Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> vol. 90 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Brazilian legislation on genetic heritage harms Biodiversity Convention goals and threatens basic biology research and education]]> <![CDATA[Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves and fruit peel against oral pathogenic bacteria]]> ABSTRACT Tooth decay is a major public health problem which affects a large number of people in several countries. Even though more than 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus stand out as the genera that cause tooth decay and other periodontal diseases. In this study, essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves (CL-EO) and fruit peel (CP-EO) were obtained by hydrodistillation by a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas their chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limonene (77.5 %), linalool (20.1 %), citronellal (14.5 %) and citronellol (14.2 %) were the main constituents found in the essential oils from C. aurantifolia leaves and fruit peel. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. Both CL-EO and CP-EO displayed some activity against all oral pathogens under investigation; MIC values ranged from 20 to 200 µg/mL. CL-EO and CP-EO not only had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 20 µg/mL) and Lactobacillus casei (31.25 µg/mL), but also displayed antibacterial activity against all studied cariogenic bacteria. Efficacy of essential oils against S. mutans and L. casei is noteworthy and should be further investigated. <![CDATA[The expression of neotectonics in the Pantanal da Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Pantanal da Nhecolândia is one of the most well-preserved areas in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Located in the southern part of the Taquari River megafan, it is in tectonic contact with the fault escarpments of the Maracaju-Campo Grande plateaus to the east and with the fault escarpments of the Bodoquena plateau to the west, which continue to north. To the south and to the north, the limits are marked respectively by the lineaments of the Negro and Taquari Rivers. Nhecolândia is characterized by the existence of at least 17,631 lagoons, 17,050 (96.70 %) of which are of fresh water (baías) and 577 (3.3 %) of salty water (salinas). Studies based on (Landsat) satellite images and use of free software (QGIS, version 2.8.3) and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) revealed that the major axes of the lagoons are aligned along two directions, NE (62.49 %) and NW (37.51 %), with modes concentrated between N30-40E and N30-40W, suggesting in both cases the role played by tectonic control (neotectonics) in their formation. Evidences of fluvial origin are presented for these groups of lagoons, as well as for their tectonic alignment. <![CDATA[Morphology and morphometry of upland lakes over lateritic crust, Serra dos Carajás, southeastern Amazon region]]> ABSTRACT High-resolution satellite images, digital elevation models, bathymetric and sedimentological surveys coupled with statistical analysis were used to understand the physical environment and discuss their influence on water quality of the five upland lakes of Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia. The lakes have mid-altitude ranges (elevation), very small (catchment) and shallow to very shallow (central basins). Based on the length, area and volume, Violão and TI (Três Irmãs)-3 lakes may present large vertical movements of the water due to wind action and weakly stratified waters. Trophic conditions based on depth and shore development (Ld) parameters must be used with caution, since Amendoim Lake is relatively deep, but it is oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic. Ld values suggest that the lakes are circular to subcircular and are likely formed by solution process, as also suggested by volume development. TI-2 Lake is only presenting convex central basin and has highest dynamic ratio (DR), thus it may have high sedimentation and erosion rates. Based on the relationship between studied parameters, morphometric index and DR likely influence temperature and dissolved oxygen of waters of TI-2 Lake due to its depth profile and wind-induced surface mixing. Nevertheless, water quality parameters are controlled by catchment characteristics of the lakes. <![CDATA[Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization]]> ABSTRACT One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry is the study and the removal of micro-pollutants from aqueous matrices. Analytical techniques for their identification and quantification are becoming more sensitive and comprehensive and, as a result, an increasing number of drugs have been detected in environmental samples. However, the literature shows that conventional treatments for drinking water and wastewater are not sufficient for remove these compounds. This study aims to check whether the process of hydrothermal carbonization (CHT) is effective in removing the synthetic sex hormones: ethinyl estradiol, gestodene and cyproterone acetate from aqueous samples. The system used in CHT basically consists of a pressurized reactor made of stainless steel and solutions of compounds of interest, both individual and mixed, with a concentration of 1.0 μg.L-1 and a pH range of 2.0 to 3.0. The maximum surface temperature in the reactor was about 180 °C, the internal pressure was 20 bar with 90 minutes for the reaction. Four experiments were conducted, one for each hormone and one with the three hormones together. In individual tests removal of the compounds was found to be 99.8% for ethinyl estradiol, 99.3% for gestodene and 100% for cyproterone acetate. For a mixture of the hormones treated under the same conditions, the mean values of CHT-removal of Ethinylestradiol, Gestodene and Cyproterone Acetate were 99.60%, 96.80% and 68.90%, respectively. The impact of the matrix effect may have affected the efficiency of the hormone removal process by CHT. <![CDATA[Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 06 in Brazil: the universal access to sanitation as a possible mission]]> ABSTRACT Sanitation (which includes national public policies for drinking water, sewage services and waste management) is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Poor sanitation impacts public health, education, the environment, and daily life. Globally, it emits increasing greenhouse gases. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil’s program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper. By describing the successful implementation of electricity for everyone, we show that planned public efforts, coordinated with private initiatives and local communities, have worked, and the same can be achieved for the sanitation sector. An overview of all sectors that touch on sanitation and emissions is also provided, highlighting the challenges and possibilities for infrastructure projects. <![CDATA[Comments to Angulo et al. 2016 on “Sea-level fluctuations and coastal evolution in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern - Brazil” by Castro et al. 2014]]> ABSTRACT Interpretation of sea-level indicators is essential when studying paleo sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. Sea-level indicators may have different origins, such as geological (beachrocks) and biological (vermetids and barnacles). In order to reconstruct paleo sea-level, it is necessary to attribute an indicative meaning to each sea-level indicator. This paper aims to discuss issues raised by Angulo et al. (2016) regarding to the sea-level fluctuations curve proposed by Castro et al. (2014) to the Rio de Janeiro State coast, Brazilian southeast. The key issue that deserves posing is that local or regional curves cannot be built based on large scale (global) RSL geophysical models even in places of steady crust like Brazil. Here, we put into question the relative sea-level fluctuation curve model proposed by Angulo et al. (2006, 2016) to the coast of Rio de Janeiro State and Pernambuco State. It is strengthened the proposal of using different origins indicators on RSL vertical variation, georeferenced by high precision altitude GPS, adjusted by Brazilian Geodetic System benchmarks, maintained by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE. All issues regarding the curve drawn by Castro et al. (2014) are answered based on field data, laboratory analytical techniques, radiocarbon dating as well as relevant literature. <![CDATA[Reply to Castro et al. 2018 on “Holocene paleo-sea level changes along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southern Brazil”.]]> ABSTRACT Discussions are useful to the advance of science, and we appreciate the opportunity to discuss the paper by Castro et al. (2014) for the second time. Here we maintain the interpretations presented in our discussion paper (Angulo et al. 2016). In the discussion paper we emphasized that the vertical position of a paleo-sea level indicator is not the position of the paleo-sea level. We pointed out that: (1) to reconstruct paleo-sea levels it is crucial to determine the vertical distance between the indicators to their present homologous one; (2) margin of errors can only be established if considering the indicator’s intrinsic characteristics and (3) the interpretation of a sea level 3.0 to 4.5 m below the present one at 11.9 to-11.1 ka BP is in strong contradiction with worldwide established data and would require a detailed discussion. We consider that Castro et al. (2018) do not properly address or answer the comments we made in the discussion paper. More work and discussions are necessary to elucidate several questions that still remain about the sea level behavior in the Holocene. <![CDATA[Density, abundance and extractive potential of the mangrove crab, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ocypodidae): subsidies for fishery management]]> ABSTRACT Ucides cordatus is a relevant fishery resource of Brazilian mangroves and requires legal normative to sustainable use based on stock assessment and management. This study evaluated some population parameters (structure, density, abundance, fishery potential and stock) of this crab species in Brazil Southeast (São Paulo, State), discussing the use of the results to delineate fishery management strategies. Density was monthly evaluated (September 1998 to August 1999), using five sample quadrats of 2x2 m. Density (ind.m-2) was indirectly estimated by counting the opened (with biogenic activity) and closed galleries, and contrasted with flooding level by tides using the vertical distribution of macroalgae in the base of trees. Density of U. cordatus ranges from 2 to 11 ind.m-2 (6±2 ind.m-2) and statistical difference occurred among monthly means (F=11.58; p=0.000). The relationship density vs. tidal flooding indicated a decrease of U. cordatus density in mangroves with higher levels of tidal flooding (r=−0.94; p=0.001). The total abundance of U. cordatus was estimated in 63.7 millions of crabs in 10.61 km2, with a reduction of 34.9% due to total mortality discount. Estimates like that are uncommon in literature, and could be used for fishery forecasts, allowing improvement by the introduction of new variables to be known in the future. <![CDATA[The monotypic Brazilian genus Diacrodon is a synonym of Borreria (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): morphological and molecular evidences]]> ABSTRACT Diacrodon is a monotypic genus of the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae), endemic to northeastern Brazil. Diacrodon compressus is frequently misidentified with a two lobed calyx species of Borreria, B. verticillata. Traditionally, in Spermacoceae the fruit type was considered a diagnostic character among the genera. In this sense, D. compressus presents a strongly compressed, one seeded and indehiscent fruit (vs. globose, two seeded and dehiscent fruit in B. verticillata). In this work, we address two objectives: evaluate the systematic position and determine the identity of Diacrodon in respect to other taxa. Molecular analyses using ITS and ETS indicate that D. compressus is strongly related to other species of Borreria. The morphological results revealed that D. compressus, despite of its type of fruit, is identical to Borreria in floral and palynological features. As conclusion, the new combination Borreria diacrodonta is made and a lectotype is designated. An updated description of the species and a key to the Borreria species with a two lobed calyx are provided. The distribution of B. diacrodonta is extended to Brazilian states Goiás and Minas Gerais, and Paraguay. By this taxonomical change it has become clear that the dehiscence of the fruits lack taxonomic value in the delimitation of Borreria. <![CDATA[Comparative cytogenetic analysis in Erythrolamprus snakes (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Argentina]]> ABSTRACT We described the karyotypes of five snake taxa from Argentina: Erythrolamprus almadensis, E. ceii, E. poecilogyrus caesius, E. p. schotti and E. p. sublineatus, and also intergrading individuals between the last two subspecies by conventional staining, chromosome bandings and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 28S ribosomal DNA probes. Erythrolamprus ceii and E. almadensis share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 28, whereas in E. poecilogyrus intraspecific variations were observed: E. p. caesius has 2n= 28, E. p. schotti and E. p. sublineatus as well as in the intergrading individuals have 2n= 32. In E. almadensis and E. p. caesius, the 2nd and 6th chromosome pairs respectively are heteromorphic by size, morphology and C-banding pattern. These results allow us to suggest that these chromosome pairs might be considered as the ZW sex chromosomes in these species. The present comparative cytogenetic analyzes contributes to the already remarkable karyotypic variability in Erythrolamprus genus and propose a hypothesis about potential mechanisms involved in the chromosome evolution among taxa analyzed. Furthermore, the karyotypic differences observed between E. p. caesius (2n= 28) and E. p. schotti and E. p. sublineatus (2n= 32) might play a causal role in speciation. <![CDATA[Influence of temperature and conductivity on the life-history characteristics of a pampean strain of Brachionus plicatilis]]> ABSTRACT In the present work, we provide the first approach about the life-history of Brachionus plicatilis in South America. We tested with laboratory experiments the response of the pampean strain of B. plicatilis for two of its main stressors (conductivity and temperature). We evaluated the effects of eight conductivity values from 1 to 17 and two temperatures (15 and 25 °C) to compare its abundance with those obtained in the pampean lotic and lentic environments, where this rotifer is frequent or dominant. The results demonstrated that the increase in population-growth rate and the peak of abundance occurred at the highest temperature and at medium conductivity. Minimum values were obtained at the lowest temperature and conductivities analyzed, but the final density attained was nevertheless similar to those recorded in the pampean environments at the optimum conductivity and during the spring and summer seasons. Males, mictic females, and resting eggs were observed at the minimum and maximum conductivities, revealing the strategy of this species for maintaining dominance in environments with fluctuating salinity. The experiments also indicated the possible behavior of this relevant member of the zooplankton community within a scenario of increasing temperature and salinity related to the climate changes occurring in the pampean region. <![CDATA[The influence of environmental variables in the reproductive performance of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) (Caridea: Palaemonidae) females in a continental population]]> ABSTRACT Macrobrachium amazonicum is a commercially important freshwater prawn with a high degree of reproductive plasticity. The species is classified into two groups: coastal populations, with larger individuals exhibiting high fecundity and needing brackish water for larval development; and continental populations, with smaller specimens exhibiting low fecundities and completing metamorphosis in freshwater. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental factors in the fecundity, egg size and volume, and reproductive output in females of M. amazonicum from a continental population during a two-year period. We also compared our results with those obtained for other continental and coastal populations. Reproductive parameters differed markedly between continental and coastal populations in most cases. The continental population studied here, however, exhibited reproductive characteristics similar to those of coastal populations. The present study found a correlation between the reproductive parameters and the environmental variables analyzed. This result corroborates the hypothesis that wide variation in reproductive parameters in the geographical distribution of M. amazonicum is related to the environmental characteristics in which populations are inserted. We suggest that further studies could investigate the potential of continental populations for aquaculture, which could significantly reduce production costs. <![CDATA[Effects of two bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, Antioquine and Tetrandrine, compared to Verapamil in Rat Thoracic Aorta]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare two alkaloids (antioquine and tetrandrine) with verapamil; knowing that the smooth muscle respond to KCl and relationships with calcium. The effects of antioquine and tetrandrine, was studied in adults Wistar rat with modified methods used in the determination of aorta contractility and compared with verapamil effect in the same assays. The analysis of the effect of a drug or extract on aortic reactivity included maximal relaxation or maximal contraction (Cmax) (Phase 1). In our results, verapamil induced a blockade of 98.7 ± 0.7% (n = 6) in presence of endothelium and 97.9 ± 4.3% in ausence of endothelium, both in phase 1 and in phase 2 of 47.4 ± 4.1% (n = 6) in aortas in the presence of endothelium and 61.8 ± 1.1% in ausence of endothelium; Tetrandrine assays showed a phase 1 blocking effect of 63.4 ± 5.5 and 47.7 ± 2.9% (with and without endothelium, respectively) and phase 2 of 43.5 ± 6.2 and 28.5 ± 5.7%, (with and without endothelium, respectively). Antioquine presents in phase 1 and phase 2, a blockade that is not significant from the point of view of calcium antagonism. We can conclude that tetrandrine block the movement of calcium from both intracellular and extracellular deposits, with the greatest effect when aortas are in the presence of endothelium. <![CDATA[Changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in Prosopis glandulosa treated with cadmium and copper]]> ABSTRACT The aim of the present work is to evaluate the changes on the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, phenolic compounds accumulation and photochemical efficiency in leaves of P. glandulosa treated with Cd2+ (0.001 M) and Cu2+ (0.52 M) concentrations for 96 h under hydroponic conditions. The results showed that only leaves treated with copper had a decrease in photochemical efficiency and leaf epidermal polyphenols in P. glandulosa leaves after 96 h of exposure. On the other hand the reverse-phase HPLC analysis revealed higher levels of phenolic compound (gallic, vanillic and caffeic acids) and flavonoids (rutin and kaempferol-3-O-glucosides) in plant leaves from Cu and Cd-treatments with respect to control plants. Finally, highest increments in PAL activity was observed in extracts of leaves treated with Cu and Cd (about 205 and 284%), respectively, with respect to control plants after 96 h treatment. These suggest that activation of phenylpropanoid pathway represent a source of nonenzymatic antioxidants that protect at P. glandulosa against oxidative stress when exposed to cadmium and copper. Hence future studies are necessary to elucidate the participation of phenylpropanoid pathway in the reduction of metal toxicity in Prosopis species. <![CDATA[Is there still room to explore cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase-producers in Brazilian biodiversity?]]> ABSTRACT In the present work, different Brazilian biomes aiming to identify and select cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase-producer bacteria are explored. This enzyme is responsible for converting starch to cyclodextrin, which are interesting molecules to carry other substances of economic interest applied by textile, pharmaceutical, food, and other industries. Based on the enzymatic index, 12 bacteria were selected and evaluated, considering their capacity to produce the enzyme in culture media containing different starch sources. It was observed that the highest yields were presented by the bacteria when grown in cornstarch. These bacteria were also characterized by sequencing of the 16S rRNA region and were classified as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Gracilibacillus and Solibacillus. <![CDATA[Drying and reduction in sensitivity to desiccation of seeds of Alibertia edulis: the influence of fruit ripening stage]]> ABSTRACT The intense environmental degradation in tropical regions suitable for agriculture has decreased native forest populations of plants with important fruits and medicinal properties. Alibertia edulis is a native tree from the Brazilian Cerrado. Knowledge about the effects of drying and storage on the physiological behavior of its seeds may aid in its sustainable exploitation and conservation. The goal of the present study was to determine which fruit ripening stage results in A. edulis seeds with higher tolerance to desiccation, and to investigate the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced osmotic stress in combination with abscisic acid (ABA) in increasing seed desiccation tolerance during storage. Seeds were dried in activated silica gel (fast) or under ambient conditions (slow). Seeds originating from mid-ripe or fully ripe fruits exhibited better physiological performance than those obtained from green fruits. Slow drying resulted in seeds with high physiological potential. Seeds may be stored for up to 180 days without losing viability when treated with -0.73 MPa PEG without ABA. <![CDATA[ABA regulation of post-germination desiccation tolerance in wheat cultivars contrasting in drought tolerance]]> ABSTRACT Post-germination desiccation tolerance (DT) was studied in two wheat cultivars. Effect of pretreatment of abscisic acid (ABA)/ osmotic/ salt/ heat stress was also studied. One day (d)-old seedlings of wheat cultivars PBW 644 (drought tolerant) and PBW 343 (drought susceptible) were exposed to ABA/stress treatment for next 1 d, desiccated for 4 d and subsequently rehydrated for 4 d. Biomass, protein, water, protein carbonyls (oxidative toxicity) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in 2 d (treated), 6 d (desiccated), 10 d (rehydrated) seedlings. Vegetative reactive oxygen species (ROS)/ NO-pathways were studied under normal condition and ABA supply by supplying ROS/NO scavengers. Desiccation caused water loss and increased oxidative toxicity. PBW 644 showed very low level of toxicity but higher loss of water under desiccation. ABA/ stress pretreatment further reduced water level under desiccation and reduced biomass upon rehydration in PBW 644 only. On the other hand, PBW 343 did not show higher decrease of water but showed high toxicity under desiccation where ABA/stress pretreatment improved this response by increasing biomass upon rehydration. This indicated that PBW 644 used metabolic arrest under desiccation for survival while PBW 343 used growth promotive mode. ABA/ROS/NO-pathways were operational in both cultivars. <![CDATA[The characterization and comparison of exopolysaccharides from two benthic diatoms with different biofilm formation abilities]]> ABSTRACT Exopolysaccharide (EPS) of two benthic diatoms, Amphora sp. and Stauroneis sp., with different biofilm formation abilities were investigated. The ratio of suspension-cells/biofilm-cells was employed to indicate the diatom biofilm formation abilities. The soluble EPS from the supernatant of whole culture, tightly bound EPS from floating cells, loosely and tightly bound EPS from biofilm cells were fractionated as SL-EPS, F-TB-EPS, BF-LB-EPS and BF-TB-EPS, respectively. The analysis for productions and monosaccharide compositions indicated that EPS from two diatoms were different in terms of the productions, distributions, and monomer compositions. Amphora sp. produced more (1.5-fold) total exopolysaccharides, but less (&lt;0.4-fold) BF-TB-EPS than Stauroneis sp. The monosaccharides of the EPS from Amphora sp. were more diverse than those of Stauroneis sp., with 13 and 10 monomers, respectively. Neutral sugars, Glc, Xyl and Man, were abundant in Stauroneis sp., while Gal, Glc and Xyl were rich in Amphora sp. Uronic acid and hexosamine were present in all fractions of two diatoms, especially Glc-A being the most abundant monomer in SL-EPS of Amphora sp. It was proposed that the high content of uronic acid (especially Glc-A) might be crucial for the strong biofilm formation abilities of Amphora sp. <![CDATA[Ontogenetic shape changes and sexual dimorphism in Aegla marginata Bond-Buckup and Buckup, 1994]]> ABSTRACT A study on relative growth, sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory was carried out in a population of the aeglidAegla marginata coming from Barrinha River, Iguape River Basin, Tunas do Paraná, Paraná State, Brazil. The size the of morphological sexual maturity was estimated for males and females. The analysis of sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory were performed using geometric morphometric technique. Males reach maturity with 10.58 mm of carapace length (CL) and females with 10.38 mm CL. Sexual size dimorphism was only visible among adults, with males reaching larger sizes. This is probably related to the reproductive strategy of males. However, sexual shape dimorphism was found for both juveniles and adults: the posterior region of the carapace was wider in females. As the contrast of this feature was stronger in adults, it can be considered that large abdomen is advantageous for egg incubation. The allometric trajectories of juveniles presented similar directions, becoming divergent during the adult phase. The shape variation inA. marginataoccurred gradually throughout its development, with no abrupt transformation upon reaching sexual maturity. The reproductive adaptation is the main reason for the morphological variation within populations ofA. marginata. <![CDATA[Effect of herbicides in the oxidative stress in crop winter species]]> ABSTRACT Most herbicides applied in crop field, stay in the soil for a period, affecting next crop or even the plants using as green manure. Nowadays, the use of herbicides grow to increase productivity, mainly in the grain producing region north of Rio Grande do Sul state. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbicides fomesafen and sulfentrazone on antioxidant system in Avena sativa1, Vicia sativa2, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus. The plants were exposed to varying concentrations of fomesafen3 (0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 kg ha -1) and sulfentrazone (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 kg ha-1). For this, the activities of, ascorbat peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol enzymes were analyzed, and the levels of MDA were quantificated. Fomesafen and sulfentrazone promoted alterations in balance of plants generating oxidative stress and elicited the response of the antioxidant system of plants, mainly in the high doses of fomesafen, for the species V. sativa and R. sativus. At the same time, the 1,2 kg ha -1 dose of sulfentrazone generated lipid peroxidation for V. sativa, R. sativus and L. albus. Additionally, A. sativa was the species that demonstrated low alterations on antioxidant system with the exposure to herbicide fomesafen and sulfentrazone. Thus, we can we can suggest that the species present a better response in defense of the oxidative stress generated by the herbicides. <![CDATA[Insects galls of Pantanal areas in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: characterization and occurrence]]> ABSTRACT Two Pantanal areas were investigated in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. The field works were carried out in five trails, in August and December/2011 and April/2012. Seventy-six gall morphotypes were found in 52 host plants, 22 of them were identified at species level and 30 at genus. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of gall. Leaves were the plant organ with the greatest gall richness. Six gall shapes were found - globoid, lenticular, fusiform, cylindrical, conical, and marginal roll. The three first were the most common. Five colors were observed - green, brown, red, yellow, and black. Green and brown predominated. Most were glabrous and one-chambered. These features have been indicated in several Brazilian biomes. Diptera (Cecidomyiidae) were the most frequent gallers. The associated fauna comprised parasitoids (Eulophidae, Braconidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Platygastridae, and Pteromalidae), inquilines (Cecidomyiidae: Trotteria Kieffer, 1902, Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmoides Ashmead, 1896, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera) and predators (Pseudoscorpionida: Olpiolum medium Beier, 1931, Cecidomyiidae: Lestodiplosini and Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Parasitoids were the most frequent. Multiparatism was observed. Our data represent the first contribution to the knowledge of the associated fauna in the Pantanal. <![CDATA[In vivo assessment of cyto/genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe leaves and stems]]> ABSTRACT Costus spiralis is a Brazilian native plant used in popular medicine, but the safety of this therapeutic use needs investigation. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytogenotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of C. spiralis leaves or stems aqueous extracts on Allium cepa root cells. Moreover, a phytochemical screening and an antioxidant and antifungal activities evaluation were performed. C. spiralis aqueous extracts presented cytotoxicity, but no mutagenicity was observed. When the antigenotoxicity was evaluated, C. spiralis leaves aqueous extract presented preventive and modulatory effects on A. cepa root cells, reducing the sodium azide cytogenotoxic effects. In contrast, C. spiralis stems aqueous extract enhanced the sodium azide cytogenotoxicity in some conditions. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds in C. spiralis. When total phenolic content was determined, the leaves presented 73% more phenolic content than stems. Corroborating this data, C. spiralis leaves antioxidant potential was 30% higher than C. spiralis stems. However, these extracts did not present antifungal activity against Candida spp. In conclusion, empirical utilization of C. spiralis aqueous extracts should be avoided. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of C. spiralis leaves and stems can play an important role in anticancer therapy and must be deeply studied. <![CDATA[Asilidae (Diptera) of two Atlantic Forest protected areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT As few Asilidae inventories of Rio de Janeiro areas have been published, there are many data gaps. This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge of richness, abundance and distribution of this family in this State. From January 2013 to March 2014, insects were collected monthly using Malaise traps and every two months using entomological nets in the Reserva Biológica União (REBIO), and Estação Ecológica Estadual de Guaxindiba (EEEG). 682 specimens of Asilidae were collected in the present study, distributed in 31 genera and 51 species (20 identified and 31 unidentified), 527 of REBIO (in 19 genera and 38 species - 14 identified and 24 unidentified), and 155 specimens of EEEG (in 12 genera and 19 species - 6 identified and 13 unidentified). Leptogaster was the most abundant genus being L. tropica (Curran 1934) the most abundant species in the REBIO, with 268 specimens and Leptogaster sp., with 54 specimens, the most abundant in the EEEG. All records of genera and species in the present study are new in the REBIO and EEEG, wich contribute to the knowledge of the Asilidae geographic distribution and richness in the State of Rio de Janeiro. <![CDATA[The exotic jumping snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900) (Gastropoda: Helicarionidae) in urban areas of the Upper-Paraná Atlantic Forest]]> ABSTRACT The exotic land gastropod Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900), aka the jumping snail, was registered in Eldorado city, Misiones province, constituting the first documented record of that species in Argentina-and for all of South America as well. Identities of the individuals were confirmed through morphological examination, and by a DNA sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. DNA sequences for the mitochondrial 16S-rRNA and the nuclear 18S-rRNA genes were also obtained from the morphologically-confirmed specimens to gain insights into the genetic background of this species in Argentina, and as additional markers for enhancing the rapidity of identification by governmental authorities who are responsible for managing the presence of exotic species. Different size classes suggested that the species had successfully reproduced and become established in the locality. Ovachlamys fulgens is emphasized in the literature as being a serious pest to orchids. Misiones province harbors a high species richness of orchids, representing about one half of the known species in Argentina. Owing to the use of the orchid as an ornamental plant, the commercial trade could have facilitated the introduction of the species into Argentina. Control measures, preventive education, and surveillance are needed to prevent the further spread of this snail. <![CDATA[Pterobothrium crassicolle parasitizing Paralichthys orbignyanus (Osteichthyes, Paralichthyidae) in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT From September 2014 to November 2015, 30 Paralichthys orbignyanus specimens were obtained from Sepetiba Bay in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were necropsied and cestode larvae were recovered from the abdominal cavity, mesentery, and serosas of the stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, kidney and gonads. Nineteen fish were parasitized by a total of 90 trypanorhynch plerocerci. Based on morphological characters, these were identified as Pterobothrium crassicolle. The parasitism indices for P. crassicolle on P. orbignyanus, were 63.3% for prevalence, 4.7 for mean intensity, 3 for mean abundance and 1 to 18 for range of infection. These parasites were studied due to their importance during fish sanitary inspection, if one considers the harm that the repulsive aspect of infected fish may cause to consumers. This is the first record of P. crassicolle plerocerci parasitizing P. orbignyanus. <![CDATA[Distribution pattern of anurans from three mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil and their conservation implications]]> ABSTRACT Biogeographic tools support spatial distribution pattern hypotheses and help to determine priority areas for conservation. Our aim was to verify biogeographic patterns for anurans in three mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil, as well as to discuss the status of species conservation recorded and the biogeographical units evaluated. We selected 16 areas distributed in the Serra da Mantiqueira complex, south of Serra do Espinhaço and Serra da Canastra. We used the occurrence (geographic coordinates) of each species in the localities to determine areas of endemism applying the Endemicity Analysis method. We also tested whether similarity between areas was explained by geographic distance (Multiple Regression on distance Matrices-MRM). The Serra do Itatiaia, Serra da Canastra, Plateau of Poços de Caldas and Serra do Cipó were the areas that presented the highest number of species restricted to them. Through the Endemicity Analysis, we identified four areas of endemism with higher scores. The MRM revealed that the geographic distance explained 41% of species dissimilarity between areas. Most of the endemic species from these areas have inaccurate conservation statuses (data deficient or unevaluated). These results highlight the need for greater research efforts towards understanding species restricted by distribution, as well as the priority in conserving these endemic areas. <![CDATA[Morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in rubber tree seeds]]> ABSTRACT The physical, physiological and biochemical changes during the development until the dispersal of rubber tree seeds were evaluated with the purpose of estimating the point at physiological maturity. A total of 30 plants were selected at different points in a commercial planting area and had their flowers marked during the anthesis and every 15 days after marking. Fruits and seeds were collected for analysis of moisture content, dry matter, diameter and length. Details of the anatomy ultra-structure of the seeds were evaluated. The seed emergence, emergency speed index, heat resistant proteins and oxidative stress enzymes were examined. It was observed that fruits reached maximum size at 120 days after anthesis and seeds at 150 days. The seeds acquired germination capacity after 150 days. At 175 days, they presented the highest percentage of dry matter and lowest moisture, in addition to a higher percentage of germination and vigor. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the physiological maturity of the rubber tree seeds occurs at 175 days after anthesis, and coincides with its maximum physiological quality. At 175 and 180 days post-anthesis, there is a greater expression of heat resistant proteins as well as low molecular weight and greater oxidative stress enzyme activity. <![CDATA[All publishers are predatory - some are bigger than others]]> ABSTRACT The physical, physiological and biochemical changes during the development until the dispersal of rubber tree seeds were evaluated with the purpose of estimating the point at physiological maturity. A total of 30 plants were selected at different points in a commercial planting area and had their flowers marked during the anthesis and every 15 days after marking. Fruits and seeds were collected for analysis of moisture content, dry matter, diameter and length. Details of the anatomy ultra-structure of the seeds were evaluated. The seed emergence, emergency speed index, heat resistant proteins and oxidative stress enzymes were examined. It was observed that fruits reached maximum size at 120 days after anthesis and seeds at 150 days. The seeds acquired germination capacity after 150 days. At 175 days, they presented the highest percentage of dry matter and lowest moisture, in addition to a higher percentage of germination and vigor. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the physiological maturity of the rubber tree seeds occurs at 175 days after anthesis, and coincides with its maximum physiological quality. At 175 and 180 days post-anthesis, there is a greater expression of heat resistant proteins as well as low molecular weight and greater oxidative stress enzyme activity. <![CDATA[Mineral supplementation stimulates the immune system and antioxidant responses of dairy cows and reduces somatic cell counts in milk]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of subcutaneous mineral supplementation would affect metabolic parameters, immunological response, milk quality and composition of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Twelve pregnant primiparous Holstein cows, were divided into two groups: six animals supplemented with the mineral complex (magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium and copper), and six animals used as controls. Milk samples were collected every two other weeks postpartum up to sixty days of lactation to analyze composition and quality. Blood samples were collected, and the levels of ketone bodies, total proteins, glucose, albumin, and globulin were measured. The catalase and superoxide enzymes, reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukins were determined. Animals supplemented with minerals showed lower levels of ketone bodies and somatic cell counts on days 30, 45 and 60 of the experiment, without changes in milk composition compared to the control group. Supplemented cows had lower levels reactive oxygen species and increased superoxide enzymes activity. Total protein, globulin and cytokine levels were higher in cows supplemented with mineral complexes. Therefore, we can conclude that subcutaneous mineral supplementation improved the immune response and minimized the oxidative stress in dairy cows during lactation. <![CDATA[Olfactory deficit as a result of clozapine withdrawal syndrome in an animal model of schizophrenia: preliminary results]]> ABSTRACT Clozapine is an antipsychotic that produces serious withdrawal effects in schizophrenic patients. Olfactory deficits are well known as part of negative symptoms, but it is not known whether antipsychotic use and/or withdrawal are implicated. Then, we tested clozapine withdrawal in association with two widely used schizophrenia models: Neonatal immune challenge by Polycitidilic-polyinosinic acid (polyI:C) and ketamine. PolyI:C (or saline) was injected subcutaneously in neonatal period, dose of 5 mg/kg from 2 to 6 Post Natal Days, and ketamine or saline at the dose 25mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily for 7 days from 53 to 60 post natal day. Clozapine 10mg/kg (or saline) was administered i.p. from 46 to 60 post natal day. Olfactory discrimination test (sensorial and cognitive deficit) was performed at 61 post natal day, 24h after the last injections. The association of PolyI:C, ketamine and clozapine disrupted Olfactory Discrimination, equating time in familiar and non-familiar compartments. PolyI:C plus ketamine increased crossings between compartments. It was produced, for the first time, an olfactory deficit induced by clozapine withdrawal in Wistar rats subjected to schizophrenia animal models. <![CDATA[Antibacterial activity of Lamiaceae plant extracts in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant bacteria]]> ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of plant extracts of the Lamiaceae family was evaluated against clinical isolates of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria by broth microdilution technique. Promising results were obtained considering that all extracts were active for at least two bacterial species with MIC ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. <![CDATA[Do carcasses of lambs finished on commercial production systems meet market standards?]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize a commercial lamb finishing system using animals of undefined breed from production to slaughter by analyzing performance, carcass traits, yield of commercial cuts, and the quality and meat acceptance of different slaughter groups, as to evaluate whether this system provides the market with a standardized product. The lots were not homogeneous for yield of commercial cuts and performance and morphometric traits evaluated in vivo. The groups were heterogeneous to 75% of the 13 carcass traits evaluated, among them, hot and cold carcass weights, hot and cold carcass yields, carcass grade finishing and biological yield. There was also no uniformity for the proportion of non-carcass components, morphometry of carcass, visual appraisals, and loin traits. On the other hand, homogeneity was achieved in physico-chemical and sensory traits, except for hardness and proportion of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. We conclude that the commercial finishing system with the use of undefined crossbred lambs does not produce carcass and cuts standardized to the market. <![CDATA[Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in the amphicarpic species Trifolium polymorphum Poir.]]> ABSTRACT Trifolium polymorphum Poir. is an amphicarpic forage legume from southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay and Chile. Information on the genetic diversity of natural populations in natural grasslands in southern Brazil is limited. In order to increase the knowledge about this species, an analysis of the genetic diversity was carried out in 10 natural populations of T. polymorphum with the use of 20 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity in T. polymorphum populations ranged from 0.40 to 0.43, with a mean of 0.42. A total of 193 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.3 alleles per locus and polymorphic information content (PIC) for these markers of 0.62 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.84.The grouping based on the Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity classified populations, regardless of their regions of origin, into two groups with a mean similarity coefficient of 0.32, reflecting the high genetic variability of the populations, especially those located in the Campanha phytogeographic region. This information on diversity can be used to plan future germplasm collection strategies for conservation purposes and also for the breeding of the species. <![CDATA[The combination of compost or biochar with urea and NBPT can improve nitrogen-use efficiency in maize]]> ABSTRACT The addition of organic residues to agricultural soils has been used as a practical alternative to improve crop quality and health. The objective of this work was to evaluate maize physiological and nutritional responses to the application of compost and biochar combined with urea (N) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). The experiment was performed in plastic pots with 3 kg of soil under greenhouse conditions for 30 days. The compost and biochar were applied at the rate of 0.3 ton ha-1, using an amount of nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) demanded by crop growth. The physiological responses of maize were monitored by measuring the plant height, stalk diameter, leaf chlorophyll content, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The nutritional responses of maize were assessed by using the nutrient concentration and the total nutrient assimilation by the plants. The results showed that the addition of compost or biochar did not alter the maize physiological response compared to the addition of mineral fertilizer used under the same conditions. However, a difference occurred in the maize nutritional responses to the compost and biochar amendments combined with urea and NBPT. The greatest N concentration in maize was observed in the treatment consisting of biochar combined with urea + NBPT. All the treatments in which compost or biochar was applied in combination with urea and NBPT presented greater total N assimilation compared to the treatment with conventional fertilization. The results of this survey showed that the combination of urea and NBPT improved the nitrogen-use efficiency of maize. <![CDATA[Sample size for estimating mean and coefficient of variation in species of crotalarias]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation in four species of crotalarias (C. juncea, C. spectabilis, C. breviflora and C. ochroleuca). An experiment was carried out for each species during the season 2014/15. At harvest, 1,000 pods of each species were randomly collected. In each pod were measured: mass of pod with and without seeds, length, width and height of pods, number and mass of seeds per pod, and mass of hundred seeds. Measures of central tendency, variability and distribution were calculated, and the normality was verified. The sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation with amplitudes of the confidence interval of 95% (ACI95%) of 2%, 4%, ..., 20% was determined by resampling with replacement. The sample size varies among species and characters, being necessary a larger sample size to estimate the mean in relation of the necessary for the coefficient of variation. <![CDATA[Persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to determine the persistence of auxinic herbicides applied on tropical pasture and toxicity for succeeding crops. The herbicides were applied in an area of dystrophic red‒yellow latosol with pasture infested of weeds. At 40, 80, and 280 days after application of herbicide, the soil samples were collected at depths of 0 to 20 cm. Soil with residues of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + picloram, triclopyr, and a soil without herbicide application were analyzed with six replicates. Seven crops were cultivated in these soils: cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.], pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lablab bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], corn (Zea mays L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The plants of cucumber, pigeon pea, and alfalfa were the most susceptible to the auxinic herbicide residues. However, the lablab bean was the only one among the dicot evaluated that showed tolerance to the 2,4-D + picloram residual when cultivated in soils at 280 days after application of herbicide. Corn and sorghum showed lower chlorophyll content in soils with 2,4-D + picloram residual up to 80 days after application of herbicide. <![CDATA[Productive potential of cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) propagated by leaf buds]]> ABSTRACT New techniques of rapid multiplication of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) have been developed, requiring technical support for large-scale use. This work main to evaluate the agronomic performance of plantlets obtained by leaf buds technique against stem cuttings in the field conditions. The work was conducted using the randomized block design in a factorial scheme with 3 varieties (BRS Kiriris, 98150-06, 9624-09) × 4 origins of the plantlets (conventional - stem cuttings of 20 cm length, leaf buds of the upper, middle and inferior stem part) × 2 agrochemicals (control and treated). There was a remarkable decrease in some agronomic traits that ranged from 23% (number of branches) to 62% (shoot weight) when using leaf buds plantlets. The treatment of plantlets with agrochemicals promoted significant increases in all traits, ranging from 26% (number of roots per plant) to 46% (shoot weight). The plantlets originating from leaf buds of the upper and middle parts were able to generate stem-like plants similar to stem-derived ones. Despite its lower agronomic performance under field conditions, multiplication by leaf buds may generate five times the number of propagules in comparison with the conventional multiplication, and therefore it could be a viable alternative for rapid cassava multiplication. <![CDATA[Growth, Yield and Grain Nutritional Quality in Three Brazilian Pearl Millets (Pennisetum americanum L.) with African or Indian origins]]> ABSTRACT In this study, we are presenting recommendations to the best agricultural use as well as for plant breeding of three millet cultivars namely ENA1 and ENA2, which have African origin, and BRS1501 originally from India. These cultivars were evaluated for growth, yield and grain quality traits. The morphological traits evaluated in this study indicated that the African genotypes ENA1 and ENA2 are better than the Indian genotype BRS1501 for no-till farming or to produce forage with 15% of crude protein at flowering and at harvest to produce stover (around 7% of crude protein content) for livestock feeding. The BRS1501 cultivar exhibited the highest values for total crude protein, albumins and prolamins, phytate and mineral contents in grains. ENA1 and ENA2 exhibited the highest values of globulin and glutelin contents. The electrophoretic patterns for storage proteins were similar across the three millets cultivars, except for a higher intensity of two glutelin bands with 21 and 24 kDa in BRS1501. Together, the results allow us to recommend BRS1501 for grain production and ENA1 and ENA2 for biomass production. <![CDATA[Critical analyses when modeling tree biomass to ensure additivity of its components]]> ABSTRACT It is presented the theme additivity of biomass of tree components. To evaluate and discuss this context, experimental information collected in forests of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. was used. Equations for components (stem and crown) and total biomass were fitted by means of two procedures: 1) generalized nonlinear least squares and 2) weighted-nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions. Analyzing the performance of the estimators, it can be concluded that the two tested procedures are equivalent. On the other hand, this conclusion differs when evaluated the consistency and efficiency of the estimators. Fitting equations for the components and for the total biomass by an independent way is not realistic, because from a biological point of view the estimates of biomass are inconsistent, i.e., are not additive. The biomass estimates of the components and of the total, resulting from equations adjusted by means of systems of equations, provided narrower confidence intervals in relation to the equations adjusted independently, and is therefore more efficient. The second procedure presents better biological properties and statistics to estimate allometric equations for biomass of the components and for the total when compared with the independent estimation, thus it should be the method to be used. <![CDATA[Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B). The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA). All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures. <![CDATA[Genetic transformation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu by biolistics]]> ABSTRACT Brachiaria brizantha is a forage grass well adapted to tropical areas and cultivated in millions of hectares in Brazil. The apomictic mode of reproduction in this species, in addition to differences in ploidy between sexual and apomictic plants, impairs crossbreeding. The development of a methodology to transform apomictic cultivars will provide an option to introduce agronomic important traits to B. brizantha cv. Marandu. In addition, it will open the possibility to study in vivo the function of candidate genes involved in the apomictic reproduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate peeled seeds, isolated embryo from mature seeds, embryogenic calluses and embryogenic cell suspensions, as target explant for genetic transformation via biolistics. Plasmids bearing the marker genes gus and hptII under the control of the rice actin 1 promoter (pAct1-Os) or the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter (pUbi1Zm) were used. All the target-explants used were suitable for transient gene expression after bombardment, showing gus expression and resistance to hygromycin. Using embryogenic calluses and cell suspensions as target tissues, transgenic plants were regenerated and transgenes detected. <![CDATA[Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae)]]> ABSTRACT Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA. Auxin increased rooting rate and percentage, reducing the average time of root protrusion in eight days. IBA also contributed to increase photosynthesis and dry root and shoot mass in 55.55 and 44.44% of the genotypes, respectively. The highest relative contribution to phenotypic diversity in the absence of auxin was rate (38.75%) and percentage (20.27%) of rooting, whereas in the presence of auxin was stomatal conductance (23.19%) and root dry mass (20.91%). Similarity was found for phenotypic and molecular divergence in the presence of IBA, in which genotypes 1 and 6; genotypes 5, 8 and 9; and genotype 3 were clustered in distinct groups. <![CDATA[Boron foliar application, branch girdling and plant growth regulators on yield and fruit quality of ‘Garber’ pear trees]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of boron foliar application, branch girdling and plant growth regulators on the performance of pear trees cv. Garber. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of different boron rates (220, 440, 660 and 880 mL 100 L-1), branch girdling, and the plant growth regulators Promalin® (benzyladenine + gibberellins AG4+7) (560 mL 100 L-1) and Biozyme * TF (200 mL 100 L-1). The percentage of fruit set, stem length, fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh firmness, soluble solids and yield were assessed. The greatest fruit set was observed with Promalin® in both years and also boron and Biozyme * TF in the second year. The use of Promalin® increased peduncle length, fruit height but negatively affected soluble solids. Yield was also increased by this plant growth regulator and boron. Concluding, Promalin® improves fruit set, yield, and fruit quality and boron positively influence yield. <![CDATA[Colored shade nets induced changes in growth, anatomy and essential oil of Pogostemon cablin]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of colored shade nets on the growth, anatomy and essential oil content, yield and chemical composition of Pogostemon cablin. The plants were cultivated under full sunlight, black, blue and red nets. The harvesting was performed 5 months after planting and it was followed by the analysis of plant growth parameters, leaf anatomy, essential oil content, yield and chemical composition. The plants grown under red net have produced more leaf, shoot, total dry weight and leaf area. Plants cultivated under colored nets showed differences in morphological features. Plants maintained under red net had a higher leaf blade thickness and polar and equatorial diameter of the stomata ratio. Additionally, higher yield of essential oil in the leaves was observed under red and blue colored shade net. The essential oil of the plants grown under red net showed the highest relative percentage of patchoulol (66.84%). Therefore, it is possible using colored shade nets to manipulate P. cablin growth, as well as its essential oil production with several chemical compositions. The analyses of principal components allowed observing that pogostol has negative correlation with α-guaiene and α-bulnesene. There was difference in total dry weight and patchoulol content when the patchouli is cultured under the red colored shade nets. <![CDATA[Root distribution and its association with bean growth habit]]> ABSTRACT Associations between root distribution and bean growth habit may contribute to the selection of genotypes adapted to restrictive environments. The present work aimed to relate and compare root distribution with the growth habit in beans. 10 bean genotypes of different growth habits (I, II and III) were evaluated for root distribution in two agricultural years (2014/15 and 2015/16). The genotypes responded similarly for the trait root distribution throughout the agricultural years, without any simple effect of the genotype x year interaction. The factors genotype and years were significant for the trait. The genotypes of a determinate habit showed significant differences compared to other genotypes (II and III), which were ascribed to their poor performance in the average of years. They include the Carioca Precoce, which showed a behavior similar to the other habits. It could be considered a “plastic” genotype under restrictive conditions. The contrasts revealed significant differences between the growth habits II vs I (2.87) and III vs I (3.64) for root distribution. The differences were also significant for grain yield. Thus, genotypes of indeterminate growth habit show greater root distribution than those of a determinate habit, regardless of the agricultural years. Therefore, they are promising for use in blocks of crosses, when the purpose is the selection of cultivars adapted to low input environments. <![CDATA[Morphology of the Diaphragm Muscle in Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and its Importance in Cases of Traumatic Hernia]]> ABSTRACT The wall of the diaphragm can be affected by changes caused by physical trauma, allowing the passage of viscera between the abdominal cavity and thoracic cavity, thus reducing the space for pulmonary expansion, leading to the formation of hernia and possible death. Thus, we aimed to characterize, size and determine the topography of the diaphragmatic muscle in the Southern Tamandua, since clinical and surgical activities in wild animals have become a reality more and more present in veterinary medicine. We used six adult animals, x-rayed and dissected, followed by collection of fragments of muscular portions for histological analysis. Initially we observed that the animals presented 17 thoracic vertebrae, 3 lumbar vertebrae and 5 sacral vertebrae. The diaphragm was conformed by three segments: sternal, costal and right and left diaphragm pillar, with presence of tendinous centre that housed the passage of the caudal vena cava, called foramen of the caudal vena cava. Dorsally to the tendinous centre, already in the muscle portion, we located the esophageal and aortic hiatus. These findings, as well as the microscopic, were equivalent to that found in the general literature also, corroborating with descriptions already carried out in other mammals’ diaphragms. <![CDATA[A Dual-mode model interpretation of CO<sub>2</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> permeability in polysulfone membranes at low pressures]]> ABSTRACT An asymmetric membrane of polysulfone (PSf) was synthesized by phase inversion method. Permeation experiments were carried out between 2 to 5 bar pressure, and at temperatures 20 to 45°C. The dense-selective layer of PSf membrane presents regular thickness (about 5 µm), and was not possible to observe the formation of macrovoids in porous layer. The CO2 permeability through membrane was 18.8 Barrer at 35°C and 2 bar pressure, and this relationship between the pressure and the CO2 permeability was described adequately by Dual-mode model. The absence of CH4 permeability at 2 and 3 bar pressure, qualifies the PSf membrane for gases separation with high selectivity in this range. <![CDATA[Monitoring structures with optical fibers: infiltration detection]]> ABSTRACT The use of sensors and optical fibers for monitoring structures is continuously growing. Strains, displacements, accelerations, temperatures are just a few of the monitoring possibilities. In the case of dam structures, concrete face rockfill dams constitute a type of structures where the monitoring of water infiltrations is of particular interest. In large structures of this type, opening of slab joints is a common effect of general strain distributions, but crack formation may also occur as a result of high compressive stresses, during and after the reservoir filling stage. In this context, this paper verifies, experimentally, the applicability and the response of a distributed fiber optic monitoring system in the identification of infiltration spots and its potential sizes. The experimental tests confirm the technical feasibility of detecting infiltrations, but did not show clear evidence of their sizes. <![CDATA[Geomorphology-based unit hydrograph models for flood risk management: case study in Brazilian watersheds with contrasting physiographic characteristics]]> ABSTRACT Heavy rainfall in conjunction with an increase in population and intensification of agricultural activities have resulted in countless problems related to flooding in watersheds. Among the techniques available for direct surface runoff (DSR) modeling and flood risk management are the Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH). This study focuses on the evaluation of predictive capability of two conceptual IUH models (Nash and Clark), considering their original (NIUH and CIUH) and geomorphological approaches (NIUHGEO and CIUHGEO), and their advantages over two traditional synthetics UH models - Triangular (TUH) and Dimensionless (DUH), to estimate DSR hydrographs taking as reference two Brazilian watersheds with contrasting geomorphological and climatic characteristics. The main results and conclusions were: i) there was an impact of the differences in physiographical characteristics between watersheds, especially those parameters associated with soil; the dominant rainfall patterns in each watershed had an influence on flood modeling; and ii) CIUH was the most satisfactory model for both watersheds, followed by NIUH, and both models had substantial superiority over synthetic models traditionally employed; iii) although geomorphological approaches for IUH had performances slightly better than TUH and DUH, they should not be considered as standard tools for flood modeling in these watersheds. <![CDATA[Science communication podcasting in Brazil: the potential and challenges depicted by two podcasts]]> ABSTRACT Podcasts - online distributed audio files - are easy access and production media, which can be used for Scientific Communication (SC) but few are presented in Portuguese. The objective of this work is to perform a case study with data from a survey for two Brazilian SC podcasts (Dragões de Garagem and Fronteiras da Ciência) to evaluate the increase of science podcast media in Brazil, the involved potential, their advantages, shortcomings, and perspectives. We noted an increase of listeners over the years, probably due to the internet popularization and the massive increase of mobile phones. Scientific content is underexplored, despite the great interest of the public. Humorous and informal podcasts are the most appealing to the public and they usually listen to them on informal educational sites. The majority of the public is from the South and Southeast regions, they are young male adults with undergraduate or graduate degrees. SC podcasts, despite their potential to communicate science, still have shortcomings to overcome. Nevertheless, independent initiatives can solve this difficulty, making possible for the media to reach a varied audience, affecting different groups that would not have interest in a specific content before, or even the access itself to the scientific knowledge.