Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0001-376520180007&lang=en vol. 90 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[A Dangerous Mistake: Research as a Commodity in University Institutions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703241&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Production and performance of sugarcane seeds (caryopses) from different hybridizations involving RB92579]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703243&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract A major challenge in sugarcane breeding program is the obtaining of enough number of seeds (caryopses) for the development of new improved cultivars. Genotypes differ in their function as pollen recipient and pollen donor, which also affect the seed performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the production and performance of sugarcane seeds from different hybridizations involving RB92579 as pollen recipient and pollen donor. Twelve bi-parental crossings were carried out involving RB92579 and other different genotypes randomly chosen. Seed production potential was evaluated by percentage of fertile spikelets and caryopsis fresh weight. The seed physiological potential was determined by evaluating germination and vigor (index of germination rate, number of normal seedlings per gram of fuzz, and seedling dry weight). The results showed better performance for RB92579 as pollen donor for all characteristics studied. Therefore, RB92579 sugarcane cultivar should be used as pollen donor during hybridizations, condition that permits a greater production and physiological performance of seeds for the sugarcane breeding programs. <![CDATA[Plant densities and harvesting times on productive and physiological aspects of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni grown in southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703249&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Stevia (stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a species characterized by producing non-caloric substances with high sweetening potential. Among these substances, rebaudioside A and stevioside are produced in greater quantity. Plant density and harvesting time are factors that affects biomass and sweetening compounds yield in this species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant densities and harvesting times on the productive and physiological characteristics of stevia in southern Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a split-plot scheme, with 9 treatments comparing the effect of three planting densities (166 667, 83 333 and 33 333 plants ha-1) in the plots and three harvesting periods (before, in the beginning and in full flowering) in the subplots. Harvesting at the beginning of flowering promoted higher dry leaf biomass yield and, when associated with the lowest planting density, promoted higher levels of rebaudioside A and stevioside. The lowest planting density resulted in greater leaves biomass accumulation, whereas the highest density promoted higher yields per area. Interaction between density of 166 667 plants ha-1 and the harvest at the onset of flowering promoted higher yields of rebaudioside A (43.22 kg ha-1) as well as higher rebaudioside A/stevioside ratio (0.60). <![CDATA[Plant growth, radiation use efficiency and yield of sugarcane cultivated in agroforestry systems: An alternative for threatened ecosystems]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703265&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L.) monocropping has had a great socio-economic and environmental impact in Brazil, and agroforestry systems have been considered as an alternative for more sustainable production; however, there is a lack of field research under such conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rates, radiation use efficiency and yield traits in sugarcane cultivated in the understory of Aleurites fordii, in two agroforestry arrangements and monocropping systems. A field experiment was conducted from July 2015 to June 2016 in the city of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The radiation use efficiency, assimilate partitioning, leaf area index, absolute growth rate, net assimilation rate, number of tillers, plant height, % of intercepted solar radiation, extinction coefficient, and yield in each system was evaluated. In agroforestry systems, the dynamic interactions between multiple plant species change with the time and can result in unique microclimates. The use of agroforestry systems in 12 x 12m arrangements should be prioritized because it enables greater yields and radiation availability in the understory. This study sought to provide new sustainable alternatives for farmers in order to increase the diversification of the rural property and maintain the preservation of existing agroecosystems. <![CDATA[Volume equations for Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. plantations in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703285&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract African mahogany (Khaya spp.) plantations are in expansion in Brazil and in the world. This fact justifies the need for studies related to its growth and yield. This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of single-entry and double-entry models for estimating merchantable and total volume for Khaya ivorensis plantations before the first thinning (7 years) and expected final cut (15 years). Volume data was from 100 and 46 trees in Minas Gerais and Pará states, respectively, by using an electronic dendrometer (Criterion RD 1000). Observed volumes were calculated by Smalian’s formula. To validate the optical dendrometer, 10 trees were felled and had their volume measured, and compared with the volumes measured indirectly. The results showed that observed and estimated volumes were statistically equal, and that double-entry models were more precise than single-entry models. Schumacher and Hall model was the best equation to estimate merchantable volume for first thinning and for final cut in Minas Gerais stands. Spurr logarithmized model was the best equation to estimate total volume for first thinning and Spurr model for final cut in Pará stands. All chosen equations can be used to quantify merchantable and total volumes of Khaya ivorensis grown under similar conditions. <![CDATA[Corn grain yield and <sup>15</sup>N-fertilizer recovery as a function of urea sidedress timing]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703299&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Best fertilizer management practices such as adopting the right N sidedress timing can reduce N losses by volatilization, thus, raising N-fertilizer recovery and grain yield. To evaluate ammonia (N-NH3 ) losses, N-fertilizer recovery and grain yield as a function of urea sidedress timing in corn, a field study was conducted during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 growing seasons, adopting a complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of urea sidedress timing (140 kg N ha-1) at V4, V6, V8, V10, and V12 growth stages, plus a control without sidedress N. The largest N losses by N-NH3 volatilization occurred when urea was applied at V10 or V12 growth stages, reaching losses of 35 and 41 % of the total applied N. Although climatic factors influences N-NH3 volatilization process, crop characteristics such as canopy development also seems to affect N-NH3 losses. Nitrogen application at V4 or V6 growth stages resulted in greater N-fertilizer recovery from urea sidedress, reaching values of 53 %. No increase in corn grain yield was observed with N application at different corn growth stages during the two growing seasons evaluated, most likely due to high N mineralization rates from the soil. <![CDATA[Comparative Effect of The Inclusion of Zootechnical Additives in the Feed of Japanese Quails in Two Productive Phases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703313&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal morphology, performance and financial analysis of the inclusion of additives in the feed during the productive period of 360 Japanese quails distributed in a completely randomized design in a split plot scheme in time with five treatments and eight repetitions of nine birds each. The treatments were: control, antibiotic, prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic. The variables were: height, width and width/height ratio of the villi, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio, feed intake, egg production, egg weight average, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and per dozen eggs and viability, internal rate of return, net present value and cost benefit. The additives in the feed increased height and width of the villi, decreased crypt depth and increased villus/ crypt ratio compared to the control. Feed intake was lower after the inclusion of antibiotics and synbiotics in the feed. Egg production and feed conversion improved after the inclusion of additives in the feed compared with the control. The reduction of feed intake was more pronounced with the addition of antibiotic and synbiotic in the final stage of the productive period of the Japanese quails. The inclusion of antibiotics and synbiotic proved to be more financially viable. <![CDATA[Development of an indirect ELISA assay to evaluation of the adaptive immune response of pacu (<em>Piaractus mesopotamicus</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703327&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The pacu is one of the most important species for Brazilian fish farming and is considered emerging in the global aquaculture. Despite its importance, no effective tool for evaluation of the adaptive immune response of this species has been developed. Therefore, this study aimed the development and standardization of indirect ELISA for the measurement of pacu antigen-specific antibodies using polyclonal rabbit anti-pacu IgM used as detector antibody. For this purpose was isolated and purificated of pacu IgM using mannose-binding protein affinity chromatography and produced specific polyclonal antibodies against heavy and light chains pacu IgM, that showed a molecular weight of 72 kDa and 26 kDa, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies obtained demonstrated specificity with heavy and light Ig chains of pacu serum in western blotting. These polyclonal antibodies allowed the development of an indirect ELISA assay of high sensitivity and specificity for the detection and quantification of pacu IgM antibodies immunized with bovine IgG. In conclusion, this approach has great potential to improve the monitoring of vaccine-induced immune responses and help develop immunodiagnostic and epidemiological studies of infectious diseases in pacu systems. <![CDATA[Evaluation of an inexpensive needle test for the diagnosis of phosphorus deficiency and management of phosphorus supplementation for cattle: A multiple case study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703337&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The needle test (NT) is a point-of-care test developed in Brazil to evaluate the Phosphorus (P) status in cattle. Based on bone resistance, the NT is a very inexpensive method which allows the diagnosis of any degree of P deficiency in a fast and simple way in vivo and directly on farm. The NT measures three levels of resistance in the transverse process (TP) of the lumbar vertebrae: a) TP that are impenetrable and result in warping of the needle (P healthy animals); b) TP offering some resistance to the penetration (animals with subclinical P deficiency); and c) TP which has minimal resistance to penetration (clinical P deficiency). This manuscript presents results from a series of case studies to evaluate the hypothesis that the NT could be used to assess P status in cattle and assesses the usefulness of results to support decision making on mineral supplementation strategies for grazing cattle. The NT was able to detect the changes in the resistance patterns of the TP, as there was reduction or elevation of P levels in the mineral mixtures. The NT was useful to assist in decision-making for adoption of mineral supplementation strategies better suited for each farm, helping farmers to save money and avoid unnecessary waste of P. <![CDATA[Structural analysis of a fragmented area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703353&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The theory of landscape ecology applied to the methods of spatial analysis helps to understand changes in the structure of forest remnants. In view of this theory, the objective of the present study was to analyze the structure of a fragmented area between the years 1979 and 2015 through calculation of landscape metrics for arboreal, shrubby and herbaceous vegetation classes. Vegetation classes were classified with visits to the field, interpretation of aerial photographs from 1979 and supervised classification of Landsat 8 from 2015. The metrics calculated for each class were area and total number of fragments, total edge and average connectivity among the fragments. The analysis of structure found that it changed negatively due to an increase in the number of small fragments, which increased the intensity of edge effects and reduced connectivity between fragments for all classes. <![CDATA[Free phenolic compounds extraction from Brazilian halophytes, soybean and rice bran by ultrasound-assisted and orbital shaker methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703363&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In several countries halophytes are commercially cultivated in low saline or even irrigated with seawater, as well as with saline aquaculture effluent, like a sea asparagus Sarcocornia ambigua, that show a biotechnological potential for bioactive compounds production. However, their recovery from matrix is sometimes inefficient because the lignocellulosic materials difficult the solvent action when drastic conditions are not applied. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was optimized by a central composite rotational design for recovery free phenolic compounds (FPC) from the sea asparagus S. ambigua. Optimum conditions were validated and compared with orbital shaker extraction for S. ambigua, other Brazilian halophytes (Apium graveolens, Myrsine parvifolia, Paspalum vaginatum, and Schinus terebinthifolius), soybean and rice bran. Except for P. vaginatum, soybean and rice bran, UAE yielded 18-29% higher FPC than that of the orbital shaker. Besides this analytical performance UAE method optimized is faster than the orbital shaker, providing shorter exposure of the analyst to the extractor solvent and applicable in matrices with different compositions. It was also demonstrated that halophytes species showed to be good natural sources of FPC in a better way as soybean and rice bran. This work was the first to report FPC in M. parvifolia and P. vaginatum. <![CDATA[Potentialities and limitations of agricultural use in soils of semi-arid region of the state of Bahia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703373&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the agricultural use of representative classes of semi-arid regions of the state of Bahia, based on the pedological and evaluation of their soil characteristics. Five areas were selected where trenches were opened to collect samples for the analyses: Eutric Haplustept which presents vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation due to poor drainage with risks of erosion, waterlogging, salinization and compaction but having good natural fertility; Abrupt Kandiustalf with high vulnerability to physical degradation due to the presence of gravel and pebbles which may limit the development of deep rooting plants and mechanization but also with good natural fertility; Typic quartzipsaments and Typic Eutrustalf with no limitations related to drainage as low risk of compaction but featuring limitation of low moisture-holding capacity and nutrients; and Arenic Haplustulf wose characteristics are high vulnerability to degradation due to the drainage limitation related to the Btx horizon cementing in addition to low natural fertility and therefore is not recommended to agricultural use. However, in general, they feature no serious impediments for agricultural use. The amounts of OM is low in all soils but the use of management systems aiming at their accumulation and maintenance in appropriate levels will contribute to the CEC increase as well as to improve the chemical and physical properties. <![CDATA[Modeling of stem form and volume through machine learning]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703389&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Taper functions and volume equations are essential for estimation of the individual volume, which have consolidated theory. On the other hand, mathematical innovation is dynamic, and may improve the forestry modeling. The objective was analyzing the accuracy of machine learning (ML) techniques in relation to a volumetric model and a taper function for acácia negra. We used cubing data, and fit equations with Schumacher and Hall volumetric model and with Hradetzky taper function, compared to the algorithms: k nearest neighbor (k-NN), Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for estimation of total volume and diameter to the relative height. Models were ranked according to error statistics, as well as their dispersion was verified. Schumacher and Hall model and ANN showed the best results for volume estimation as function of dap and height. Machine learning methods were more accurate than the Hradetzky polynomial for tree form estimations. ML models have proven to be appropriate as an alternative to traditional modeling applications in forestry measurement, however, its application must be careful because fit-based overtraining is likely. <![CDATA[Oxidative stress and fish immune system: phagocytosis and leukocyte respiratory burst activity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703403&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Molecular oxygen is a necessary compound for all aerobic organisms, although oxygen is a potent oxidant, which can cause oxidative stress (OS). OS occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of oxidant and antioxidants components, are result of normal cell metabolism, and many of these compounds play a fundamental role in several metabolic pathways. The organism produces several reactive oxygen species (ROS), but they are balanced by an antioxidant defense system that maintains the levels of these oxidizing compounds at an acceptable level. Many of these components are essential in the organism defense and their byproducts are considered potent bactericides that actively act in the destruction of invading pathogens. Fish immune system is composed of innate and acquired mechanisms of defense. Phagocytosis is an innate process of defense, which interconnects these two systems, since the pathogens processing by professional phagocytes is a fundamental stage for antibodies production. During phagocytosis there is production of ROS and consequent production of free radicals (FR), these compounds lead to the formation of potent bactericides to combat microorganisms. However, it is known that OS limits the immune response, with an impairment in defense compounds in an attempt to decrease the ROS production. Studies of fish FR production are preliminary and should be executed to evaluate the effects of ROS on fish, including their beneficial action against pathogens and its deleterious action on the oxidation of cellular components. <![CDATA[Does mechanical damage on soybean induces the production of flavonoids?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703415&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The response of plants to grazing includes the production of chemical defense compounds such as proteases inhibitors and secondary metabolites as flavonoids, which makes them less palatable to feeding and negatively affecting the physiology of insects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical response of soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) resistant (IAC-17, IAC-24) and susceptible (IAC-P1) to insects after mechanical damage. These cultivars were mechanically injured, and after 24 hours samples of these plants were analyzed by HPLC to identify and quantify flavonoids. The flavonoids daidzein, quercetin, and rutin were quantified, with the highest concentration of daidzin in soybean cultivars after mechanical damage. Rutin was biosynthesized by IAC-24. The cultivars IAC-PL1, IAC-17, and IAC-24 did not show a flavonoid response to mechanical damage. The soybean cultivars are not dependent on mechanical damage to produce flavonoids. <![CDATA[Impact of Nitrate and Ammonium ratio on Nutrition and Growth of two Epiphytic Orchids]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703423&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium do not grow and flower well with 100% ammonium (NH4-N); and there are detailed studies on the effects of nitrate (NO3-N) and ammonium ratios on the flowering, but no information about accumulation of other nutrients and the effects of ammonium toxicity on orchids. For this reason, two experiments were carried out with orchids: Phalaenopsis ‘Golden Peoker’ and Dendrobium ‘Valentine’. Six months after acclimatization the plants were transplanted to individual plastic vessels and the treatments consisted of five ratios (%) of nitrate / ammonium (0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, 100/0). The sources of NO3-N and NH4-N were calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, respectively. After 12 months treatment, when the plants were beginning to issuance of flower stem, the accumulation of: N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the shoot and biometric variables were evaluated for both species. The NH4-N ratio of 40% and 50% of the total nitrogen benefited the growth of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium, respectively. The application of higher proportions of ammonium resulted in decreased N, K, Ca and Mg absorption, index of green color and increased leakage of electrolytes in Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. NH4-N proportions greater than 75% for 12 months caused toxicity in Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. <![CDATA[The effects of an osmoregulator, carbohydrates and polyol on maturation and germination of ‘Golden THB’ papaya somatic embryos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703433&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study evaluated the effect of osmoregulators and carbohydrates on the maturation and germination of somatic embryos of papaya ‘Golden THB’. Cotyledon explants from papaya seedlings germinated in vitro on basal MS medium were cultured on somatic embryogenesis induction medium (IM) containing MS salts, myo-inositol, sucrose, agar and p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. After 50 days, embryogenic calli were transferred onto maturation media (MM) for 45 additional days. For experiment 1, a MS-based medium supplemented with abscisic acid, activated charcoal and concentrations of PEG 6000 (0; 40; 50; 60 and 70 g L-1) was used, whereas for experiment 2 malt extract concentrations (0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 g L-1) were assessed. The normal cotyledonary somatic embryos produced in experiment 2 were transferred to the germination medium (GM). The GM consisted of full-strength MS medium, sucrose, agar and was supplemented with myo-inositol at varying concentrations (0; 0.275; 0.55 and 0.825 mM). The PEG concentrations tested impaired the maturation of ‘Golden THB’ papaya somatic embryos. The MM, supplemented with malt extract at 0.153 g L-1, promoted the greatest development of normal somatic embryos (18.28 SE calli-1), that is, two cotyledonary leaves produced 36.56 SE calli-1. The supplementation with 0.45 mM myo-inositol provided the highest germination percentage (47.42%) and conversion to emblings. <![CDATA[Morpho-physiological changes in <em>Billbergia zebrina</em> due to the use of silicates <em>in vitro</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703449&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The use of silicon in Billbergia zebrina cultivation in vitro is an alternative for optimizing micropropagation of this important ornamental plant species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth and anatomical and physiological alterations in Billbergia zebrina (Herbert) Lindley plants as a function of different sources and concentrations of silicon during in vitro cultivation and acclimatization. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a double factorial arrangement and an additional control treatment (2 x 3 + 1). The first factor was relative to calcium silicate and sodium silicate added to the Murashige &amp; Skoog culture medium; the second factor was related to its concentrations, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L-1. After 100 days, their growth, anatomical characteristics, level of silicon and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Growth characteristics were assessed after 60 days of acclimatization period. Plants absorbed more sodium silicate than calcium silicate. This source also stressed the plants impairing their growth, but the highest silicon absorption at 1 mg L-1 attenuated the stressful conditions. The supplementation of the culture medium with calcium silicate led to improved growth, anatomical, and physiological characteristics, which benefited the development of more resistant seedlings with better performance during acclimatization. <![CDATA[Decolorization of remazol brilliant blue R with laccase from <em>Lentinus crinitus</em> grown in agro-industrial by-products]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703463&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Lentinus crinitus is a white-rot fungus that produces laccase, an enzyme used for dye decolorization. Enzyme production depends on cultivation conditions, mainly agro-industrial by-products. We aimed to produce laccase from Lentinus crinitus with agro-industrial by-products for dye decolorization. Culture medium had coffee husk (CH) or citric pulp pellet (CP) and different nitrogen sources (urea, yeast extract, ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate) at concentrations of 0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 and 11.2 g/L. Enzymatic extract was used in the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue R. CH medium promoted greater laccase production than CP in all evaluated conditions. Urea provided the greatest laccase production for CH (37280 U/L) as well as for CP (34107 U/L). In CH medium, laccase activity was suppressed when carbon-to-nitrogen ratio changed from 4.5 to 1.56, but the other nitrogen concentrations did not affect laccase activity. For CP medium, reduction in carbon-to-nitrogen ratio from 6 to 1.76 increased laccase activity in 17%. The peak of laccase activity in CH medium occurred on the 11th day (41246 U/L) and in CP medium on the 12th day (32660 U/L). The maximum decolorization within 24 h was observed with CP enzymatic extract (74%) and with CH extract (76%). <![CDATA[Protease inhibitory, insecticidal and deterrent effects of the trypsin-inhibitor benzamidine on the velvetbean caterpillar in soybean]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703475&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The recognition of protease inhibitors with insecticidal activity is important as a basis for the development of mimetic peptides with potential use as biorational insecticides. We sprayed benzamidine on soybean plants and assessed whether this potent synthetic trypsin-inhibitor has protease inhibitory, insecticidal and deterrent effects on the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae). Activity of trypsin inhibition in soybean leaves was increased and total proteolytic activity in the midgut extract from larvae fed on these leaves was reduced by benzamidine. Different concentrations of benzamidine sprayed on the plant caused approximately 50 % of larval mortality, and larval choice and moth preference and oviposition were all negatively affected. Low concentrations of benzamidine increased mortality and hindered insect choice and oviposition as well as higher doses. Since many synthetic protease inhibitors are usually expensive, small doses of benzamidine may be effective to protect soybean against A. gemmatalis attack. Our results highlight the potential of synthetic protease inhibitors for insecticidal and deterrent purposes in insect pest management. <![CDATA[Spatial Distribution of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703483&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Recently, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera), has been detected in cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado. Several reliable surveys have been conducted on the spatial distribution of stink bugs in soybean; however, few studies have examined the behavior of this insect in cotton in Brazil. Thus, this study examined the spatial distribution of E. heros in cotton using aggregation indices based on the variance-to-mean ratio, Morisita index, exponent k, Poisson and negative binomial distributions. Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation maps were also used to represent insect density. The study was conducted in a 1.1 hectare experimental cotton field in which 64 equally-sized plots were sampled on a weekly basis. Our findings revealed that stink bugs presented an aggregate distribution in 2 sampling weeks based on aggregation indices, and this pattern was best described by a negative binomial distribution. Maps showing the density of pests can be an important tool for sampling pests in crops and control measures in early stages of infestation, when there is an edge effect on the distribution of E. heros, can be an efficient strategy in cotton. <![CDATA[Optimum plot size of planting and bio-agroeconomic revenues from arugula-carrot intercropping systems in a semi-arid region]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703493&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The production of vegetable crops has been characterized as a highly intensive activity in the use of soil, water, inputs and labor in semi-arid regions, being practiced mostly by small family farmers as a way of subsistence, or in the small-scale commercialization of surplus production. Among the agricultural practices that have been successfully used by vegetable producers are intercrop systems that, when implemented with adequate management, present gains in productivity, nutritional, economic, and environmental value. The aim of this study was to estimate the optimal plot sizes of plantings of carrot (Daucus carota L.) intercropped with arugula (Eruca sativa L.) in bi-cultivation in three spatial arrangements, as well as to determine bio-agroeconomic revenues from associations between these vegetable crops in a semi-arid region. Estimates of optimal sizes of experimental plots in intercropping systems, provided by the methods of bootstrap resampling and of sampling intensity (10%), were four, four and three basic units, respectively, for the spatial arrangements 2R:2C, 3R:3C, and 4R: 4C, between rows of arugula (R) intercropped with carrot (C), and by the Hatheway method, all spatial arrangements were of four basic units. The best bio-agroeconomic performance of carrot intercropped with arugula in bi-cultivation was obtained in the spatial arrangement 2R:2C. <![CDATA[One-eye-set sugarcane susceptibility to weed interference]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703513&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The new technology of sugarcane planting, known as one-eye-set seedlings, offer a high standard of plant health and vegetative vigor. However, there are no reports in the literature that evaluate the weed competition with one-eye-set sugarcane seedlings, and the periods in which weed communities need to be controlled in this system. Two interference experiments were conducted in field conditions. The first experiment determined the periods of weed interference of an infesting community predominated by Ipomoea hederifolia and Merremia aegyptia in sugarcane. In the second experiment, these same species competed with plants of the same sugarcane cultivar. Productivity and qualitative aspects of production were evaluated. The critical period of interference prevention in one-eye-set sugarcane system was 103 days, with weed community interference starting at 35 days and lasting until 138 days after planting. Weed coexistence during the entire sugarcane cycle reduced productivity by 60% and affected qualitative characteristics such as the total reducing sugars. Both species affected the vegetative development of the crop, mainly the tillering. I. hederifolia plants developed ahead of the M. aegyptia plants but in late evaluations the interference caused by M. aegyptia (77%) was greater (P&lt;0.01) than that caused by I. hederifolia (72%). <![CDATA[Grafting height does not affect <em>Fusarium</em> wilt control or horticultural performance of <em>Passiflora gibertii</em> N.E.Br. rootstock]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703525&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The influence of the grafting height (5, 10, 20 and 30 cm above the root collar) of P. edulis on P. gibertii was evaluated on the incidence of Fusarium wilt and horticultural performance. Plants of P. gibertii grafted on P. edulis and non-grafted plants of both species were also studied. In addition, histopathological studies were also performed on the roots of non-grafted P. edulis collected at three severity stages of Fusarium wilt. In greenhouse, the graft take was inversely related to the grafting height in general. In the field conditions, the plant growth of P. gibertii grafted on P. edulis was superior to its reciprocal grafting, even though the former combination was susceptible to Fop. Plants of P. edulis grafted on P. gibertii at all grafting heights did not present symptoms of Fop, and the number of fruit yield and quality were equivalent, but plant growth was decreased in relation to the non-grafted plants. Starch depletion in the root system of P. edulis was directly related to the severity of the Fusarium wilt. P. gibertii was confirmed as a Fusarium wilt resistant rootstock of P. edulis, with minimal influence of the grafting height for the control of the disease. <![CDATA[Morpho-physiological characteristics by sweet potato cultivars as function of irrigation depth]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703541&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The sweet potato is an alternative energy source, but its sustainability depends on efficient water use. The objective of this study was to evaluate sweet potato morpho-physiological characteristics, and water use efficiency (WUE). Irrigation depths of 50, 75, 100, and 125% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were applied. The morpho-physiological indicators, WUE, leaf area index (LAI), leaf water potential, leaf temperature, and leaf chlorophyll index (ICF), were evaluated. The WUE of the sweet potato cultivars increased until the 75% water depth of the ETc. The LAI of these cultivars increased with irrigation depth, with higher values at 100% of the ETc. The leaf water potential of the two sweet potato cultivars was lowest with the lower irrigation depth. Leaf temperature was closer to that of ambient temperatures in treatments with greater irrigation depth. The increase of the WUE with the greater accumulation of dry biomass is due to greater CO2 diffusion by stomata. The reduction in the growth of these plants is due to water stress limiting stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf growth (LAI) and chlorophyll concentration, proportional to soil moisture conditions. The functional relationship between soil moisture and growth is essential to optimize irrigation management at different growth stages. <![CDATA[Intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation and nitrogen efficiency in sheep fed a tropical legume silage with or without concentrate]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703551&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Legume silage can increase the forage quality of the diets as well as supply it with nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. The objective was to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation and nitrogen efficiency in sheep fed a tropical legume silage with or without concentrate. Twelve crossbred sheep with an average initial body weight of 32.2 ± 1.26 kg, with six animals cannulated in the rumen were distributed into four 3 × 3 Latin squares. The treatments were 1) Stylosanthes silage without concentrate (StS), 2) Stylosanthes silage with concentrate (StS+C), and 3) corn silage with concentrate (CS+C). StS diet showed lowest intake, except for neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The diets StS+C and CS+C showed similar intake of dry matter (DM) and crude protein. The intake of total digestible nutrients was higher for CS+C diet than diets StS+C and StS. Animals fed CS+C diet had lowest ruminal pH. The nitrogen use efficiency was similar for the diets with concentrate. In conclusion, StS+C diet replacing CS+C diet decreases the intake of total digestible nutrients. <![CDATA[Assessment of the yield loss imparted by <em>Orobanche aegyptiaca</em> in tomato in Pakistan]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703559&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Broomrapes (Orobanche sp.) are root holoparasitic plants causing severe damage to various families of horticultural crops. A Preliminary survey was carried in tomato fields infested with orobanche in Potohar plateau of Pakistan. Results indicated that each planting bed comprising10-12 tomato plants contained 7-8 parasitic weeds. Overall survey indicated the 65-70% plants suffered partial or complete yield loss. Further, it was estimated that the number of weeds inhabiting plant-1 was ranged from 2-4. Yield loss was estimated at 57.17 tons/ha while in terms of financial loss, it was 2579.87 $/ha. Hence total estimated loss on the total surveyed area of 16 hectares was 41395.85 $. The high potential of tomato cultivation in Pakistan reinforces the urgent protection measures to resolve this emerging issue. <![CDATA[Physical-mechanical characterization of two amazon woods coming from the second cutting cycle]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703565&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Due to changes in the Amazon forest dynamics after the first cutting cycle, non exploited species become dominant in the forest. The lack of technological knowledge makes it hard to commercialize these woods, making the understanding of their physical-mechanical properties a fundamental step to properly define their applications. This study aimed to characterize physically and mechanically the wood of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya and Eschweilera ovata from the second cutting cycle of the Tapajós National Forest, intending to commercially promote and to identify usages for them, as well as to evaluate the viability of replacement of highly commercialized species. The tests were performed accordingly to the Brazilian standard NBR 7190. P. psilostachya, presented bulk density of 0.683 g.cm-3, medium levels of shrinkage and anisotropy, as well as medium hardness (7366 N) and high strength on compression parallel to grain (71.63 MPa) and on static bending (103.9 MPa). It was generally superior to Euxylophora paraensis, but inferior when compared to Bagasssa guianensis and Apuleia leiocarpa, with possibilities to replace these three species. E. ovata, on the other hand, presented bulk density of 0.798 g.cm-3, high shrinkage and anisotropy values, but high values for hardness (12089 N) and strength on compression parallel to grain (68.67 MPa) and on static bending (127.1 MPa). This species exhibited, in general, similarities with Mezilaurus itauba, although it is a little inferior in relation to Hymenaea sp. and Astronium lecointei. Both species, P. psilostachya and E. ovata fit in the highest strength class described on the Brazilian Standard NBR7190, C60. By means of the results found, it was concluded that although the species studied were unknown, they presented timber with enough quality to replace some Amazon timber species widely commercialized on both national and international market. <![CDATA[Growth and biochemical variables in Amazon catfish ( <em>Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum</em> ♀ x <em>Leiarius marmoratus</em> ♂) under different water pH]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703573&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Although fish may live in different aquatic environments, variations in the water quality parameters, mainly pH, may have a substantial impact in their development and welfare. The objective of this study was to test the effect of different pH levels on the growth performance and biochemical variables in Amazon catfish juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x Leiarius marmoratus). Fish were subjected to four different water pH levels (4.56, 6.0, 7.24, and 8.90) for 40 days. The total ammonia and alkalinity were higher and lower, respectively, in the treatments with water pHs 4.56 and 6.00 than at the other water pH levels. The un-ionized ammonia was higher at water pH 8.90 than at the other water pH levels. Amazon catfish exposed to water pH 4.56 presented specific growth rate and weight gain significantly higher than other water pH values. In general, fish under exposure to water pH 8.90 presented lower growth performance than other water pH values. Biochemical changes were recorded at all water pH. In conclusion, water pH 4.56 is recommended for an Amazon catfish production system, since fish presented higher growth and water quality variables were kept within adequate limits for aquaculture. <![CDATA[Fruits of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: allying biodiversity conservation and food security]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703583&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Supplying food to growing human populations without depleting natural resources is a challenge for modern human societies. Considering this, the present study has addressed the use of native arboreal species as sources of food for rural populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The aim was to reveal species composition of edible plants, as well as to evaluate the practices used to manage and conserve them. Ethnobotanical indices show the importance of many native trees as local sources of fruits while highlighting the preponderance of the Myrtaceae family. Conservation analysis allowed to identify Campomanesia hirsuta Gardner and Plinia edulis (Vell.) Sobral as being of high Biological Value and Conservation Priority. In spite of that, the local management practices of native fruits appear to be sustainable and contribute to the maintenance and dissemination of valuable species. These results suggest a number of recommended future conservation actions and show the potential of Myrtaceae species for future agronomical development in Neotropical regions. <![CDATA[Neuroscience: unveiling the brain of <em>Saimiri collinsi</em> (Squirrel Monkey)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703597&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Behavioral intelligence among non-human primates is a somewhat puzzling area to study, since it is closely linked to the morphology of the central nervous system. However, this morphology is still unknown to science in the case of Saimiri collinsi. As a means of assisting future studies on the social behavior of this species, we analyzed the brains of six adult females from the National Primate Center / Pará, which were sent to the Animal Morphological Research Laboratory at the Federal Rural University of Amazônia after death by natural causes. The animals were fixed in formaldehyde solution (10%) and dissected. The brains were covered externally by the dura mater, with long cerebral hemispheres, although there was a complete absence of gyri. The internal structures which form a part of the telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain and myelencephalon were identified, with the exception of the mammillary bodies. This condition, when linked to the lissencephaly found in these individuals raises questions about the real learning abilities of this species. <![CDATA[Sequential sampling plan for fruit fly species of the Genus <em>Anastrepha</em> (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava orchards]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703607&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract This study aimed to elaborate a sequential sampling plan for Anastrepha species in commercial orchards of guava Psidium guajava Novo Milênio cultivar. Samplings were carried out in three orchards in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit flies were sampled for 23 weeks. Data were subjected to the sequential probability ratio test. We adopted the mean of 0.3 Anastrepha individuals for the safety level and 0.7 for the control level and the observed frequency was adjusted to the negative binomial expected frequency (Bn) for the equation of the line. The condition of adopting a control method recommended by S1 = 6.5554 + 0.5362n was observed in the upper line. In turn, the lower line, which does not require the use of a control method, is defined by So = -2.8229 + 0.5362n. The sequential sampling plan predicted the expected maximum number of 37 sampling units to decide whether or not to use control method(s). This sequential plan was defined with mean number of 0.54 adults for each McPhail trap unit (sample). The sequential plan generated is unprecedented and will contribute to the rapid and safe decision making in the control of Anastrepha species of economic importance in guava farming. <![CDATA[Anatomical modifications of Butia capitata propagated under colored shade nets]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703615&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The jelly palm plant [Butia capitata (Martius) Beccari] is a native palm of the Cerrado biome used for many purposes in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Dormancy is common in palm seeds, resulting in slow and uneven germination that may take years to complete. Modification in the growth pattern, anatomical parameters, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the plant can be verified due to changes in the light spectrum transmitted through colored shade nets used. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of colored shade nets on the leaf and root anatomy of the jelly palm plant. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, ten replicates and eight plants per replicate, totaling 400 plants. Four colored photo-converter nets with 50% shading and different radiation proportions were employed: white (985 μmol.m-2.s-1), red (327 μmol.m-2.s-1), black (433 μmol.m-2.s-1) and silver (405 μmol.m-2.s-1). The plants cultivated under direct sunlight (1000 μmol.m-2.s-1) were considered as the control group. Leaf and root anatomical analysis was performed on 10 plants per treatment. It is possible to conclude that the colored shade nets caused changes in leaf and root anatomy of the jelly palm plant (Butia capitata). <![CDATA[Atrazine and nicosulfuron affect the reproductive fitness of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703625&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Herbicides can impact non-target metabolic pathways in natural enemies and lead to the reduction of these populations in the field. Behavioral characteristics, morphology and histology of reproductive structures and reproduction of females of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were evaluated under the effect of the herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron and the mixture of both. The number of mature oocytes per ovary was lower in females exposed to the herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron and the mixture of both. Herbicides did not affect the longevity and mortality of P. nigrispinus, therefore, they are selective for this predator. On the other hand, herbicides can cause sublethal effects by affecting the reproduction of predators. <![CDATA[Diversity of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha) in ten varieties of olive trees (<em>Olea europaea</em> L.) in Southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703635&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Olive production (Olea europaea L.) is a recent activity in Brazil and studies on the adaptability of olive trees varieties in the States are required. One of the problems that can hamper the development of olive trees is the incidence of pests, such as scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha). In this study, the associated scale insect species were found in ten varieties in an olive grove located at the Research Center of the Serra do Sudeste Region (30º33’15”S, 52º23’45”W) in Brazil. The surveys were carried out twice in each season (2013-2014). Six species of armored scale insect (Diaspididae) and two soft scales (Coccidae) were determined. Saissetia oleae (Coccidae) with 88.15% and Aspidiotus nerii (Diaspididae) with 5.85% occurred in all varieties of olive trees. The varieties Arbequina, Frantoio and Cipressino were with greater richness of scale insects, the highest values of diversity occurred in Frantoio, Arbequina and Picual; in Alfafara, Arbosana and Coratina there was a high dominance of one species (S. oleae). <![CDATA[Agronomic performance and genetic divergence between genotypes of Manihot esculenta]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703639&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The morphoagronomic characterization of 12 genotypes of M. esculenta was performed during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 crop years. The 12 genotypes were planted in a randomized block design, with four replicates per genotype. Number of tuberous roots per plant, weight of tuberous roots, root yield, total plant weight, harvest index, plant height, height of first branch, number of shoots, stem diameter, number of buds, leaf dry weight and petiole length were evaluated. Genotypes “Camuquem” and “Goiás” were the most productive, and “Amarela” and “Gema de Ovo” were the most divergent. Seventy percent of genetic diversity was due to petiole length (22.86%), root yield (19.20%), weight of tuberous roots (14.89%) and number of buds (13.72%). Overall, the present results indicate a broad genetic basis for the evaluated genotypes, so that such genetic variation benefits the plant breeding for future scenarios Further studies of the evaluated genotypes should be performed under environmental limitations, using biochemical and molecular tools to identify markers for genetic improvement. <![CDATA[Consortium of five fungal isolates conditioning root growth and arbuscular mycorrhiza in soybean, corn, and sugarcane]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703649&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization were studied in sugarcane, corn and soybean by applying five plant growth promoting fungi: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Trichoderma asperella. Sugarcane, corn and soybean were grown in pots under two treatments: (1) inoculation with the fungal consortium and (2) control without inoculation. In the inoculated treatment, fungal spore suspension were applied to the seeds and shoots were sprayed every 28 days. Means were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey’s test at 5% probability level. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with six replications. Fungi consortium mediate root growth in soybean and corn, and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in soybean and sugarcane. These findings are probably caused by the fungi producing phytohormones and inducing the plants to synthesize phytohormones: auxins for root growth; and jasmonic, abscisic, and salicylic acids with a role in the regulation of mycorrhizal colonization. These effects are important when seeking conservation strategies in agriculture and livestock production, since Fungi consortium can better mediate soil resource acquisition, promoting greater absorption of nutrients and water. <![CDATA[Physicochemistry, microbiology, fatty acids composition and volatile profile of traditional Söğle tulum (goat’s skin bag) cheese]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703661&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Söğle cheese is a type of traditional tulum (goat’s skin bag) cheese produced from goat’s milk or a mixture of goat’s and sheep’s milk in Küçük Söğle and Büyük Söğle villages, Antalya, Turkey. This is the first study that aimed to investigate the physicochemistry, microbiology, fatty acids composition and volatile profile of traditional Söğle cheeses ripened in goat’s skins for three months in wells. The pH and titratable acidity values, total solids, fat, protein and salt contents of the Söğle cheese samples ranged from 4.9 to 5.5, from 1.4 to 2.6%, from 46.5 to 55.0%, from 2.0 to 4.5%, from 34.9 and 42.2% and from 4.1 to 8.2%, respectively. The highest proportion of fatty acids in all cheese samples was palmitic acid (C16:0). The lactobacillus, lactococcus, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts in the cheese samples were found to be between 7.1 and 8.5 log cfu/g, 7.8 and 8.7 log cfu/g, 7.6 and 8.5 log cfu/g and 1.0 and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Fifty-three volatile components were identified in the cheese samples including 13 esters, 7 ketones, 5 acids, 2 aldehydes, 5 alcohols, 12 terpenes, and 9 miscellaneous compounds. Ketones and terpenes were the predominant volatile compounds. <![CDATA[Effects of maternal artificial vocalization on hyperprolific lactating sows and piglets behavior]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703675&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this trial was to evaluate the behavioral patterns and performance of lactating sows and their litters under the effect of artificial vocalization. Twenty-eight sows and their litters were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2x2 factorial scheme (artificial vocalization x lactation week). The behavior of the animals was monitored during 24 hours on the 7th and 15th days of lactation, analyzing the number, interval, and frequency of nursings. The body condition and performance of the sows were also evaluated. Artificial vocalization promoted higher frequencies of eating for sow and nursing for piglets (P &lt;0.05), increased inactive sow behavior (P &lt;0.05), and reduced sow alert in activity (P &lt;0.05). The number and duration of suckling sessions at the 15thday of lactation were reduced (P &lt;0.05). The use of artificial vocalization did not affect the body condition or milk production of the lactating sows, or the performance of the litter during lactation (P&gt; 0.05). The use of maternal artificial vocalization during lactation of sows promoted greater lactation efficiency and longer rest time, favoring the sows’ welfare. <![CDATA[Urease activity according to the different inhibitors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703685&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate NBPT, zeolite and humic acid in different concentrations as inhibitors of the activity of the enzyme urease. The activity of the urease enzyme was quantified by the methods proposed by May and Douglas (1976) and Witte and Medina-Escobar (2001). For this reason, two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design in split plots, in which the incubation periods are the plots and the fertilizers with the inhibitors at the different concentrations are the subplots with three replications. Fifteen fertilizers based on NBPT-coated urea, humic acid and zeolite were used in different concentrations. The two methods of analysis used in the experiment confirmed the efficiency of NBPT in inhibiting the enzymatic action even at low concentration, with 0.02% (m/m) being sufficient to inhibit urease, with no difference between inhibitor concentrations. The addition of humic acid reduced the activity of urease after 36 hours of reaction when the activity of the enzyme was evaluated by the method proposed by May and Douglas (1976). Zeolite did not influence the activity of the urease enzyme when analyzed by the May and Douglas method (1976). <![CDATA[Sensory acceptance and qualitative analysis of fruits in papaya hybrids]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703693&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Over the last three years, Brazil has been ranked among the three largest producers of papaya. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptance and commercial standard of papaya fruits according to their sensory traits and provide information about the organoleptic and qualitative aspects of the fruit. Ten papaya genotypes grown in Linhares-ES were investigated, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Ten fruits from each genotype were randomly collected from each replication, which totaled 40 fruits per genotype. The fruit harvest was performed at stage 1 of maturation. The following genotypes were assessed: hybrids UC13, UC14, UC15 and UC16, from the ‘Solo’ group; hybrids UC03, UC10 and UC12, from the ‘Formosa’ group; and ‘Golden’, ‘Calimosa’ and ‘Tainung 01’, which were used as controls. The sensory evaluation of the genotypes was carried out in full balanced design by 50 evaluators. When submitted to sensory analysis, the hybrids showed high performance compared to the controls of each group. Traits such as aroma, flavor and overall impression were crucial in the selection carried out by the appraisers of the hybrids assessed. The hybrids UC10, UC12, UC14 and UC16 were the most accepted and preferred, respectively, in purchase intention. <![CDATA[Technical efficiency analysis of marine shrimp farming (Litopenaeus vannamei) in biofloc and conventional systems: A case study in northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703705&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Shrimp farming has a great ecological, economic, and social importance in northeastern Brazil. Although the conventional farming system is widely used, biofloc technology (BFT) system has been developed to reduce environmental impacts and optimizing the production. Thus,the present study evaluated the technical efficiency of production cycles of Litopenaeus vannamei in conventional and BFT systems.We analyzed 48 production cycles in the conventional system in 2013 and 2014 and 9 cycles in the BFT system in 2014 through data envelopment analysis (DEA). The inputs corresponded to the population density (post-larvae m-2), amount of feed (kg ha-1 cycle-1), labor (man ha-1) and power supply (HP ha-1), whereas the yield (kg ha-1 cycle-1) was considered the output. The results indicated four production cycles (7.0%) technically efficient, three in the conventional system and one in the BFT. By comparing the productive systems, there was significant difference in their mean scores of technical efficiency. There was a greater influence of the management inefficiency on the conventional system, while the production scale reduced the average scores of technical efficiency in the BFT system. These results may help to improve the development of sustainable L. vannamei farming in both systems by reducing waste and increasing profits. <![CDATA[Vascular epiphyte biomass in a South Brazilian fragment of Atlantic Forest]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703717&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The present study aimed at sampling the biomass of vascular epiphytes within a protected area in South Brazilian Atlantic Forest. All tree specimens with diameter at breast height equal or greater than 4.8 cm were measured and divided into classes. In each class, 10% of tree specimens were randomly selected for epiphytic biomass measuring. Furthermore, we divided the phorophytes into five tree parts to analyze epiphytic biomass. We generated mathematical models to estimate epiphytic biomass in similar forest areas. We analyzed 55 phorophytes and found an estimated epiphytic biomass of 5.3 Mg/ha. Epiphytic biomass ranged from 0.02 to 135 kg and the lower values were found on small-sized phorophytes. Higher values of epiphytic biomass were found on phorophytes with diameter at breast height between 30 and 36.5 cm. The tree part with higher epiphytic biomass was the outer crown. The epiphytic biomass showed a high correlation with phorophyte diameter, according to the mathematical models. We selected two equations which presented the most similar values to the ones we measured. Our results corroborate that epiphytes play a very important role as to the biomass level within tropical forests. <![CDATA[Robust volumetric models for supporting the management of secondary forest stands in the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703729&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The majority of Atlantic Forest fragments in Southern Brazil are second-growth forests dominated by fast-growing species with considerable market-value timber. Nevertheless, volume prediction models are scarce, especially to estimate tree total volume (i.e., stem plus branches). This study approached the issue through the following aims: to fit and select stem and total volume models (generic and species-specific) using data from 288 harvested trees in a management operation, and to fit generic and species-specific bark factors. The power model embedding diameter at breast height (D) and tree stem or total height (H) presented the greatest prediction strength for both stem and total tree volume. Models including only D to predict total tree volume were similar to double-entry models regarding goodness-of-fit. Therefore, they may be useful in the context of subtropical closed-canopy forests, where the difficulty and uncertainty in H measurements are not trivial. Species-specific models fitted for Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC) Naudin. and Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão surpassed generic models only for the former species. Nevertheless, the prediction improvement should offset the eventual extra efforts implied in the collection of reliable samples of these species. Finally, bark factors stood as a satisfactory tool for inside bark mean volume estimation. <![CDATA[Impact of percentage and particle size of sugarcane biochar on the sorption behavior of clomazone in Red Latosol]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703745&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Biochar is a carbonaceous material that has excellent potential as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of the amount and particle size of this pyrogenic material on the soil sorption capacity. In this work, evaluation was made of changes in clomazone (CMZ) sorption in a Red Latosol following soil conditioning using different percentages (0.25, 0.5, and 1% w/w) of sugarcane biochar in three particle sizes (&lt;106, 106-508, and 508-610 µm). The conditioned soils presented apparent sorption coefficients (Kd) up to 1300 times higher than that of pure soil, besides changes in the behavior of CMZ sorption. The biochar particle size and percentage influenced sorption of the herbicide as well as its retention in the amended soil during desorption processes. Both sorption and desorption Freundlich constants were linearly correlated with the external surface area of the biochar present in the soil. <![CDATA[Ecological capability evaluation for afforestation and forest expansion using <em>Geographic Information System (GIS)</em> in management area of Caspian Sea]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703761&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Ecological capability evaluation is referred to as evaluation of potential capability of land and determination of its natural land use. In this paper, ecological capability of Lille Basin in Lahijan was evaluated for afforestation and forest expansion using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). For this purpose, information layers (slope, elevation, geographical directions, temperature, rainfall, humidity, soil type, and canopy cover) were prepared by digitizing the data obtained from concerned organizations. First, the layers were prepared based on coordinate systems and pixel value. Then, they were standardized using fuzzy membership functions. The evaluation criteria were prioritized with regard to expert opinion, and by using multi-criteria evaluation method (MCE) and analysis of hierarchic process (AHP), and the final weight of each criterion was determined. The weight for 8 criteria including elevation, soil type, canopy cover (%), directions, slope, temperature, humidity, rainfall were 0.330, 0.210, 0.128, 0.117, 0.076, 0.054, 0.046 and 0.210, respectively. According to these weights, elevation has the highest value and the slope is the lowest. The results suggest that ecological capability exhibits sensitivity to variations of different criteria and its distribution is directly correlated to ecological factors especially climatic and physiographical ones. The incompatibility index (0.09) also indicated that the weights were logical. Then valuation of the maps performed. Finally, based on these values, capabilities of each environmental unit were identified and potentials of the area for afforestation were determined in five capability classes. <![CDATA[Sampling system for estimating woody debris in an urban mixed tropical forest]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703769&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Woody debris, defined as standing and downed deadwood, consists in an essential component of the forest carbon stock. However, few studies have been carried out to get an efficient and accurate sampling procedure for estimating it. This work proposes two methodologies to estimate the woody debris volume in a Brazilian mixed tropical forest: 1) two-stage systematic sampling, using a mixed methodology, in which the Strand’s method is applied to standing dead trees and stumps, and line intercept sampling is used to fallen trees and branches; and 2) ratio estimate of the sum of cross-sectional areas of deadwood pieces and forest basal area, aiming to obtain the total woody debris volume indirectly in the natural forest. Conversions for biomass and carbon stocks were made applying the mean basic density on the estimates of deadwood volumes. Both methodologies are accurate for woody debris volume estimates, with a sampling error equal to 16.1% (methodology 1) and 5.7% (methodology 2), at a 95% probability level. Thus, the methodology 2 has potential to be used in strategic forest inventories of woody debris, such as in National Forest Inventories, due to increasing importance of its quantification in all forest ecosystems. <![CDATA[Sunflower protein concentrate and crambe protein concentrate in diets for silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824): use as sustainable ingredients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703781&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic parameters of silver catfish fed with protein concentrates of sunflower meal (SMPC) and crambe meal (CrMPC). The study evaluated two levels of substitution, where 25 or 50% of animal protein was replaced with plant-based protein. A total of 300 silver catfish (14 ± 0.26 g) were used in five treatments and three replications, in fifteen 280-liter experimental units. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the control diet was compared to the remaining treatments by Dunnett’s test at 5% significance level. At the end of the trial, no differences were observed for the variables final weight and daily weight gain. However, minor feed conversion was observed in the groups Control and SMPC-25%. Metabolic parameters were analyzed in the plasma and liver, where no significant differences were found for any of the blood parameters analyzed. In the analyzed liver parameters (ammonia, protein, amino acids and ALAT), the liver protein content was lower in fish consuming SMPC-50%, CrMPC-50% and 25% CrMPC diets. The amino acids content was higher in fish receiving the SMPC-25% diet. It can be concluded that sunflower meal protein concentrate is better utilized by fish and more efficient metabolically than crambe meal. This study demonstrated that a newly developed protein concentrate SMPC and CrMPC can effectively replace 25% and 50% the animal protein in a diet free of FM. <![CDATA[Welfare indicators for laying Japanese quails caged at different densities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703791&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract In the way to reduce costs in the poultry production, high densities of birds are adopted in the production systems. Such high densities can lead to an inappropriate environment, compromising the welfare and decreasing the animal performance. In this work we aimed to evaluate the effects of different densities on the productive yield, egg quality and immunological aspects of Japanese quails. It was used 816 Japanese quails, during egg production phase, in a random design, with four treatments (121.43 cm2/bird; 106.25 cm2/bird; 94.44 cm2/bird and 85.00 cm2/bird) with six repetitions each. Results indicate density did not interfere on egg quality and all treatments can be considered excellent, once the Haugh Unit was 88.03. Therefore, higher densities decline the yield, decreasing the eggs weight (10.35 g), the laying percentage (88%), egg mass (9.16 g) and the week average feed consumption (157.35 g). IgY values were higher at smaller cage density, suggesting birds in this condition presented better immunological condition, related to welfare and stress factors, all linked to immunoglobulins IgY. <![CDATA[Dynamics of solar radiation and soybean yield in agroforestry systems]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703799&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Soybean (Glycine max L.) monocropping have had a great socio-economic and environmental impact on the world and agroforestry systems has been considered an alternative for more sustainable production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different arrangements of agroforestry systems of the species E. urophylla x E. grandis and P. dubium and the pruning of the trees on the dynamics of solar radiation and soybean yield. A field experiment was conducted in Southern Brazil. In order to achieve the objective of the study, the solar radiation transmissivity and the productive performance of the soybean were evaluated. In this study, the soybean yield was determined by the arrangement of the agroforestry system and forest species utilized. The soybean crop cultivated in the understory of the P. dubium trees showed the highest yield response. The use of silvicultural practices for the management of forest species should be considered to generate the balance of the productive system. In this context, tree pruning is a viable side for agroforestry systems, as it promotes an increase in the incidence of solar radiation in the understory, resulting in an increase in soybean yield, especially when integrated with P. dubium. <![CDATA[Isolation and prospection of diazotrophic rhizobacteria associated with sugarcane under organic management]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703813&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Microorganisms associated with organic management are essential in nutrient transformation and release for plant use. The present study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize plant growth promoting diazotrophic rhizobacteria associated with sugarcane under organic management. Rhizospheres of organic sugarcane varieties IAC 911099 and CTC4 were sampled and inoculated onto nitrogen free NFb and Burk media. The isolated microorganisms were screened in vitro concerning their ability to produce plant growth promoting factors. Eighty-one bacteria were isolated; 45.6% were positive for the nifH gene and produced at least one of the evaluated plant growth promotion factors. The production of indole-3-acetic acid was observed in 46% of the isolates, while phosphate solubilization was observed in 86.5%. No isolates were hydrogen cyanide producers, while 81% were ammonia producers, 19% produced cellulases and 2.7%, chitinases. Microorganisms belonging to the Burkholderia genus were able to inhibit Fusarium moniliforme growth in vitro. Plant growth promoting microorganisms associated with organic sugarcane, especially belonging to Burkholderia, Sphingobium, Rhizobium and Enterobacter genera, can be environmentally friendly alternatives to improve sugarcane production. <![CDATA[Fertility Life Table, Population Parameters and Biotic Potential of <em>Helicoverpa gelotopoeon</em> (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703831&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Helicoverpa gelotopoeon is an endemic pest of South America that affects soybean and other important crops. Life tables are a fundamental tool used to study insect populations, resulting in crucial information for integrated pest management programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biotic potential and the construction of a life table of this species under laboratory conditions. The biological parameters that showed significant differences between male and female were pupal duration, longevity and life span, which were all longer in duration for males. The net reproductive rate (R0) was 95.49, the mean generation time (T) 37.53, and the instantaneous rate of population increase “r” 0.12. The population doubling time (DT) was 5.70 days, and the daily finite rate of increase (λ) 1.13. The maximum rate of population growth occurred in the day 33. Fecundity had two peaks: at days 35 and 37. Gross and net fecundity rate, and the average number of eggs laid per female per day were 565.87, 496.07, and 18.76 respectively. The biotic potential was 2.026 x 1018 individuals/female/year. The survivorship curve showed that mortality was high during incubation period and first larval instars, then it declined until the death of last adult. These results provide important information to develop management strategies of H. gelotopoeon in South America. <![CDATA[Multivariate analysis relating milk production, milk composition, and seasons of the year]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703839&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Our objective was to quantify the relationship between seasons of the year, milk production, and milk composition of a dairy farm based on data for 48 consecutive months, using multivariate statistical analyses. The dataset contained information on productive indexes and milk composition from the bulk tank milk, which was measured from milk samples, collected monthly and used to determine the total dry extract and defatted dry extract, lactose, fat, protein, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count. Seasons of the year and milk production/hectare were also considered. Factor, cluster, and discriminant analysis were used to study the relationships between the above-mentioned variables. A positive relationship was noted between season and total dry extract, defatted dry extract, milk fat, and protein, with higher values being observed in winter and spring. Similarly, a positive relationship was noted between season and milk production/hectare, lactose content, with an increase in milk production and lactose content in winter and spring, which was negatively related to the somatic cell count and total bacterial count. Milk production and composition varied mainly with seasons. Multivariate analyses facilitated a better understanding of the relationship between milk production and composition on this dairy farm. <![CDATA[Molecular marker assisted selection for increasing inbreeding in S<sub>1</sub> populations of cassava]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703853&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The objective of the present work was to use MAS in self-pollinated cassava populations for obtaining individuals with high inbreeding (f) aimed at rapid development of partial inbred lines. Three progenies (F0222, F1378 and F1662) were self-pollinated, generating a total of 233 S1 individuals. The progenies and the S1 individuals were evaluated in the seedlings and clonal evaluation trials (CETs). In the CET, plants were evaluated for the following traits: plant height (PH), root dry matter content (DMC), above ground yield (AGY), root (RY) and starch yield (SY). Twenty-seven microsatellites and five minisatellites were used to determine the level of inbreeding of the S1 individuals. Inbreeding (f) values varied from 0.15 to 0.89 within progenies, whereas most of the S1 individuals presented f values above 0.50. In average, 25% of the S1 individuals were selected, which resulted in a 38% inbreeding increase in the cassava progenies. In contrast, phenotypic selection showed no differences in inbreeding increase. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the level of inbreeding and agronomic traits. MAS was efficient for the identification and selection of cassava S1 individuals, with higher inbreeding values contributing to the decrease in the breeding cycles necessary to obtain new cassava inbred lines. <![CDATA[Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of selected varieties of <em>Piper betle</em> L. (Betel leaf)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703871&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Piper betle L., is an evergreen perennial creeper belonging to family Piperaceae and is known to possess numerous medicinal properties. Current study focuses on evaluating antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of betel leaf. For the present study, distilled water, hexane, acetone and ethanolic extracts of two varieties of betel leaves: Meetha paan and Banarasi paan were used. Biochemical tests such as proximate analysis (moisture, ash, protein, lipids, minerals viz., sodium and potassium), antioxidant activity tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, reducing power) and antimicrobial test (antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility test) against four pathogens viz., B. subtilis, E. coli, A. niger and S. cerevisiae were determined. Ethanolic extract had the highest antioxidant activity (89.46% inhibition), while the aqueous extract exhibited lowest antioxidant activity (62.03% inhibition). With increasing concentration (5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL), the reducing power of leaf extracts also increased. The ascorbic acid was not significant in Banarasi paan (5.21mg/100 g) and Meetha paan (5.20mg/100 g). The highest antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract (Banarasi paan) may be attributed to the presence of phytosterols in the leaf varieties. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential study will help to build a database and promote the utilization of betel leaf as a medicinal herb. <![CDATA[Management of pruning and evaluation in blackberry cultivars in relation to productive characteristics and bioactive compounds]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703879&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The goal of this work was to evaluate blackberry cultivars in terms of productivity and bioactive compounds. Two experiments were conducted: in the first experiment four cultivars were evaluated (Cherokee, Guarani, BRS-Tupy and Xavante). In the second experiment, the effects of pruning management in the BRS-Tupy cultivar were evaluated with the following treatments: drastic winter pruning (zero primocane), and maintenance of two, three or four primocanes in the winter pruning. Vegetative, productive and fruit quality characteristics were determined, including measurement of bioactive compounds. Among the cultivars, the cultivar BRS-Tupy was superior in terms of productive characteristics, but for content of anthocyanins and flavonoids, the cultivar Xavante stood out (191.97 and 68.44 mg 100 g-1, respectively). Drastic winter pruning produced lower fruit quality. The number of primocanes has a directly proportional influence on the soluble solids content and productivity component. For farmers who want fruits with greater levels of bioactive compounds, the use of cultivar Xavante is recommended; however, for those who aim for productive aspects, we suggest the use of cultivar BRS-Tupy with four primocanes per plant. <![CDATA[Combination of fixative agents and fixation times to visually differentiate the cortical from the medullary layer in bovine adrenal glands]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703887&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenals weight and changes their morphology. This study aimed to compare four methods to delimitate the cortical and medullary layers of adrenals glands in Nelore bulls. Fresh adrenals did not present differentiation between layers. Then, frozen adrenals were distributed in plastics bags with fixative Bouin (G1), 96ºGL ethylic alcohol (G2), 10% formaldehyde (G3), or 2.5% glutaraldehyde (G4). After 12 hours of fixation, the G1 adrenal glands did not show the entire cortical layer marked by Bouin’s solution. For G2 and G3 there was a poor contrast, while for G4 there was a reasonable contrast. After 24 hours of fixation, G1 had an excellent contrast between layers, while G2 and G4 had a reasonable contrast and G3 a very bad contrast. After 48 hours it was difficult to differentiate cortical and medullar layers for G1; for Group 2 we get a reasonable contrast; and for G3 the contrast was bad. For G4 the contrast was not as sharp due to the medulla became dark. It was concluded that fixation of adrenals must be done in Bouin’s solution for 24 hours to obtain an effective evaluation of the adrenals’ morphometry. <![CDATA[Growth of cactus pear cv. Miúda under different salinity levels and irrigation frequencies]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703893&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Soil and water salinity are considered the main limiting factors of plant production. This work aimed to evaluate the influences of irrigation frequency and soil salinity on the development of cactus pear cv. Miúda (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck). The experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement of four salinity levels: 0.3 (control), 0.5 (low), 1.5 (medium) and 3.6 (high salinity) (ds m-1), associated with four irrigation frequencies (each 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) and two soil textures (sandy and sandy loam) in a randomized block design with four replicates. One cladode was planted in each polyethylene pot containing 10 kg of soil. The soil texture influenced some of the morphological characteristics of the cactus pear, so that plants grown in sandy loam soil yielded higher number of cladodes (9.47) and higher productivity (62.1 g plant-1). The sandy soil produced plants with fewer cladodes (4.50). Irrigation water with a salinity level of 3.6 ds m-1 and an irrigation frequency of 7 days showed higher soil electrical conductivity (48.65 dS m-1) and plants with a higher damage (5.0) and lower productivity (32.51 g plant-1), indicating a low tolerance of the cv. Miúda to salt stress. <![CDATA[Growth and production of volatile compounds of yarrow (<em>Achillea millefolium</em> L.) under different irrigation depths]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703901&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae) is an important medicinal plant used worldwide for its medicinal properties such as the analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and production of photosynthetic pigments and of volatile constituents of Achillea millefolium L. under different irrigation depths. The treatments were the application of 55, 110, 220, 440 and 880 mm of water for a period of 110 days. Data were submitted to polynomial regression analysis at 5% probability, while the volatile constituents were analyzed by standard deviation. Different irrigation depths provided quadratic growth responses being the highest dry matter production at the depth of 440 mm. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids were higher at the lower depth tested (55 mm). The major volatile compounds identified were sabinene, 1,8-cineol, borneol and β-caryophyllene. Increased water availability reduced the complexity of the volatile fraction of essential oil. Thus, it is recommended that the species be cultivated at 440 mm irrigation depth to have a higher production of dry matter and lower variation in the volatile profile of the essential oil. <![CDATA[Bibliometric Analysis for Pattern Exploration in Worldwide Digital Soil Mapping Publications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703911&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Bibliometric analyses provide a clear understanding of the scientific performance and relate them with standards of the global scientific production. Soil science is an outstanding and developing field among environmental sciences. Knowledge about soil characteristics and their distribution in the environment has been enriched by the use of new geotechnologies, resulting in what is known as digital soil mapping. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize the scientific production in digital soil mapping in Brazil and in the world, in the period from 1996 to 2017, in databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. In the general context of increasing numbers of papers, the journal Geoderma published the highest number of related papers. Among the 10 with most published papers, the Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo is the only open access journal. Although there are countries at the cutting edge of digital soil mapping such as the United States and Australia, the position of Brazil in the number of papers and authors cannot be overlooked, showing the importance of the nation’s participation in digital soil mapping, as a field of science that can provide guidelines for public policies for the development of agriculture in the country. <![CDATA[Relationship between biochemical and photosynthetic traits with Asian soybean rust]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703925&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi – ASR) is one of the major diseases that occur in soybean and causes great damage to commercial crops. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate the relationship between biochemical and photosyntetic parameters in soybean with ASR. Two experiments were performed in a randomized complete block with three treatments (water, Tween 20, and methyl jasmonate). The evaluated traits were: severity, chlorophyll pools, concentration of phenolic compounds content, enzyme activity, and photosyntetic parameters. Based on Pearson correlation, correlation network and path analysis it was verified that the severity had high correlation with almost all traits evaluated meanwhile photosynthesis is weakly related with almost all traits. Therefore, the occurrence of ASR affects directly the traits related to enzymatic activity and phenolic compounds content in soybean plants inoculated with ASR. The management of ASR is important to keep in normal levels the rates of photosynthesis carried out by the plant, and thus not affect the yield. Besides that, understanding the biochemical mechanisms and ecophysiological responses that occur during the soybean-P. pachyrhizi interaction has a great importance for breeding programs, as it will help for obtaining resistant cultivars or efficient methods in fungus control. <![CDATA[Hematological and biochemical profile of BALB/c nude and C57BL/6 SCID female mice after ovarian xenograft]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703941&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Hematological and biochemical profile studies help to evaluate functional changes of animals used in experiments. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical profile of immunosuppressed BALB/c nude and C57BL/6 SCID mice after bovine ovarian xenotransplantation. Therefore, a total of 74 female mice were divided into four groups: non-xenotransplanted animals, xenotransplanted animals, xenotransplanted animals treated with eCG and xenotransplanted animals treated with FSH + LH. After anesthesia, blood samples were collected and hematologic and biochemical values were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) for hematological parameters between the control group and the treatment groups of both strains. However, considering the biochemical profile, it was observed an increase of AST concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) in both strains and a decrease of ALT concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) only in C57BL/6 SCID strain of the groups subjected to hormonal treatment compared with those non subjected. Additionally, the values of the renal enzymes, urea and creatinine, did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) between the groups. Our findings suggest that the xenotransplantation procedure as well as the hormonal dosages had no significant effect on the well-being of the animals considering the evaluated hematological and biochemical profile. <![CDATA[<em>Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii</em> in <em>Allium sativum</em>: potential biocontrol agents and their effects on plant metabolites]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703949&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plays an important role in popular culture due to its dietary and medicinal uses. It is also used to produce a wide range of pharmacologically interesting molecules. Several pathogens affect garlic plants, especially Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii, a fungus that is widespread and causes large economic losses. It causes direct damage to crops and leads to plant stress, which induces secondary metabolite production in plants. The use of microorganisms as biocontrol agents may induce the production of beneficial metabolites in plants that will protect it and promote resistance to pathogen attack. In addition to suppressing disease, biological control agents may have elicitor effects that could induce an increase in the production of useful bioactive secondary metabolites in plants, some of which may be of pharmacological interest. Therefore, the search for new biological control agents should also consider their potential as elicitor agents. This paper presents an analysis of the biological control of Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii by antagonistic microrganisms, the potential of yeasts and bacteria of the genus Bacillus for the biocontrol of phytopathogens, microrganisms influence in nutritional and bioactive compounds content of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. <![CDATA[Population suppression of <em>Ceratitis capitata</em> (Wiedemann) on table grapes using toxic baits]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703963&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract To provide alternatives to the use of spraying synthetic insecticides in C. capitata management, was evaluated the effect of “attract and kill” toxic baits on population suppression of C. capitata in three commercial areas producing table grapes. Toxic baits of Gelsura™ (4.5 L ha-1) and Success™ 0.02 CB (4.0 L ha-1) resulted in lower population levels of C. capitata adults in monitoring traps after five sequential applications at weekly intervals during the maturation period of the grapes when compared with control plots with or without insecticidal spray. In addition, plots with Gelsura™ and Success™ 0.02 CB applications showed a significant reduction in damage (%) by C. capitata on grape berries and grape bunches when compared with control plots without or with insecticidal spray. However, when compared with a plot treated by conventional management with sprays of etofenprox (Safety™, 100 g c.p. (commercial product) 100 L-1) and applications of spinosad (Success™ 0.02 CB toxic bait) with a brush, only Gelsura™ (4.5 L ha-1) showed a lower level of damage of grape berries and grape bunches. Toxic baits Gelsura™ (4.5 L ha-1) and Success™ 0.02 CB (4.0 L ha-1) are promising alternatives for the population suppression of C. capitata on table grapes. <![CDATA[Soil Physical Quality in Agricultural Systems on the Cerrado of Piauí State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000703975&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Soil quality is essential for maintaining the sustainability of agro-ecosystems and ecosystem services provided by this natural resource. The present study aimed to assess the physical quality of soil through the characterization of the physical properties in grain production systems in the Southwest region of Piauí State, Brazil. The study was carried out in the Cerrado region of Piauí in four cities in areas of expansion of the agricultural frontier of the state: Baixa Grande do Ribeiro, Sebastião Leal, Uruçuí and Bom Jesus. Soil samples were collected in April 2012, in areas of grain production under conventional and no-tillage systems. Adjacent areas with native vegetation were also sampled as reference. Bulk density, effective saturation, hydraulic conductivity, penetration resistance, porosity and aggregation were measured. Regardless of the type of soil management used, agricultural systems degrade soil physical quality. No-tillage showed higher bulk density, penetration resistance and aggregation, with lower total porosity, macroporosity and hydraulic conductivity. The physical quality of soil in the agricultural areas of the Cerrado region of Piauí was dependent on the soil texture, while silt, clay and organic matter were determinant for soil aggregation, mechanical resistance, total porosity and microporosity.