, Poisson and generalized Poisson distributions is discussed based on some test statistics and four real data sets. <![CDATA[Objective and subjective prior distributions for the Gompertz distribution]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602643&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This paper takes into account the estimation for the unknown parameters of the Gompertz distribution from the frequentist and Bayesian view points by using both objective and subjective prior distributions. We first derive non-informative priors using formal rules, such as Jefreys prior and maximal data information prior (MDIP), based on Fisher information and entropy, respectively. We also propose a prior distribution that incorporate the expert’s knowledge about the issue under study. In this regard, we assume two independent gamma distributions for the parameters of the Gompertz distribution and it is employed for an elicitation process based on the predictive prior distribution by using Laplace approximation for integrals. We suppose that an expert can summarize his/her knowledge about the reliability of an item through statements of percentiles. We also present a set of priors proposed by Singpurwala assuming a truncated normal prior distribution for the median of distribution and a gamma prior for the scale parameter. Next, we investigate the effects of these priors in the posterior estimates of the parameters of the Gompertz distribution. The Bayes estimates are computed using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. An extensive numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of the maximum likelihood estimates and Bayes estimates based on bias, mean-squared error and coverage probabilities. Finally, a real data set have been analyzed for illustrative purposes. <![CDATA[A new characterization of the Euclidean sphere]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602663&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In this paper, we obtain a new characterization of the Euclidean sphere as a compact Riemannian manifold with constant scalar curvature carrying a nontrivial conformal vector field which is also conformal Ricci vector field. <![CDATA[Chemical composition and evaluation of antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil from leaves of Cryptocarya aschersoniana Mez. (Lauraceae Juss.)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602671&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, which affects around two million people worldwide. One major drawback in the treatment of leishmaniasis is the emergence of resistance to current chemotherapeutics. Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a major source of natural organic compounds. In this study, the leaf essential oil of Cryptocarya aschersoniana was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The essential oil of these species was predominantly constituted by monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.8%). Limonene (42.3%), linalool (9.7%) and nerolidol (8.6%) were the main constituents in the oil of C. aschersoniana. The in vitro activity of the oil was evaluated against the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The essential oil of C. aschersoniana showed high activity against L. amazonensis promastigote forms (IC50 = 4.46 µg/mL), however, it also demonstrated a relatively high cytotoxicity on mouse peritoneal macrophages (CC50 = 7.71 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and the leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the leaf essential oil of C. aschersoniana. <![CDATA[Silver and gold nanoparticles from tannic acid: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602679&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Gold (Au0) and silver (Ag0) nanoparticles were synthesized using tannic acid (TA) as both reducing and stabilizer. Nanoparticles formation, stability, and interaction with TA were compared to citrate-coated nanoparticles and monitored by UV-Vis, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. TA coating resulted in a red-shift and broadening of bands compared to citrate-coated nanoparticles (NPs-Cit). AgNPs-TA and AuNPs-TA are negatively charged with mean surface charge of -29.4 mV and -29.6 mV, respectively. TEM images showed polydispersety of AuNPs-TA (6-42 nm) and aggregation of AgNPs-TA (12-71 nm). In vitro assays of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes showed an increment of antileishmanial activity for AgNPs-TA in relation to AgNPs-Cit, while AuNPs-TA and AuNPs-Cit did not affect the protozoas at tested concentrations. CC50 value for AgNPs-TA suggested that TA attenuates nanosilver toxicity comparatively to its precursor (Ag+). This investigation can contribute to the development of new, green, and fast produced drugs aiming at leishmaniasis treatment. <![CDATA[Essential oils from <em>Piper aduncum</em> inflorescences and leaves: chemical composition and antifungal activity against <em>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602691&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Even though essential oils from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have different biological activities, little is known about their application to agricultural areas. White mold is a plant disease caused by the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which needs to be controlled by alternative measures. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of essential oils from P. aduncum leaves (PL-EO) and inflorescences (PI-EO) on the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. Essential oils from P. aduncum were obtained by hydrodistillation by a Clevenger-type apparatus while their chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Piperitone (23.4 %), myristicin (12.4 %), terpinen-4-ol (12.3 %), β-caryophyllene (7.2 %), α-humulene (6.9 %), germacrene-D (6.9 %) and dillapiol (6.3 %) were the main constituents found in oils from P. aduncum. The in vitro antifungal activity showed that PI-EO dose above 30 µL inhibited mycelial growth in 100 %, whereas PL-EO at 50 µL inhibited it in 98.74 %. This is the first report of the chemical composition of PI-EO and results suggest that the essential oils under evaluation have high potential to control the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. <![CDATA[Seasonal variations, metal distribution and water quality in the Todos os Santos River, Southeastern Brazil: a multivariate analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602701&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In aquatic habitats, metal contamination from natural and anthropogenic sources continues to pose a concern for human and environmental health. Thus, it is important to complete monitoring studies to assess patterns and the extent of metal contamination in these ecosystems. The purpose of this work was to determine the concentrations of 31 chemical elements and water quality parameters of the Todos os Santos River located in the Mucuri Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A multivariate statistical analysis was used to determine any seasonal and spatial patterns from the data. Results demonstrated that metals including Al, Fe, and Ni exceeded Brazilian and international guidelines nutrients as P also exceed water quality standards. Principal components analysis indicated distinct geographical and seasonal patterns for multiple elements with hierarchical cluster analysis confirming the observed spatial patterns of contamination in the Todos os Santos River. <![CDATA[Environmental diagnosis of metals in streams near sugarcane cultivation areas: current and historical analysis in the central region of the State of São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602711&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In Brazil, innumerable regions of native landcover have been removed and replaced by agricultural cultivation, especially of sugarcane. In this culture, the application of fertilizers containing metals has caused impacts on the water resources causing contamination of stream sediments and occasioning bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic invertebrates. In the year of 2006, an environmental diagnosis of metals in sediments of streams located near sugarcane cultivation areas and in streams located in preserved areas, was published. That study pointed to high concentrations of metals in stream sediments in agricultural areas. These streams have been monitored over the last 10 years conducting analyses of metals and monitoring possible changes in land use. In the present paper, a historical comparison of metals contamination in the sediments of the same streams is conducted, aiming to present a status of 10 years later, analyzing 5 metals (Zn, Cd, Mn, Cr and Fe) found in the sediments of 8 streams, five located in areas of sugarcane cultivation and three located in preserved areas. This study also shows that there is higher concentration of metals in the sediments of streams near sugarcane cultivation than in preserved areas. The temporal historical evaluation showed high concentrations of Cd in 2016 when compared to the year 2006 for streams near sugarcane cultivation. <![CDATA[Monitoring vegetation coverage in Tongren from 2000 to 2016 based on Landsat7 ETM+ and Landsat8]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602721&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Vegetation coverage is an important indicator in regional ecological environment monitoring and plays a key role in its quality assessment. We consider Landsat7 ETM+ in 2000 and Landsat8 in 2016 as data sources using a different time phase partial image substitution method to eliminate cloud effects and an NDVI dimidiate pixel model to invert the vegetation coverage of the two time phases. We further classify them into five grades, provide statistics and analyse the areas of different grades at different time periods, while monitoring the spatial evolution of vegetation coverage over the past 16 years in Tongren. Experimental results showed that: (1) the different time phase partial image substitution method could reduce the influence of clouds on vegetation extraction; (2) in Tongren, the vegetation coverage area was decreased from 17,300.1 km2 to 17,224.8 km2 (i.e. decreased by 75.3 km2); (3) the areas of grade I and V increased by 0.42% and 15.08%, respectively, whereas the areas of grade II, III and IV decreased by 3.15%, 6.98% and 5.37%, respectively, which indicates that most of the area containing lower amount of vegetation gradually altered into an area containing a higher coverage of vegetation, whereas a few areas became bare land; and (4) the vegetation areas decreased due to expansion of cities and construction of dams, while vegetation increased due to the cultivation of crops and trees. Research shows that the overall evolution of vegetation coverage in Tongren is considerably good. However, while undertaking future development in the mountainous Karst region, one should be aware of the land’s intensive use and environmental protection. <![CDATA[<strong>Biochemical characterization of the nuclease StoNurA from the hyperthermophilic archaeon</strong> Sulfolobus tokodaii]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602731&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The DNA nuclease gene ST2109 has been cloned from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein StoNurA has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that StoNurA exhibited DNA binding and 5’–3’ exonuclease activities towards ssDNA and dsDNA. The temperature and pH optima of StoNurA were determined to be 65 °C and 8.0, respectively. The activity of StoNurA was found to be dependent of Mn2+, and its half-life of heat inactivation at 100 °C was 5 min. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that StoNurA could form dimers in solution. Pull-down assays also showed that StoNurA physically interacted with a DNA helicase (StoHerA). Our data suggest that NurA may play a key functional role in the processing of DNA recombinational repair. <![CDATA[Simulation of a surface spill of different diesel/biodiesel mixtures in an ultisol, using natural attenuation and bioaugmentation/biostimulation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602741&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Accidents caused by leaks and/or spills on soils need to be addressed. Natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation can be useful bioremediation strategies for decontamination processes in soils of diesel/biodiesel mixtures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degradation rate of the different fuels (B0, B20 and B100) in an ultisol under natural attenuation and biostimulation/bioaugmentation during 60 days of incubation in a controlled microcosm simulating a surface spill over soil. The degradation of different diesel/biodiesel mixtures was monitored for up to 60 days by dehydrogenase activity, respirometry by CO2 release, the most probable number of heterotrophic and degrading microorganism and gas chromatography. The bacterial inoculum employed for biostimulation/bioaugmentation strategy consisted of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The two bioremediation strategies have showed great degradation rates. The natural attenuation was effective for B0 and B20 treatments. The addition of the bacterial consortium and macronutrients contributed to the increased degradation of pure biodiesel in relation to natural attenuation, with higher rates for CO2 release, enzymatic and degrading activity. It is suggested that the bacterial consortium has proven effective for presenting significant values for such parameters until the end of the 60-day incubation period. <![CDATA[<em>Solaropsis brasiliana</em>, anatomy, range extension and its phylogenetic position within Pleurodontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602753&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A detailed anatomical revision on Solaropsis brasiliana (Deshayes 1832) has been carried out. New characters on shell, anatomy of soft parts, and a review of the genus distribution in South America, as well as clarification on S. brasiliana distributional area are provided in the present study. Solaropsis brasiliana is diagnosed by its globose, solid, and hirsute shell, with periphery obsoletely angular, bursa copulatrix with a thick, long diverticulum, a thick, long flagellum and a penis retractor muscle forked, with the vas deferens passing through it. This compiled information was used to test the phylogenetic position of S. brasiliana within South American Pleurodontidae through a cladistics analysis. In the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained, S. brasiliana is sister group of S. gibboni (Pfeiffer 1846) and the monophyly of the genus Solaropsis Beck is also supported. Here, we sustain that the distribution of S. brasiliana is restricted to Brazil, inhabiting the States of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais. <![CDATA[Medicinal Plants: versatility and concordance of use in the caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602767&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aims to investigate the diversity of native medicinal plants in a caatinga area, verifying the versatility of species and concordance of use among the informants, in the Angico de Cima community, in the city of Aurora, Ceará, Brazil. Ethnobotanical data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with key informants, adopting the snowball technique. The Relative Importance (RI) and Consensus Factor among Informants (ICF) were analyzed to indicate the most versatile species with the highest agreement of use, respectively. Within the 35 registered native species, eight presented great versatility, with a RI&gt; 1, standing out Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (1.86) and Heliotropium indicum (L.) Lehm (1.67). The 60 therapeutic indications were grouped into 13 body systems categories, of which Genitourinary System Disorder and Nervous, had the highest agreement of use with ICF from 0.8, each. Some species, such as Heliotropium indicum, have a high RI, are scarcely indicated for therapeutic activities in caatinga and require studies that prove their medicinal properties. <![CDATA[New data on the Late Cretaceous lizard Dicothodon bajaensis (Squamata, Borioteiioidea) from Baja California, Mexico reveals an unusual tooth replacement pattern in squamates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602781&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Borioteiioids comprise an extinct family of squamates that inhabited the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous and were characterized by varying patterns of tooth replacement and dental morphology. Understanding the evolution of these tooth replacement patterns has, however, been largely hampered by an extremely fragmentary fossil record. Here we present new information on Dicothodon bajaensisfrom the Campanian of Baja California (Mexico), so far known only from isolated teeth and jaw fragments. Among abundant new materials there are ten maxillae and five dentaries belonging to distinct ontogenetic stages. Whereas juveniles display active tooth replacement, older specimens show no evidence of replacement. Dicothodon bajaensis is therefore inferred to have had arrested tooth replacement later in ontogeny. This provides the first evidence of cessation of tooth replacement during late ontogeny in lizards (living or extinct). This replacement type is also an evolutionary intermediate between the typical lizard replacement pattern, observed in some borioteiioids (e.g., Bicuspidon) and the complete absence of tooth replacement since early ontogeny as observed in other borioteiioids (e.g., Polyglyphanodon). <![CDATA[Wollastonite to hinder growth of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> fungus on cotton textile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602797&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Effects of Aspergillus niger was investigated on the strength of cotton textile specimens impregnated with nano-wollastonite, and then compared with normal specimens. Cotton strips were cut and prepared in warp and wept directions according to the standard specifications ASTM D-5035. Results showed that incubation of A. niger on specimens for three months resulted in a significant decrease in tensile stress as well as weight mass change in both directions. Impregnating specimens with NW ameliorated the negative effects of fungal attack on tensile stress to a considerable extent. Moreover, weight change was significantly decreased. It is concluded that NW positively protect cotton textile against A. nigra; the ultimate NW-content should be studied in complimentary studies. <![CDATA[A comparative study of phytoconstituents and antibacterial activity of in vitro derived materials of four Passiflora species]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602805&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Passiflora species are well known for their common use in popular medicine for the treatment of several diseases, such as insomnia, anxiety, and hysteria, in addition to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial potential. However, few data about the chemical composition and the medicinal potential of in vitro derived materials are available. Therefore, the goal of this work was to compare, for the first time, the phytoconstituents of in vitro derived materials of four Passiflora species, and evaluate the antibacterial potential of their extracts against 20 Gram-positive and negative strains. Chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of saponins in roots extracts from all studied species, whereas leaf extracts presented both saponins and flavonoids. Extracts from leaves and roots of P. alata and P. foetida exhibited a selective inhibitory activity against B. thuringiensis and S. pyogenes, which might be related to the presence of a high concentration of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and saponins. <![CDATA[Molecular characterization of <em>Moenkhausia</em> (Pisces: Characiformes) populations with different lateral line developmental levels]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602815&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The genera Hemigrammus and Moenkhausia have been traditionally diagnosed mainly by the former having lateral line completely pored whereas the latter having a lateral line with a few pored scales. Those features have been used to diagnose species of both genera in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Specimens with the diagnostic features of Moenkhausia bonita, collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain, exhibited different developmental levels of the lateral line, making it difficult to distinguish them from specimens of Hemigrammus sp. We analyzed the gene encoding cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and intron 1 of the nuclear gene S7 to investigate the genetic similarities between the called Hemigrammus marginatus and M. bonita and to confirm their identities. Molecular sequences of other Moenkhausia species were analyzed for genus delimitation tests. The results reveal genetic similarities of M. bonita specimens with different developmental levels of the lateral line, and also distinguish between M. bonita and Hemigrammus sp. Species delimitation tests revealed that specimens from the upper Paraná River floodplain were M. bonita and were distinct from other Moenkhausia species. The developmental level of the lateral line is not a consistent characteristic that distinguishes between Moenkhausia and Hemigrammus species. <![CDATA[Saturniid moths (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) from an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602827&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The light-attracted silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) of the Boraceia Biological Station in the municipality of Salesópolis, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil have been sampled over more than seven decades (1942-2013). A total of 6,288 individuals (including a gynandromorph) belonging to five subfamilies, 46 genera and 133 species were identified. Hemileucinae was the most abundant and speciesrich subfamily, followed by Ceratocampinae, Arsenurinae, Saturniinae, and Oxyteninae. Hylesia Hübner, Automeris Hübner, and Dirphiopsis Bouvier (Hemileucinae) were the dominant genera in abundance and species richness. Only Automeris illustris (Walker), Gamelia remissoides Lemaire, and Hidripa paranensis (Bouvier) (Hemileucinae) were recorded in all months of sampling. Hylesia metapyrrha (Walker) was the most abundant saturniid species recorded at the station, with 375 specimens, followed by Hylesia oratex Dyar with 265 specimens, Dirphia muscosa Schaus with 261 specimens (all Hemileucinae); Copaxa canella Walker (Saturniinae) with 232 specimens, and Lonomia cf. obliqua Walker (Hemileucinae) with 106 specimens. Fifteen additional species were each represented by more than 100 specimens. The importance of the Boraceia Biological Station to the maintenance of the saturniid moth diversity in the Atlantic Forest is discussed. <![CDATA[First record of the invasive tapeworm, <em>Schyzocotyle acheilognathi</em> (Pseudophyllidea; Bothriocephalidae) in native freshwater fish, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602845&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Schyzocotyle acheilognathi is a tapeworm cestode commonly found in native freshwater fishes from Asia. This cestode has low host specificity and for that reason it has been registered parasitizing more than 200 cultured and wild fish species, besides amphibians, reptiles and birds from different regions of the world. With a high pathogenic potential, S. acheilognathi may cause mortalities in highly infected fish. In South America, Schyzocotyle was reported in Cyprinus carpio from a Brazilian fish farm at the municipality of Cornélio Procópio, northern Paraná State and from the natural environment in C. carpio from Neuquen River, Patagonia, Argentina. So far, there has been no report of this parasite in South American native fishes. Herein we report the first occurrence of the invasive tapeworm S. acheilognathi in Rineloricaria pentamaculata (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), a native armored freshwater catfish from southern Brazil. <![CDATA[The identity of the mysterious “Azara’s Parakeet” <em>Sittace flaviventris</em> Wagler, 1832]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602851&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Sittace flaviventris Wagler, 1832 was the name given to Azara’s No. 276 “Maracaná cabeza y encuentro roxos”, but since then the identity of the species has remained a mystery. Based on a tail-less domestic individual, it has most often been attributed to an aberrant Aratinga parakeet, and is currently considered a doubtful taxon. In this note the identity of “Azara’s Parakeet” is confirmed as Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830), a species that still occurs today in the region from where Azara described it. Sittace flaviventris is thus a junior synonym of Amazona pretrei. <![CDATA[Nanoencapsulated <em>Melaleuca alternifolia</em> essential oil exerts anesthetic effects in the brachyuran crab using <em>Neohelice granulate</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602855&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of several anesthetics in the brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata, an emergent experimental model. The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, Aloysia tryphilla, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil; TTO), the isolated compounds eugenol, menthol, terpinen-4-ol, and the nanoencapsulated form of TTO, were administered in one or more of the following ways: added to the water (immersion), through an arthrodial membrane (injected), or by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, most EOs did not produce an anesthetic effect after immersion. Only TTO and eugenol induced anesthesia by immersion, with very long induction and recovery times compared to anesthesia of other crustaceans. However, a good anesthetic effect was observed with the injection of terpinen-4-ol and nanoencapsulated TTO in N. granulata; both demonstrated ideal induction and recovery times. These substances appear to be promising anesthetic alternatives for crustaceans. <![CDATA[<em>Acanthagrion marinae</em> sp. nov. (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): a new species of the <em>apicale</em> group]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602865&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Acanthagrion marinae sp. nov. (Holotype male: BRASIL, Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, UFMS, 20°29’56.26’’S - 54°36’48.43’’W, 547m, leg. M.E. Rodrigues, 03.ii.2015, collection code: VZYG437, MLP) is described and illustrated on the basis of 15 males. The new species belongs to the apicale species group by having horns on S10 and sclerotized hooks on tip of distal segment of the genital ligula. It can be easily distinguished from other species of the group by a combination of characters of the genital ligulae (presence of setae on segment two; absence of setae at flexure; distal lateral lobes of segment three absent). Notes on habitat and a modification of previous keys for the species of the apicale group are provided. <![CDATA[Mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene have no influence on the distinct patterns of melanic plumage found in the manakins of the genus Antilophia (Aves: Pipridae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602873&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The melanocortin-1 receptor gene is the most widely-used marker for the investigation of the genetic determination of melanic plumage patterns. Studies of a number of wild bird species have shown an association between non-synonymous mutations of the MC1R gene and the presence of melanic variants. The genus Antilophia (Pipridae) includes only two manakin species (A. galeata and A. bokermanni), which are distinguished primarily by the differences in the pattern of melanic coloration of the plumage of the mantle in the adult males. In A. galeata, this plumage is black, while in A. bokermanni, it is predominantly white. This study investigates the possible association between mutations of the MC1R marker and the variation in plumage coloration observed in the two species. The MC1R sequences of the two species was analyzed, and the observed nucleotide variation was compared. Six polymorphic sites were identified, representing seven distinct genotypes. Five of these polymorphic mutations were non-synonymous, but were not related to the different phenotypes. Neutral evolution and the absence of any systematic association between the variants of the MC1R and plumage coloration in the Antilophia species indicate that alternative mechanisms regulate the expression of the coloration of the plumage in the adult males. <![CDATA[Hypoglycemic property of triterpenoid saponin PFS isolated from Polyscias fruticosa leaves]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602881&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This paper evaluated the inhibitory effect of 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl] oleanolic acid 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (PFS), a major saponin isolated from Polyscias fruticosa leaves, on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and its potential for reducing the postprandial blood glucose level in mice. In enzyme inhibition assays, PFS strongly inhibited porcine pancreas α-amylase and yeast α-glucosidase. Using the Lineweaver–Burk equation, we found that PFS inhibited porcine pancreas α-amylase in a mixed noncompetitive mode, and yeast α-glucosidase via noncompetitive inhibition. In the sucrose tolerance test, PFS at 100 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the postprandial blood glucose level in mice fed a high-sucrose diet. These findings suggest that P. fruticosa leaves and their major saponin PFS can be used to prevent and treat diabetes and its complications. <![CDATA[Structural characterization of vegetative organs of the endangered Brazilian native species <em>Hesperozygis ringens</em> (Benth.) Epling]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602887&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the structural characterization of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling vegetative organs. For this purpose, leaves, stems and roots of the endangered Lamiaceae were collected from a population located in Santo Antão, Santa Maria municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results demonstrated that the H. ringens leaf blade presents glandular and non-glandular trichomes as well as two morphs of diallelocytic stomata, which are usually found above the epidermis level. The petiole is concave on ventral face and convex on its dorsal face, containing glandular and non-glandular trichomes as well as stomata in the epidermis. These types of trichomes were also detected in the stem. In addition, the presence of intercellular spaces within the organ is highlighted. Stomata above epidermis level also occurred in the stem. Phenolic idioblasts were found in the cortical region of plant root and deposit of lipophilic substance was observed in phloem cells. Great amount of apparently two different crystals were detected in all organs. Information obtained in this study provides knowledge about the characterizationof H. ringens, which may be used to distinguish characters of taxa and can help understand the species survival in its occurrence sites. <![CDATA[Occurrence and characterization of entomogenic galls in an area of Cerrado sensu stricto and Gallery forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602903&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We surveyed insect galls in an area of Cerrado sensu stricto and Gallery forest in the municipality of Caetité (BA) to contribute to current knowledge of the local flora and its associated gall-inducing insects. Monthly collections were made between February/2015 and January/2016, totaling 12 field campaigns (involving two or three people and lasting four hours) that followed an established path through the countryside. A total of 63 gall morphotypes were identified on 47 host plant species belonging to 22 families; 17 morphotypes were found in the Gallery forest and 46 in Cerrado vegetation. The plant families showing the greatest gall richness were Leguminosae (n=15), Myrtaceae (n=9), and Asteraceae (n=7). The species with the greatest number of galls was Mimosa gemmulata Barneby (Leguminosae) (n=3). Most galls were observed on leaves (66%) and stems (24%); they were mostly green (49.3%) or brown (26%), with globoid shapes (39.7%) or marginal roll (17.4%), and were unilocular (87%), glabrous (62%) and isolated (89%). Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) were the principal gall-inducing insects. The associated fauna was principally composed of Hymenoptera. Eight plant taxa were recorded for the first time as hosts of galling fauna. <![CDATA[<em>Contulma vascaina</em> sp. n. (Insecta: Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae), a new species from Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602921&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The caddisfly genus Contulma Flint, 1969, with 30 described species, is endemic to the Neotropics. In addition to the five species currently recorded from Brazil, a new species of Contulma is described and illustrated in this work. Contulma vascaina sp. n. is similar to C. sana Jardim and Nessimian, 2011 in prominent, slender and rod-like posterolateral lobe of segment IX, but the new species has a shorter posterolateral lobe, with long, spine-like seta apically. Contulma vascaina sp. n. can also be characterized by the presence of a large, hood-like sclerotized plate on the endothecal phallic membrane. The female genital structure is also described and illustrated. <![CDATA[Brazilian fruit processing, wastes as a source of lipase and other biotechnological products: a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602927&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The global food loss and waste is the most urgent research area in food science to attend the current demand for more sustainable and profitable processes. Along the productive chain about 1/3 of the food is lost or wasted, this number reaches 1/2 for fruit and vegetable production in developing countries. Brazil has been investing in researches aiming to turn its wastes into byproducts, as biomolecules of high value such as lipases. These enzymes are found in a high diversity of plant sources and their researches are covered by promising market growth expectations due to the current demand for biofuels and bio-transformed food. Thus, the aim of the present study is to discuss the potential of wastes generated by the Brazilian fruit processing to become a source of lipases, by the analysis of the most recent studies on fruit lipases, as well as the inclusion of this process in the biorefinery concept. According to this concept, different products can be obtained from the same raw material. Considering the confirmation of the presence of lipases on fruit wastes, the annual fruit production and the percentage of residues, the assessed data showed that wastes from the processing of orange, mango, papaya and palmare promising for lipase obtainment. <![CDATA[Light environment influences the flood tolerance in <em>Cordia americana</em> (L.) Gottschling & J.S.Mill.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602945&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The subtropical riverine forests present a variation in soil water availability throughout the year, following precipitation seasonality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the responses of Cordia americana to different light intensities combined with soil flooding. Seedlings were acclimated to light treatments, with full sun and shade conditions. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding during periods of 10 (short) and 30 (longer) days. After 10 days, flooded plants had a higher root dry mass accumulation and soluble sugars content, regardless of the light condition. Shade plants presented higher shoot soluble sugars content in relation to the sun plants. After 30 days, a higher shoot soluble sugar content was observed in sun and shade flooded plants. In addition, a higher root soluble sugar content was also observed in sun plants under flood. Periods of short flooding, characterized in subtropical forests as from 5 to 15 days, favor the growth of shade plants and the roots sugar accumulation, fact that can explain the species distribution. However, long periods of flooding may be associated with light environment plasticity, suggesting that the sun plants present a higher flooding tolerance, directly associated with the ability to maintain the sugar content. <![CDATA[Production of lipolytic enzymes by bacteria isolated from biological effluent treatment systems]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602955&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the production of lipolytic complexes, produced by microorganisms isolated from a biological treatment system of effluents from a hotel. To select the best lipolytic microorganism for use in biotechnological processes, we tested 45 bacterial isolates recovered from the raw effluent of the hotel’s restaurant waste tank. Lipase production was assayed in culture medium supplemented with olive oil and rhodamine B, incubated at 25 °C and 30 °C for 24 h - 48 h. Results showed 22 isolates lipase producers. All isolates were inoculated on medium without yeast extract to select the ones with highest enzyme yields. Out of these, nine isolates showed high lipase activity. The strain with the larger halo was assayed in submerged culture using an orbital shaker and a bioreactor, with three different substrates (olive oil, grape seed oil, and canola oil). Isolate G40 identified as Acinetobacter baylyi was selected to run the production assays because it showed the best result in the solid medium. In the bioreactor, maximum lipase production was obtained after 12 h of culture with the three substrates evaluated: 0,358 U/mL.min-1 in olive oil, 0,352 U/mL.min-1 with grapeseed oil, and 0,348 U/mL.min-1 with canola oil. <![CDATA[A new species of Microtetrameres (Nematoda, Tetrameridae) parasitizing Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves, Accipitridae) from northeastern Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602967&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A new tetramerid nematode, Microtetrameres urubitinga n. sp., is described from specimens recovered from the proventriculus of the great black-hawk, Buteogallus urubitinga (Aves: Accipitridae), from Formosa Province, Argentina. The males of the new species are characterized by having spicules unequal (length ratio of spicules 1:3.8–5.9) and dissimilar in shape (right spicule with a simple tip, left spicule with a symmetrical bifurcated tip), caudal papillae arranged asymmetrically (two pairs precloacal and two pairs postcloacal) and cloacal lips highly protruded forming a tube. The gravid females are permanently coiled clockwise or counterclockwise in a spiral and having a tail tapering gradually to a sharp point, with a cuticular fold. This is the first nominal species of Microtetrameres (Travassos, 1915) described parasitizing birds from Argentina. The relationship between the diet of B. urubitinga and the low prevalence of M. urubitinga n. sp. is discussed. <![CDATA[Immunophenotyping lymphocyte and acute phase proteins in canine X-linked muscular dystrophy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602977&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked muscular disease affecting humans. The Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy model (GRMD) is considerthe most suitable for several studies. This assay aims to quantify lymphocyte subpopulations CD4, CD5, and CD8, and standardize, the serum electrophoretic profile, to understand their contribution to the pathologic process in normal Golden Retriever dogs (GR group) and dystrophic´s (GRMD group), through the umbilical cord blood, in dogs aged from 2 to 3 months (GR II and GRMD II), and in dogs over 1 year of age (GR III and GRMD III). No significant differences were observed between the CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations of the groups studied. The CD4+ and CD5+ lymphocyte subpopulations were significantly higher in the GRMD III group compared to the GR III group. Twenty-two different proteins in the gel were identified. The serum concentrations of the proteins belonging to the GR I and GRMD I groups were significantly lower than those of the other groups. We show that expression of acute phase proteins are worst during the aging of the dogs. We hope to expand knowledge to better understand the GRMD model and the translational data. <![CDATA[Tracking atmospheric dispersion of metals in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan region (Brazil) with epiphytes as bioindicators]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000602991&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The atmospheric dispersion atmospheric plume of the metropolitan region and neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated through elemental analyzes (Na, K, Al, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr) and stable lead isotopes in two epiphytes; the lichen Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) and the bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides (L.). All the elements had lower concentrations in epiphytes than in rocks of the local geological basement, with the exception of K, which was similar to rocks. This behavior was attributed to the nutritional essentiality and abundance of this element in the environment. The concentrations of Na, Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb ratios indicated the presence of spatial gradients in the path (a) sea shore → continent, and (b) urban center → farmlands. These patterns were associated with the mesoscale atmospheric circulation regime, in which, during the arrival of cold fronts, air masses from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro are transported towards the mountainous region of Teresópolis, which acts as a barrier to the dispersion of pollutants. The bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides and the lichen Parmotrema crinitum were linked to Na and Pb atmospheric levels, respectively. <![CDATA[Ongoing quiescence in the Borborema Plateau Plague focus (Paraiba, Brazil)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Plague is a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, whose cycle is based on a reservoir system composed of mammals and their fleas. Its transmission cycle presents long enzootic periods with undetected cases, sometimes misleading that the cycle is extinct. While surveillance activities in Brazil are being carried out only in some focal areas, the serologic results confirm the persistence of Y. pestis in all monitored areas. We studied the small mammal assembly and Y. pestis presencein the Borborema Plateau Focus within the state of Paraíba, which staged the last Brazilian plague outbreak (1986-1987), through aninventory and Y. pestis detection survey of small mammals in peridomestic and sylvatic areas from two municipalities in the state of Paraíba.The field sampling captured 45 specimens (27 marsupials, 18 rodents), of 10 species. Only two species (one marsupial, one rodent) were captured in both peridomestic and sylvatic ecotopes. The sylvatic ecotope had higher richness and abundance. No evidence of circulation of the pathogen was detected, however, this result does not discard the necessity of continuous epidemiological surveillance due to the risk of rekindling the foci after long dormant periods, especially given the current epidemiological transition occurring on a Global scale. <![CDATA[Description of the final instar larva of <em>Argia serva</em> Hagen in Selys, 1865 (Odonata Coenagrionidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The American genus Argia, with more than 100 species described, is the most speciose genus of Odonata in the world. In this contribution, the final stadium larva of Argia serva, the southernmost distributed species of Argia, is described and diagnosed based on reared material from Martín García island, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva of this species can be easily separated from the other Argentinean Argia by the following combination of characters: sternum of S8 covered with spines (bare in A. translata); antennal segment 3 longer than 1+2 (equal to or shorter than 1+2 in A. joergenseni and A. jujuya); palpal setae absent (present in A. croceipennis). A key to the known larvae of Argia of the Southern Cone is provided. <![CDATA[New records of the rare Troschel’s Pampas Snake, <em>Phimophis guianensis</em> (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Troschel’s Pampas Snake, Phimophis guianensis (Troschel, 1848), is widely distributed in Amazonian Savannas at northern South America and a small portion of southern Central America, being recorded to Brazil based on three historical records, that ranged from 1997 to 2002, in Amapá and Pará states. In this study, we revise all known records of P. guianensis, providing an updated distribution map, and the first record to Roraima state. <![CDATA[The family Phoxocephalopsidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Brazilian coastal waters with description of four new species]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Phoxocephalopsids are fossorial amphipods endemic to the Southern Hemisphere and currently encompass five genera and 15 species, including the four new species herein described. Previous records of the family along the Brazilian coast are limited to Phoxocephalopsis zimmeriSchellenberg, 1931. Based on material from the Crustacean Collection of Museu Nacional/UFRJ four new species of Phoxocephalopsidae areherein described: Phoxocephalopsis ruffoi sp. nov. from Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul (23o-30oS); Puelche irenae sp. nov. from Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (19o-23oS); Puelche longidactylus sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (12o-23oS) and Puelche mourae sp. nov. found only at Rio de Janeiro. High diversity was recorded from the Campos Basin region, which extends from the north of Rio de Janeiro to south of Espírito Santo (21o-23oS), with the presence of all four phoxocephalid species. A key to Phoxocephalopsidae species from Brazil, including P. orensanziBarnard and Clark, 1982 is provided. <![CDATA[Physicochemical quality profiles of commercial oral tablets and capsules containing lutein – impact of insufficient specific sanitary regulations]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603063&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Dietary supplements in many countries such as the USA do not require registration prior to commercialization. The Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) registers substances with functional properties as foods. Lutein is a carotenoid with antioxidant activity available on the market. However, no regulatory mandates exist to govern the design of quality control tests, which are necessary to ensure formulation effectiveness. Therefore, in the present study, tablet and dosage formulations from different manufacturers were tested following general methods outlined in the Brazilian and American Pharmacopeias. The averageweight, disintegration, content and dose uniformity assays were performed for all tablets and capsules, whereas hardness assays were only performed on tablets. None of the 10 formulations studied were found to be of satisfactory quality. Of all tablets tested, two had no-significant available lutein content, which may indicate adulteration. The capsules displayed adequate amounts of lutein, however had alarmingly negative disintegration and dissolution test results, which may contribute to non-bioavailability of lutein. All formulations analyzed are currently being marketed in the Brazilian and American markets. The low physicochemical performance in these formulations can be explained by the lack of specific regulations, which are necessary to ensure the quality of lutein-containing products on the market. <![CDATA[New technique of intragastric sleeve: viability and survival in a pig model]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603075&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Developing a less invasive, practical and cost-effective operative technique for obesity treatment represents a pressing need for our society. In this way, intragastric single port sleeve by endoplication was tested in six pigs during 18 weeks. Celiotomy was performed with animal placed in dorsal decubitus position. Single port gastrostomy was performed and double tobacco pouch sutures were made in fundic region, making a gastric sleeve. At the end, stomach layers and skin were closed in a conventional manner. Means and the standard deviations of surgical time were calculated. The procedure was simple and all animals survived; there were no significant blood loss and no intra and postoperative complications. The procedure was fast (67.4 minutes). The technique has the advantage of not requiring the use of mechanical sutures, making it less costly. The innovation of this procedure was the use of a single port gastrostomy device to perform an intraluminal sleeve. What made this technique less invasive were the use of a single port, nonmanipulation of the stomach intra-abdominally, ease of execution and no need of pneumoperitoneum. The new technique is acceptable and has reproducible viability, had a short procedure time without intra and postoperative complications. <![CDATA[Glucocorticoid susceptibility and <em>in vivo</em> ABCB1 activity differ in murine B cell subsets]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603081&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Glucocorticoids are produced and released by the adrenal gland and become elevated in response to stress. Although glucocorticoids are well known for their immunosuppressive effects, less is known about their effects on B cells. ABCB1 is an efflux pump expressed in both cancer and normal cells, modulating the gradient of various metabolites, including hydrocortisone. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of this glucocorticoid on murine B cell differentiation and whether sensitivity to hydrocortisone could be related to ABCB1 activity in vivo. C57BL/6 mice received one or three consecutive i.p. injections of hydrocortisone (70, 140 and 200 mg/kg/day). ABCB1 activity was evaluated via the rhodamine-123 transport and inhibited by cyclosporin A in hydrocortisone-treated and control mice. Cells from bone marrow, spleen and blood were counted, incubated with antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry. A single hydrocortisone injection did not alter the number of bone marrow subsets. Conversely, three daily injections were able to reduce the cell number of most bone marrow subsets, excepting c-kit-sca-1+ and mature B cells. This treatment reduced marginal zone, follicular and transitional B cells, though splenic subsets were more resistant than bone marrow B cells. Recirculating follicular B cells in the blood were resistant to hydrocortisone. With the exception of follicular B cells, all subpopulations exhibited ABCB1 activity. However, hydrocortisone treatment did not affect ABCB1 activity in most subsets analyzed. Results suggest that hydrocortisone is able to regulate B cell lymphopoiesis although ABCB1 activity is not related to the susceptibility to that glucocorticoid in B cell subsets. <![CDATA[L-carnitine supplementation in the recovery of plasma L-carnitine in patients with heart failure submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603099&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Coronary artery bypass grafting reduces plasma L-carnitine and may impair the production of myocardial energy. L-carnitine supplementation may elevate plasma L-carnitine and increase cardiac mechanical efficiency. The objective of this study was to verify the recovery of preoperative plasma LC in patients with heart failure undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting supplemented with a daily oral dose of 50 mg / kg. Volunteers with ischemic heart failure who underwent surgery were randomized into a supplemented group (A-received 50 mg / kg L-carnitine) or placebo group (B) for 60 days. Supplementation was started on the third postoperative day. The spectrophotometric enzymatic method was used to quantify plasma L-carnitine. In the preoperative period, both groups had plasma L-carnitine adequate to the reference range (18.9-71.1 μM). On the second postoperative day, there was a reduction in plasma L-carnitine in groups A (17.4%) and B (14.4%). In the comparison between the groups, plasma L-carnitine was higher in group A than B in 10º (p = 0.024), 30º (p = 0.001), and 60º postoperative day (p = 0.008). Supplementation of L-carnitine at a daily oral dose of 50 mg / kg in patients with heart failure undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting may recover preoperative plasma L-carnitine within 10 days. <![CDATA[Methodological description and preliminary results of a cohort study on the influence of the first 1,000 days of life on the children’s future health]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of this report is to describe general and methodological characteristics of a cohort study in southern Brazil (Coorte Brasil Sul), aimed at understanding the impact of the first 1,000 days of life on children’s health. It is a cohort study involving all children born in 2009 and their families living in the municipality of Palhoça, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Face-to-face interviews with parents at home using a structured questionnaire and children’s physical and clinical examinations at schools have been carried out. Cross-sectional analyzes, longitudinal comparisons and hierarquical regression analysis will allow understanding if the first 1,000 days of life can influence on 6-year-old children’s health. The Coorte Brasil Sul is in its retrospective phase together with the children’s physical data collection. Preliminary data (n=1270) related to nutritional status point to a high prevalence of overweight (16.4%) and obesity (15.5%). With the continuity of the study, it is expected to evaluate if the first phases of life can influence health during adolescence and in adult life, mainly in relation to chronic diseases. <![CDATA[Spray-dried porcine plasma added to diets contaminated with aflatoxins and fumonisins shows beneficial effects to piglet health]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study was aimed to analyze the effects of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on the health of post weaning piglets challenged with diets contaminated with aflatoxins and fumonisins. Fifty-six male piglets (7.15 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated in four groups: CTL group received a regular diet; SDPP group received a regular diet and 6% SDPP; MYC group received a diet containing 300 µg/kg aflatoxins and 8,000 µg/kg fumonisins; group MYC+SDPP received 300 µg/kg aflatoxins, 8,000 µg/kg fumonisins and 6% SDPP. The animals that received the experimental diet containing mycotoxins (MYC group) had lower weight gain at the end of the experiment compared to the other treatments. Animals receiving SDPP showed decreased urea levels throughout the experiment (P&lt;0.05). Animals from MYC group presented an increased on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and decreased catalase activity (P&lt;0.05). In contrast, SDPP prevented the increase of ROS and TBARS and stimulated superoxide dismutase activity (P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, diet contaminated with mycotoxins (group MYC) caused subclinical intoxication in the piglets, as observed by the increase on free radical’s production and lipid peroxidation. Conversely, SDPP presented a protective effect, minimizing the effects of oxidative stress caused by aflatoxins and fumonisins ingestion. <![CDATA[Cohort study of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic young adults: subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary calcium score]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603129&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Coronary artery calcification is an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but little research has been done in asymptomatic individuals under 45 years. In this cohort study with 17 years of follow-up, 155 participants were assessed in 2016 with a coronary calcium score for the association with cardiovascular risk factors. During follow-up, there was a significant increase in anthropometric measurements, cholesterol and fractions, and diastolic pressure. Participants who gained 1 cm in waist circumference had a mean reduction of 0.36 mg/dL in HDL-cholesterol and those who gained 1 kg/m2 in body mass index had a reduction of 0.72 mg/dL in HDL-cholesterol. Married participants had a 4.78 mg/dL reduction in HDL-cholesterol levels compared to singles. There was an increase of 2.09 mg/dL in HDL-cholesterol at each higher level of self-perceived health. One single case, a 32-year-old male, smoker, sedentary individual with a family history of cardiovascular disease, presented coronary calcification (0.6%). His HDL-cholesterol was reduced by 43.4%, with levels of less than 25 mg/dL at the time of coronary calcium scoring. Our findings may prompt broader studies of populations under 35 years with HDL-C levels below 25 mg/dL and family histories of cardiovascular disease, associated with obesity, sedentary lifestyle and smoking. <![CDATA[Dextran Sulphate of Sodium-induced colitis in mice: antihyperalgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Citrus reticulata and potential damage to the central nervous system]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603139&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Citrus species are widely related to antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate if treatment with ethanolic extract from peels of mature Citrus reticulata Blanco causes antihyperalgesic effects on the referred mechanical hyperalgesia in a model of dextran sulphate of sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, as well as the possible oxidative damage in different regions of the brain induced by its inflammatory reaction. Antihyperalgesia (30 to 300 mg/kg) was investigated by behavioral response (frequency of response to von Frey filament stimulation) in Swiss mice, while damage to central nervous system was investigated through techniques that evaluated oxidative stress using male black C57 BL6 mice (n=8). Treatment of the animals with the extract (100 mg/kg) from days 3 to 5 after colitis induction reduced referred the mechanical hyperalgesia (32.6 ± 5.1) in relation to the control group (57.4 ± 2.0). Levels of lipid peroxidation or carbonyl proteins were augmented in colitis-induced animals in relation to the disease group. These results indicated an antihyperalgesic effect of the studied extract and a potential impairment of the central nervous system functioning caused by inflammation during colitis, which could be related to mental disorders observed in patients suffering of this pathology. <![CDATA[Accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A of saliva in early diagnosis of dengue: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603147&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review to synthesize the current evidence on the accuracy of IgM and IgA to early diagnosis the dengue virus. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD 42015024808). We searched for studies in the following electronic database from 1990 to January 2018. The search identified 3507 studies. Five studies were included for quantitative analysis. Three studies included evaluations of salivary IgM provided a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. Two studies included evaluating of IgA salivary showed a combined sensitivity of 69% and a combined specificity of 98%. Despite the results found and the low methodological quality of the studies included in the meta-analysis it is still soon to claim that IgA is better than IgM to diagnosis Dengue. <![CDATA[Establishment of an environmental microbiological monitoring program in a mice barrier facility]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603155&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Rodents used in biomedical research are maintained behind barriers to exclude microbial contaminants. Several check points have to be monitored to eliminate the potential of introducing adventitious agents into the facility. Microbiological monitoring of a mouse facility environment enables to evaluate the efficiency of sanitization and cleaning procedures, air quality, and technician good practices. At our SPF mouse facility, we implemented an environmental microbiological monitoring program based in sedimentation and swabbing, inexpensive and easy to use methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results and the efficiency of the monitoring program after seven years. The median for bacteria and fungi counts in the SPF sampled areas was ≤2 CFU/2 h for settle plates and &lt;1 CFU per swabbing plate, satisfying the requirements for grade C of the EU-GMP, with some modifications. The environmental monitoring program was useful to detect early warning of problems and enabled us to define a safe range of microbiological counts. In addition, SPF status defined for our mice was maintained throughout this study, confirmed by our HM program. This work could encourage directors and technicians of other mouse facilities in Latin America and rest of the world to implement this kind of program. <![CDATA[<em>Hibiscus acetosella</em> extract protects against alkylating agent-induced DNA damage in mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603165&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Hibiscus acetosella was shown to exert beneficial effects in humans and animal models however, the effects of this plant on DNA are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of H. acetosella extracts on alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in vivo in mice. Initially, we performed analysis of phenolic compounds in extracts of H. acetosella by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Next, mice were divided into 8 groups and treated with distilled water or plant extract (0.1 ml/10 g) by gavage for 15 days, followed by intraperitoneal (ip) administration of saline solution or MMS (40 mg/Kg b.w) on day 16. Caffeic acid, following by gallic acid, gallocatechin, coumaric acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were found to be present in extracts of H. acetosella leaves. In peripheral blood analysis of groups receiving pretreatment with H. acetosella at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg plus MMS decreased DNA damage as evidenced by comet assay and Micronucleus assays relative to MMS alone. These results suggested that H. acetosella extracts exerted protective effects dose dependent against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents. <![CDATA[Satellite Telemetry and Image Reception with Software Defined Radio Applied to Space Outreach Projects in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603175&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Software Defined Radio (SDR) uses a processor, a special receiver and software that play the main parts of the receiver (mixer, filters, amplifiers, modulators, demodulators, etc.) and it is quite advantageous for its flexibility and compact size as it reduces the amount of hardware components while adapting for different needs. This work briefly presents the SDR concept and approach for obtaining satellite telemetries and imagery in the context of different modulation schemes, link budget requirements and different satellites types. Two case studies are presented for supporting affordable ground segment and promoting satellites projects in Brazil. Reception from the 1st Brazilian picosatellite, Tancredo-1, with specific software developed, UbaTM is presented for obtaining satellite raw telemetries, convert them to engineering value and friendly present on user screen. A series of support software packages are then introduced so that one can pipeline various operations and automate tasks in the ground station. Finally, a second study case was performed in order to receive NOAA class satellites imagery over VHF band and decoded by specific software freely available. Using the proposed SDR approach, it can adapt to projects mainly those with a limited budget and outreach for major inclusion on space topics in Brazil. <![CDATA[Study of barium sulfate dissolution by scale dissolver based on solutions of DTPA]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603185&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In offshore oil wells it is very common to perform seawater injection through injection wells for hydrocarbon recovery. When seawater, rich in sulfate ion, mixes with formation water, whose composition can contain divalent cations such as barium and calcium, it often leads to sulfate salts formation due to their chemical incompatibility. These salts can cause serious damage in production wells. The barium sulfate (BaSO4) is the most problematic scale and may cause many complications. In order to solve this issue, polycarboxylic acids, such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid, are used. Thus, the primary focus of this work was to develop an experimental procedure to study the BaSO4 dissolution. Initially, through static tests to understand the relationship between dissolver concentration, temperature and dissolution time, and then through dynamic tests in sandstone reservoirs. Based on the results obtained, in the static tests the best condition for barite to dissolve was at high temperatures (80 ºC) and contact time of 48 hours, since from 50 °C there is an increase in dissolution rate, associated with a long contact time between dissolver and barite. In the dynamic tests, after scale formation, barite could be removed, but the high DTPA concentration should be avoided. <![CDATA[Expanded perlite/cork fillers applied to aerospace insulation materials]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603197&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Insulations for rocket motors such as Flexible Thermal Protections (FTPs) and Rigid Thermal Protection (RTPs) act as thermal barriers against the hyperthermal environment from the solid propellant combustion. FTPs present dual function: to extend RTPs performance, and to attenuate the propellant contraction. FTPs used in the Brazilian Space Program have asbestos in their composition since the 70´s; however, they are hazardous for human health. In this context, a mixture of Expanded Perlite (PExp) and Cork Powder (CP) was investigated as a replacement for asbestos. Results showed reduction about 21 % in density and an increase of 13 % in the ablative properties. The low mechanical properties not interfere in this type of FTP due to your function of attenuate the propellant contraction. <![CDATA[The positive moderating effect of absorptive capacity on R&D investment: the case of Argentina’s ict firms]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603207&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The model analyzes the positive moderating role of absorptive capacity (ACAP) in the innovative outcomes of the firms. It focuses on ACAP as a moderating variable of the innovative efforts that firms develop or have the chance of incorporating from outside and not just as an antecedent of the innovation results. The empirical evidence collected comes from a study conducted on 189 SMEs working in IT services in Argentina and the results prove the main hypothesis of how ACAP is a positive moderating factor of the innovative effort of firms, even in the case of the connections created by their the participation in international networks not having a high correlation. Some suggestions for policymaker managers and future lines of research are provided. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603223&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The model analyzes the positive moderating role of absorptive capacity (ACAP) in the innovative outcomes of the firms. It focuses on ACAP as a moderating variable of the innovative efforts that firms develop or have the chance of incorporating from outside and not just as an antecedent of the innovation results. The empirical evidence collected comes from a study conducted on 189 SMEs working in IT services in Argentina and the results prove the main hypothesis of how ACAP is a positive moderating factor of the innovative effort of firms, even in the case of the connections created by their the participation in international networks not having a high correlation. Some suggestions for policymaker managers and future lines of research are provided. <![CDATA[Erratum]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000603241&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The model analyzes the positive moderating role of absorptive capacity (ACAP) in the innovative outcomes of the firms. It focuses on ACAP as a moderating variable of the innovative efforts that firms develop or have the chance of incorporating from outside and not just as an antecedent of the innovation results. The empirical evidence collected comes from a study conducted on 189 SMEs working in IT services in Argentina and the results prove the main hypothesis of how ACAP is a positive moderating factor of the innovative effort of firms, even in the case of the connections created by their the participation in international networks not having a high correlation. Some suggestions for policymaker managers and future lines of research are provided.