Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> vol. 89 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Landslide hazard mapping, DNA damage induced by sucrose and the biotechnology potential of sponge-associated bacteria communities]]> <![CDATA[Uniqueness Properties of The Solution of The Inverse Problem for The Sturm-Liouville Equation With Discontinuous Leading Coefficient]]> Abstract The present paper studies uniqueness properties of the solution of the inverse problem for the Sturm-Liouville equation with discontinuous leading coefficient and the separated boundary conditions. It is proved that the considered boundary-value is uniquely reconstructed, i.e. the potential function of the equation and the constants in the boundary conditions are uniquely determined by given Weyl function or by the given spectral data. <![CDATA[Periodic complex map germs and foliations]]> Abstract In this paper we study topological and analytical conditions on the orbits of a germ of diffeomorphism in the complex plane in order to obtain periodicity. In particular, we give a simple proof of a finiteness criteria for groups of analytic diffeomorphisms, stated in Brochero Martínez 2003. As an application, we derive some consequences about the integrability of complex vector fields in dimension three in a neighborhood of a singular point. <![CDATA[Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State]]> ABSTRACT This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina), Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38) and gimnosperm (3), spores of pteridophyta (16) and bryophyta (2), spores of fungi (8), algae (3), acritarchs (3), dinoflagellate cysts (2) and microforaminiferal linings (1). Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP), based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP) also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years), underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions. <![CDATA[Potentially mobile of heavy metals on the surface sediments in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries]]> ABSTRACT Estuarine sediments represent important pools of trace metals, released from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Fluctuations in the water column physicochemical conditions, on the other hand, may transfer metals from solid to liquid compartment and resulting in contamination of the surrounding environment. The present research was carried out to evaluate the weakly bounded heavy metal levels in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries, in order to quantify its potentially availability. The monitoring includes five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) and cover nine estuaries in Rio Grande do Norte state/Brazil, including four hypersaline and five true estuaries. 50 surface sediment samples were collected in each estuary. At the same time, organic matter concentrations were evaluated in order to help explaining possible local variations in heavy metal levels. Organic matter results (0.7% - 7.3%) suggest the positive Potengi estuary as the most critical environmental quality situation. On the other hand, according to heavy metals levels, both Conchas and Potengi estuaries registered the higher concentrations of Cr. The highest concentrations were observed in the hyper-saline estuaries, with the exception of the Zn. The present study revealed that the watershed occupation has significantly influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the estuaries. <![CDATA[Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil]]> ABSTRACT This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides. <![CDATA[Conservation of geosites as a tool to protect geoheritage: the inventory of Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province - NE/Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The Ceará Central Domain, in the northern Borborema Province/NE Brazil, encompasses important geological records (geosites) which allow understanding a relevant period of the Earth’s evolution, mainly associated to Neoproterozoic Brazilian/Pan-African Cycle and West Gondwana amalgamation, besides Neoarchean to Ordovician records. The presented geoheritage inventory aims to characterise the geosites with scientific relevance of Ceará Central Domain. By applying a method for large areas, the final selection resulted in eight geological frameworks represented by 52 geosites documented in a single database. This is the first step for a geoconservation strategy based on systematic inventories, statutory protection, geoethical behaviour and awareness about scientific, educational and/or cultural relevance of geosites. <![CDATA[Natural decomposition of hornbeam wood decayed by the white rot fungus <em>Trametes versicolor</em>]]> ABSTRACT The impacts of white-rot fungi on altering wood chemistry have been studied mostly in vitro. However, in vivo approaches may enable better assessment of the nature of interactions between saprotrophic fungi and host tree in nature. Hence, decayed and sound wood samples were collected from a naturally infected tree (Carpinus betulus L.). Fruiting bodies of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor grown on the same tree were identified using rDNA ITS sequencing. Chemical compositions (cellulose and lignin) of both sound and infected wood were studied. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to collect spectra of decayed and un-decayed wood samples. The results of chemical compositions indicated that T. versicolor reduced cellulose and lignin in similar quantities. Fungal activities in decayed wood causes serious decline in pH content. The amount of alcohol-benzene soluble extractives was severely decreased, while a remarkable increase was found in 1% sodium hydroxide soluble and hot water extractive contents in the decayed wood samples, respectively. FT-IR analyses demonstrated that T. versicolor causes simultaneous white rot in the hornbeam tree in vivo which is in line with in vitro experiments. <![CDATA[High consumption of sucrose induces DNA damage in male <em>Wistar</em> rats]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the high consumption of sucrose on the levels of DNA damage in blood, hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated for 4 months with sucrose (10% for 60 initial days and 34% for the following 60 days) in drinking water, and then, glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were measured. Levels of DNA damage in blood and hippocampus were evaluated by the comet assay. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the bone marrow. The sucrose treatment significantly increased (p&lt;0.01) the serum glucose levels (~20%) and A1C (~60%). The level of primary DNA damage was significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) in hippocampal cells (~60%) but not in peripheral blood leukocytes (p&gt;0.05). Additionally, it was observed a significative increase (p&lt;0.05) in the markers of chromosomal breaks/losses in bone marrow, as indicated by the micronucleus test. This is the first study that evaluated DNA damage induced by high sucrose concentration in the hippocampus and bone marrow of rats. Sucrose-induced DNA damage was observed in both tissues. However, the mechanism of sucrose toxicity on DNA remains unknown. <![CDATA[Latin American scientific contribution to ecology]]> ABSTRACT Latin America embodies countries of special interest for ecological studies, given that areas with great value for biodiversity are located within their territories. This highlights the importance of an evaluation of ecological research in the Latin America region. We assessed the scientific participation of Latin American researchers in ecological journals, patterns of international collaboration, and defined the main characteristics of the articles. Although Latin American publications have increased in fourteen years, they accounted up to 9% of publications in Ecology. Brazil leaded the scientific production in Latin America, followed by Argentina and Mexico. In general, Latin American articles represented a low percentage of most journals total publication, with particularly low expression in high impact-factor journals. A half of the Latin American publications had international collaboration. Articles with more than five authors and with international collaboration were the most cited. Descriptive studies, mainly based in old theories, are still majority, suggesting that Ecology is in a developing stage in Latin America. <![CDATA[The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a “Caatinga” area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the “snowball” technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome. <![CDATA[Post-fire regeneration in seasonally dry tropical forest fragments in southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Seasonally dry tropical forest is one of the highly threatened biome. However, studies on the effect of fire on these tree communities are still scarce. In this context, a floristic and structural survey in three forest areas in the southeast of Brazil that were affected by fire between 14 and 25 years ago was performed with the objective of evaluating post-fire regeneration. In each site, five systematically placed plots (25 m x 25 m each) were established. The more recently burnt site had significantly lower values of richness and diversity than the other two sites. However, the sites did not differ in density and basal area. Annona dolabripetala, Astronium concinnum, Joannesia princeps and Polyandrococos caudescens were within the 10 most important species for the three sites. Comparing these data with adjacent mature forests, the results indicated differences both in structural and floristic aspects, suggesting that the time after fire was not sufficient for recuperation of these areas. The recovery process indicate at least 190 years for areas return to basal area values close to those observed in mature forests nearby. <![CDATA[Karyotype analysis in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae): chromosome numbers and heterochromatin]]> ABSTRACT Chromosome numbers and heterochromatin banding pattern variability have been shown to be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies of different plant taxa. Bignonieae is the largest tribe of Bignoniaceae, composed mostly by woody climber species whose taxonomies are quite complicated. We reviewed and added new data concerning chromosome numbers in Bignonieae and performed the first analyses of heterochromatin banding patterns in that tribe based on the fluorochromes chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4’-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). We confirmed the predominant diploid number 2n = 40, as well as variations reported in the literature (dysploidy in Mansoa [2n = 38] and polyploidy in Dolichandra ungis-cati [2n = 80] and Pyrostegia venusta [2n = 80]). We also found a new cytotype for the genus Anemopaegma (Anemopaegma citrinum, 2n = 60) and provide the first chromosome counts for five species (Adenocalymma divaricatum, Amphilophium scabriusculum, Fridericia limae, F. subverticillata, and Xylophragma myrianthum). Heterochromatin analyses revealed only GC-rich regions, with six different arrangements of those bands. The A-type (one large and distal telomeric band) were the most common, although the presence and combinations of the other types appear to be the most promising for taxonomic studies. <![CDATA[6-Gingerol inhibits hair cycle <em>via</em> induction of MMP2 and MMP9 expression]]> ABSTRACT 6-Gingerol is the major active constituent of ginger. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of 6-Gingerol on hair growth. Mice were randomly divided into five groups; after hair depilation (day 0), mice were treated with saline, or different concentrations of 6-Gingerol for 11 days. The histomorphological characteristics of the growing hair follicles were examined after hematoxylin and eosin staining. The results indicated that 6-Gingerol significantly suppressed hair growth compared with that in the control group. And choose the concentration of 6-Gingerol at 1 mg/mL to treated with mice. Moreover, 6-Gingerol (1 mg/mL) significantly reduced hair re-growth ratio, hair follicle number, and hair follicle length, which were associated with increased expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, the growth factors, such as EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF-1 and TGF-β participate in the hair follicle cycle regulation and regulate hair growth. We then measured the concentrations of them using ELISA assays, and the results showed that 6-Gingerol decreased EGF, KGF, VEGF, and IGF-1 concentrations, and increased TGF-β concentration. Thus, this study showed that 6-Gingerol might act as a hair growth suppressive drug via induction of MMP2 and MMP9 expression, which could interfere with the hair cycle. <![CDATA[Richness and structure of ant assemblies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Atlantic forest in southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Ant diversity is influenced by the structural complexity of the environment. Ants are thus an ecologically important group due to their potential to serve as indicators of environmental quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate ant diversity in areas with different land use histories and thus, within different stages of regeneration in the Permanent Preservation Area of the Foz do Chapecó Hydroelectric Plant reservoir. Ant assemblies among sample sites were compared using rarefaction analysis, and estimated richness, frequency of occurrence, and relative abundance were calculated. Associations between species and sample sites were evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We identified 55 species in total from 24 genera, distributed among seven subfamilies. Eight species had positive associations with sample sites. Estimates indicated that ant richness may be up to 21.4% greater than that observed. This study presents an inventory of species capable of colonizing environments undergoing natural regeneration processes, and aids our understanding of ecological recovery dynamics in protected areas near hydroelectric plant reservoirs southern Brazil. <![CDATA[Palynological analysis of Dennstaedtiaceae taxa from the Paranaense Phytogeografic Province that produce monolete spores and its systematic implications (I): <em>Blotiella lindeniana</em> , <em>Histiopteris incisa</em> and <em>Paesia glandulosa</em>]]> ABSTRACT The genera of Dennstaedtiaceae have sporophytes with very different morphological characteristics between each other, and this feature has made difficult the systematic circumscription of the family. This reason makes necessary the study of new characters that allow a better understanding of the relations within the group. The spore morphology and wall structure of Blotiella lindeniana, Histiopteris incisa and Paesia glandulosa from the Paranaense Phytogeographic Province were studied using light microscope, and scanning and transmission electron microscope. The exospore has two layers and, according to the species, the exospore surface bears pila, echinae, verrucae, bacula and tubercles. The perispore has two or three layers and its surface is psilate, baculate or rugulate. The variability found in the sculpture of the spores and their stratification and ultrastructure of perispore reflects the morphological differences observed in the sporophyte of the species studied. Additionally, while the stratification and ultrastructure of the exospore is shared by the Dennstaedtiaceae species, their ornamentation could be a character to distinguish species into the clade “hypolepidoide”. The finding of spores with similar characteristics in phylogenetically unrelated families allows us to suggest that palynological features do not have an evolutionary value to establish relationships between groups above the genus level. <![CDATA[Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats]]> ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin) in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT) was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw), moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test. <![CDATA[Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from an urban forest fragment in Central Amazon (Brazil): Effects of opening areas on abundance, richness, and composition]]> ABSTRACT We assessed the immature stages of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) in artificial containers in an urban forest fragment in Manaus (Brazil), including their behavioral, biological and ecological information. In addition, we evaluated the effects of deforestation in an open and forested area on Ceratopogonidae communities. Immatures were sampled between August 2012 and July 2014 in artificial containers installed in both habitat types. We collected 685 immatures of seven morpho-species of Bezzia Kieffer, Culicoides Latreille, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Forcipomyia Meigen, and Palpomyia Meigen. In the open area, we recorded higher temperature and electrical conductivity values than in the forested area; however, these variables did not differ between seasons. Water volume was higher in open area and in rainy season, while pH was similar in both areas and seasons. Species richness was higher in forested area, but did not differ between seasons. We did not record differences in abundance between areas or seasons. Community composition differed between areas, but not between seasons. We provide the first records of Culicoides (Hoffmania) insignis Lutz and C. (Haematomyidium) quasiparaensis Clastrier in artificial containers from the state of Amazonas. Our results suggest that the preservation of forested areas in Amazonas is fundamental for the maintenance of the life cycle of some species of Ceratopogonidae. <![CDATA[Can nearby eutrophic reservoirs sustain a differentiated biodiversity of planktonic microcrustaceans in a tropical semiarid basin?]]> ABSTRACT This paper aims to compare alpha and beta diversities of planktonic microcrustaceans from three reservoirs located nearby in a tropical semiarid basin. Our hypothesis was that alpha and beta diversities of the community are different, although the ecosystems are located close to each other. We carried out two sampling campaigns: dry and rainy seasons. The sampling of microcrustaceans and environmental variables (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a and nutrient) was performed at twelve stations and were distributed throughout the three zones (river, transition, and lacustrine), using a plankton net (45 µm). The reservoirs showed different uses and types of nitrogen predominance: Cachoeira (supply/nitrate), Borborema (sewage/ammonia) and Saco (aquaculture/ammonia). Seventeen species were recorded whose richness was assessed as particularly specific to each one of the studied reservoirs. Seasonally, both reservoirs with high anthropogenic alteration showed greater richness in the dry season. The three reservoirs located in a same basin showed different richness and composition, but the diversity did not differ between the zones of the reservoirs. Although communities are close to each other, their composition and richness were found to be distinct for each reservoir. This may be in response to the peculiar particularities, such as nitrogen sources and the different uses. <![CDATA[Ecology and biotechnological potential of bacterial community from three marine sponges of the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The profile of the bacterial community present in sponges and water was obtained by PCR-DGGE technique and the biotechnological potential of the strains isolated by producing amylase, cellulase, protease and biosurfactants. The results showed that despite the influence of the environment in the composition of the microbial community, studied marine sponges shown to have specific bacterial populations, with some, showing potential in the production of substances of biotechnological applications. <![CDATA[Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Chimerism in Marmosets (<em>Callithrix</em>: Primates)]]> ABSTRACT The birth of fraternal twins is a characteristic frequently observed in callitrichids. Cytogenetic studies have demonstrated hematopoietic chimerism in marmosets with the occurrence of two cell lines 2n=46,XX/46,XY in females and males co-twins, without phenotypic changes. Amplification by PCR have also been used to verify the presence of the SRY gene in female chimaeras. Our aim was to verify the occurrence of chimerism in Callithrix sp. individuals considered as hybrids according to their intermediate phenotypes between C. jacchus and C. penicillata. Blood samples from 37 Callithrix sp. individuals were collected. Hematopoietic chimerism 2n=46,XX/46,XY was detected by cytogenetic analysis in five individuals, three males and two females. A fragment of approximately 200bp of the SRY gene was amplified in seven females with normal external genitalia. The percentage of 32% of chimeric individuals detected in the present study is similar to that observed for pure specimens of Callithrix. These data suggests that hybridization probably does not interfere with the occurrence of twin gestation, nor of chimerism. Although cytogenetics is the main tool to identify the two cell lineages present in cases of chimerism, the amplification of the SRY gene by PCR has proved to be more efficient to identify the Y chromosome in cases of chimeric female marmoset. <![CDATA[Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of <em>Morus nigra</em> leaves extract]]> ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antioxidant activity (83.85%) than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g) than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively). The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress. <![CDATA[Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of <em>Casearia sylvestris</em> Sw.]]> ABSTRACT Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as “guaçatonga”, “erva-de-tiú”, “cafezinho-do-mato”. In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains. <![CDATA[Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of <em>Vitex agnus-castus</em> L. (Lamiaceae)]]> ABSTRACT Abnormal multiplication of oral bacteria causes dental caries and dental plaque. These diseases continue to be major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in developing countries. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus leaves (VAC‒EO) collected in the North of Brazil against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of VAC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by using the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The chemical constituents of VAC-EO were identified by gas chromatography (GC‒FID) and gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC‒MS). VAC‒EO displayed some activity against all the investigated oral pathogens; MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 200 μg/mL. VAC-EO had promising activity against Streptococcus mutans (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), Lactobacillus casei (MIC= 15.6 μg/mL), and Streptococcus mitis (MIC= 31.2 μg/mL). The compounds 1,8-cineole (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (14.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.5%), sabinene (11.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (7.7%) were the major chemical constituents of VAC‒EO. VAC-EO displays antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. The efficacy of VAC-EO against S. mutans is noteworthy and should be further investigated. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the anti-osteoporotic effect of <em>Ginkgo biloba</em> L. in Wistar rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis by bone densitometry using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and mechanical testing]]> ABSTRACT Evaluate the effect of the extract of Ginkgo biloba in the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, in the mechanical properties of the tibia in rats with glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. After osteoporosis induction, the rats were divided into five groups: Osteoporosis; EGb1 (28 mg/Kg); EGb2 (56 mg/Kg); alendronate (0.2 mg/animal) and control. The animals were treated during 20 and 30 days. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis’s (Student’s t-test), while the other were analyzed by ANOVA test followed by Tukey/Dunnett’T3 (p&lt;0.05). In the osteoporosis group the bone alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density, the bone stiffness, the maximum load and the resilience were reduced. The bone alkaline phosphatase values increased in the EGb1 and EGb2 groups (30 days). In addition, in the EGb2 and alendronate groups (20 and 30 days) the bone mineral density increased. The extract of Ginkgo biloba restored bone alkaline phosphatase and bone mineral density using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. <![CDATA[Implementation of dental specialty centers: a descriptive analysis of the current status in the Brazilian territory]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the current implementation status of Dental Specialty Centers (Centros de Especialidades Odontológicas - CEO) in Brazil. The sample included CEOs implemented up to November 2015 in the 27 Brazilian federative units. Data were obtained directly from the database of the Informatics Department of the Brazilian Unified Health System, according to the National Registry of Health Facilities (NRHF) of Dental Specialty Centers of all Brazilian regions. Primary care data were also collected from the cities with implemented CEOs, including coverage status of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and number of Oral Health Teams (OHT) I and II, at 2 collection periods (January 2006 and November 2015). There were 1019 CEOs implemented in Brazil, which were unequally distributed among the Brazilian states, with prevalence of implementation of CEOs type II (n=503, 49.4%). The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the three types of CEO (I, II, and III) and the variables of coverage rate (FHS) and number of teams (OHT I, OHT II) at both data collection periods. Although presenting an evolutionary aspect in the implementation of CEOs, the implementation of medium-complexity care in Brazil is disorganized. <![CDATA[The influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol used for pain control of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review]]> ABSTRACT The present study aimed to perform a systematic literature review to determine if there is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that interferes less within tooth movement. This research was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Articles were searched in eight electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, Google Scholar, and Open Grey). Only experimental studies on male Wistar rats were selected, which included experiments related to the influence of NSAIDs on orthodontic movement. Studies in animals with pathological conditions, literature review articles, letters to the editor and/or editorials, case reports, abstracts, books, and book chapters were excluded. Each of the steps of this systematic literature review was performed by two examiners independently. Results: the total sample consisted of 505 articles, from which 6 studies were eligible after a qualitative analysis. From the drugs assessed, paracetamol was unanimous for not interfering within orthodontic movement when compared to the control group. However, drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, sodium diclofenac, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors caused a reduction in tooth movement when compared to the control group. Conclusion: paracetamol could be considered the drug of choice for pain relief because it interferes less within tooth movement. <![CDATA[Accuracy of linear measurements performed with two imaging software in cone-beam computed tomography scans of dry human mandibles]]> ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the accuracy of linear measurements performed with two software packages in multislice (MSCT) and cone beam (CBCT) computed tomography (CT) images. The sample consisted of 10 human mandibles marked standardly 8 times with metallic orthodontic wires. The mandibles underwent both MSCT and CBCT scanning and were measured linearly and digitally with two software packages, namely Studio 3.1® (Anne Solutions®, SP, Brazil) (ST) and Implant Viewer 2.817® (Anne Solutions®, SP, Brazil) (IV). The linear measurements were the mandibular height (MH) and width (MW), and the distance from the alveolar ridge to the mandibular canal (AC). To validate the measurements, the mandibles were sectioned in the marked regions and measured with a digital caliper. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the measurements (MH, MW, and AC) taken digitally with the two software packages from images obtained from the two scanning modalities (MSCT and CBCT) and the measurements taken manually with a digital caliper (p&gt;0.05). MSCT and CBCT images measured digitally with ST and IV software packages resulted in reliable outcomes when compared to measurements obtained manually. Both software and imaging modalities are reliably useful for planning surgical procedure in the dental practice. <![CDATA[Perception, knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian orthodontists on the treatment of Class II malocclusions]]> ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the perception and knowledge of Brazilian orthodontists on the ideal moment to treat Class II malocclusions. Questionnaires with open, semi-open and close questions were sent by e-mail to 1653 Brazilian orthodontists. These orthodontists were registered in the Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR). One-hundred and three (9.86%) Orthodontists replied to the questionnaires. Most of them were males (60.5%) with specialization as the highest level of professional qualification (59.9%). Most of the orthodontists (51%) reported preference for treating Class II malocclusions in late mixed dentition, followed by the early mixed dentition (29%). The age range between 10 and 12 years old figured as the most prevalent in patients searching for treatment (42.7%). Most of the patients searching for treatment were females (69.7%). Preferences for functional orthopedic appliances were reported by 35% of the orthodontists. Brazilian orthodontists revealed a trend for treating patients with Class II malocclusions in the late mixed dentition. Female patients aged from 10 to 12 years old represented the majority of patients that search for orthodontic treatment. Functional orthopedic appliances were preferred by Brazilian orthodontists for treating Class II malocclusions. <![CDATA[Life-long Maternal Cafeteria Diet Promotes Tissue-Specific Morphological Changes in Male Offspring Adult Rats]]> ABSTRACT Here, we evaluated whether the exposure of rats to a cafeteria diet pre- and/or post-weaning, alters histological characteristics in the White Adipose Tissue (WAT), Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), and liver of adult male offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into Control (CTL; fed on standard rodent chow) and Cafeteria (CAF; fed with the cafeteria diet throughout life, including pregnancy and lactation). After birth, only male offspring (F1) were maintained and received the CTL or CAF diets; originating four experimental groups: CTL-CTLF1; CTL-CAFF1; CAF-CTLF1; CAF-CAFF1. Data of biometrics, metabolic parameters, liver, BAT and WAT histology were assessed and integrated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). According to PCA analysis worse metabolic and biometric characteristics in adulthood are associated with the post-weaning CAF diet compared to pre and post weaning CAF diet. Thus, the CTL-CAFF1 group showed obesity, higher deposition of fat in the liver and BAT and high fasting plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Interestingly, the association between pre and post-weaning CAF diet attenuated the obesity and improved the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides compared to CTL-CAFF1 without avoiding the higher lipid accumulation in BAT and in liver, suggesting that the impact of maternal CAF diet is tissue-specific. <![CDATA[<em>Mentha pulegium</em> crude extracts induce thiol oxidation and potentiate hemolysis when associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide in human’s erythrocytes]]> ABSTRACT Mentha pulegium (Lamiaceae) tea has been used as a traditional medicine; however, the modulatory effect of M. pulegium extracts on damage to human erythrocytes associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) exposure remains to be investigated. Accordingly, we perform this study in order to test the hypothesis that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. pulegium could modulate the hemolysis associated to t-BHP exposure, non-protein thiol (NPSH) oxidation and lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS) in human erythrocytes. Samples were co-incubated with t-BHP (4 mmol/L) and/or aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10-1000 mg/mL) during 120 min to further analysis. We found that both extracts, when associated to t-BHP, potentiate NPSH oxidation and hemolysis. Moreover, both extracts significantly prevents against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. A significant correlation among hemolysis and NPSH levels was found. Taking together, our data points that the association of M. pulegium extracts with t-BHP culminates in toxic effect to exposed erythrocytes, besides its protective effect against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. So, we infer that the use of this extract may exert negative effect during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia. However, more studies are still necessary to better investigate/understand the mechanism(s) involved in the toxic effect resultant from this association. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the impact of pharmaceutical care for tuberculosis patients in a Secondary Referral Outpatient Clinic, Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Pharmaceutical care is a professional practice seeking the responsible provision of drug therapy by identifying, resolving, and preventing Drug-Related Problems (DRP). The study aims to describe and evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care given to patients being treated for tuberculosis (TB). Study concurrent, longitudinal, prospective conducted during pharmaceutical care in the TB outpatient clinic, Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais during the period August 2009 to July 2012. The Pharmacotherapy Workup proposed by Cipolle et al. (2004) was used. Statistical analyses were performed by X2 or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. A total of 62 patients were followed up, and 128 drug-related problems (DRP) were identified: 69.5% related to safety, 13.3% to effectiveness, 12.5% ​​to indication, and 4.7% to treatment adherence, and 62.1% of the DRP were resolved. A total of 115 pharmaceutical interventions were performed. The impact of pharmaceutical care was satisfactory for 73.9% of patients with a resolution rate of 77%. There was a greater impact on pharmaceutical care (index ≥ 0.50) for those patients who were not smokers (p &lt;0.05). The impact of pharmaceutical care was important, so the pharmacist should work alongside the multidisciplinary team to monitor treatment and perform interventions. <![CDATA[Biomarkers as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with solid tumors]]> ABSTRACT Biochemical markers produced by the affected organ or body in response to disease have gained high clinical value due to assess disease development and being excellent predictors of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze different biochemical markers in critically cancer patients and to determine which of them can be used as predictors of mortality. This is a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at a University Hospital in Porto Alegre - RS. Screening was done to include patients in the study. Serum biochemical markers obtained in the first 24 hours of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization were analyzed. A second review of medical records occurred after three months objected to identify death or Unit discharged. A sample of 130 individuals was obtained (control group n = 65, study group n = 65). In the multivariate model, serum magnesium values ​​OR = 3.97 (1.17; 13.5), presence of neoplasia OR = 2.68 (95% CI 1.13; 6.37) and absence of sepsis OR = 0.31 (95% CI 0.12; 0.79) were robust predictors of mortality. The association of solid tumors, sepsis presence and alteration in serum magnesium levels resulted in an increased chance of mortality in critically ill patients. <![CDATA[Interactive effects of genotype x environment on the live weight of GIFT Nile tilapias]]> ABSTRACT In this paper, the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for the average daily weight in GIFT Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in different regions in the state of Paraná (Brazil) was analyzed. The heritability results were high in the uni-characteristic analysis: 0.71, 0.72 and 0.67 for the cities of Palotina (PL), Floriano (FL) and Diamond North (DN), respectively. Genetic correlations estimated in bivariate analyzes were weak with values between 0.12 for PL-FL, 0.06 for PL and 0.23 for DN-FL-DN. The Spearman correlation values were low, which indicated a change in ranking in the selection of animals in different environments in the study. There was heterogeneity in the phenotypic variance among the three regions and heterogeneity in the residual variance between PL and DN. The direct genetic gain was greater for the region with a DN value gain of 198.24 g/generation, followed by FL (98.73 g/generation) and finally PL (98.73 g/generation). The indirect genetic gains were lower than 0.37 and greater than 0.02 g/generation. The evidence of the genotype x environment interaction was verified, which indicated the phenotypic heterogeneity of the variances among the three regions, weak genetic correlation and modified rankings in the different environments. <![CDATA[Phosphate solubilization by endophytic bacteria isolated from banana trees]]> ABSTRACT Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria isolated from banana tree roots were assessed as to their capacity to solubilize phosphate in a solid culture medium supplemented with different inorganic and one organic source of phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus (P) in each liquid medium was quantified, and an indirect assessment of acid phosphatase activity was performed. All assays had a fully randomized design, with three repetitions. Approximately 67.5% of the 40 isolates assessed in solid medium solubilized phosphorus from tricalcium phosphate and 7.5% of the isolates solubilized phosphorus from soy lecithin; no isolates exhibited P solubilization capacity in medium supplemented with iron phosphate. Acid phosphatase activity was detected in 65% of the isolates; Aneurinibacillus sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. isolates presented with the best solubilization indexes. All of the assessed isolates exhibited a capacity to reduce the potential of hydrogen in liquid medium supplemented with tricalcium phosphate. Isolate EB. 78 (Bacillus sp.) exhibited P solubilization capacity in solid media when Ca3(PO4)2 and soy lecithin were used as P sources; this isolate significantly reduced the pH of the liquid medium and exhibited acid phosphatase activity. The results of the present study highlight isolates that exhibit variations in their capacity to solubilize P. These isolates should be used in future tests to assess their field performance. <![CDATA[Effects of temperature on the feeding behavior of <em>Alabama argillacea</em> (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants]]> ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard) and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea. <![CDATA[Efficiency of essential oils of <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> and <em>Cymbopogum flexuosus</em> in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively) and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both), 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively. <![CDATA[Agronomic viability of New Zealand spinach and kale intercropping]]> ABSTRACT The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture. The spinach TY was influenced by the transplanting time, the earlier the transplanting, the higher the TY. The spinach YH was not influenced by the transplanting time, but rather by the cultivation system. In intercropping, the spinach YH was 13.5% lower than in monoculture. The intercropping was agronomically feasible, since the land use efficiency index, which was not influenced by the transplanting time, had an average value of 1.71, indicating that the intercropping produced 71% more kale and spinach than the same area in monoculture. Competitiveness coefficient, aggressiveness and yield loss values showed that kale is the dominating species and spinach is the dominated. <![CDATA[Histopatology of the reproductive tract of Nellore pubertal heifers with genital ureaplasmosis]]> ABSTRACT In order to study and characterize the lesions in the reproductive tract of Nellore heifers naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum and presenting granular vulvovaginitis syndrome (GVS), fragments of uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva of 20 animals were evaluated. The macroscopic lesions of the vulvovaginal mucosa were classified in scores of “1” mild, until “4”, severe inflammation and pustular or necrotic lesions. The histopathological evaluation was performed using scores of “1” to “4”, according to the inflammatory alterations. The fragments with severe microscopic lesions (3 and 4) were from the uterine tubes and uterus, which showed leukocytes infiltration and destruction and/or necrosis of epithelium. Alterations in the lower reproductive tract fragments were mild, but characteristics of acute inflammatory processes. The histopathological findings of the reproductive tract of females naturally infected with Ureaplasma diversum are consistent with injuries that compromise the environment from the local where spermatozoa acquires ability to fertilize an oocyte until those where the oocyte is fertilized. Therefore, animals with GVS should be identified early in the herd, because, besides the reduction in the fertility rates caused by tissue damages, they can contribute to disseminate the microorganism. Key words: bovine, tissue evaluation, reproduction, Ureaplasma diversum. <![CDATA[Moderate pathogenic effect of <em>Ligophorus uruguayense</em> (Monogenoidea, Ancyrocephalidae) in juvenile mullet <em>Mugil liza</em> (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) from Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Monogenoidea pathogenic activity can elicit various histological responses in fish. Species of Ligophorus are specific parasites of mullets, and its relationship with host fish may result in a moderate pathogenic action. In order to ascertain this relationship, estuarine mullets (Mugil liza) were collected in an estuary, reared in laboratory, for three weeks, and forwarded for histological and parasitological analyses. Ligophorus uruguayense (Monogenoidea) infestation in the gills of the mullets was identified. The severe infestation by only one species of Monogenoidea may result from the specificity of these parasites to mullets. Mullets submitted to histological analysis exhibited respiratory epithelium detachment; mild, moderate and severe hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium; atrophy; and telangiectasia of the gills. This is the first study reporting that mullets highly infested by Monogenoidea can show mild (100%) to severe (20%) gill changes with a distinct frequency of occurrence. Because of the high prevalence of mild alterations observed, it is possible to accept that L. uruguayense is moderately pathogenic to M. liza, even during high prevalence and intensity of infestation, as a result of its specificity. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from <em>Protium ovatum</em> leaves (Burceraceae)]]> ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are globally widespread parasitic diseases which have been responsible for high mortality rates. Since drugs available for their treatment are highly hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic, adherence to therapy has been affected. Thus, the search for new, more effective and safer drugs for the treatment of these diseases is necessary. Natural products have stood out as an alternative to searching for new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potential. In this study, the chemical composition and antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. The essential oil was promising against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50= 28.55 μg.mL-1) and L. amazonensis promastigotes (IC50 = 2.28 μg.mL-1). Eighteen chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in the essential oil, whose major constituents were spathulenol (17.6 %), caryophyllene oxide (16.4 %), β-caryophyllene (14.0 %) and myrcene (8.4 %). In addition, the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves had moderate cytotoxicity against LLCMK2 adherent epithelial cell at the concentration range under analysis (CC50 = 150.9 μg.mL-1). It should be highlighted that this is the first report of the chemical composition and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves. <![CDATA[Photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in <em>Ricinus communis</em> (L.) under drought stress in semi-humid and semi-arid areas]]> ABSTRACT Castor bean is one of the crops with potential to provide raw material for production of oils for biodiesel. This species possess adaptive mechanisms for maintaining the water status when subjected to drought stress. A better understanding these mechanisms under field conditions can unravel the survival strategies used by this species. This study aimed to compare the physiological adaptations of Ricinus communis (L.) in two regions with different climates, the semi-arid and semi-humid subject to water stress. The plants showed greater vapor pressure deficit during the driest hours of the day, which contributed to higher values of the leaf temperature and leaf transpiration, however, the VPD(leaf-air) had the greatest effect on plants in the semi-arid region. In both regions, between 12:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m., the plants presented reduction in the rates of photosynthesis and intracellular CO2 concentration in response to stomatal closure. During the dry season in the semi-arid region, photoinhibition occurred in the leaves of castor bean between 12:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. These results suggest that castor bean plants possess compensatory mechanisms for drought tolerance, such as: higher stomatal control and maintenance of photosynthetic capacity, allowing the plant to survive well in soil with low water availability. <![CDATA[Tannic extract potential as natural wood preservative of <em>Acacia mearnsii</em>]]> ABSTRACT High toxicity of the preservatives most frequently used in wood treatment and the resulting risks of handling pose a threat to small producers and to the environment. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the preservative effect of tannic extract on biodeterioration of Acacia mearnsii wood. For this purpose, untreated and preserved specimens, some with tannin extract and some with a preservative mixture based on CCB (Chromated Copper Borate), were submitted to accelerated rotting trials with the fungus that causes white rot (Pycnoporus sanguineus) for 16 weeks. The evaluations were made with a basis on weight loss and chemical components analysis, and they showed that the natural resistance of Acacia wood is moderate when exposed to the white rot fungus. The tannin concentrations showed similar effects to those of the CBB mixture in all evaluations, i.e., they significantly increased the biological resistance of the material, which started to be classified as very resistant to the fungus. Overall, the results suggest that tannin can be considered as a potential natural preservative product. <![CDATA[Gas exchange and antioxidant activity in seedlings of C <em>opaifera langsdorffii</em> Desf. under different water conditions]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate gas exchange, efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, and antioxidant activity in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. The seedlings were cultivated under different conditions of water availability, in order to improve the utilization efficiency of available water resources. The seedlings were cultivated in four different water retention capacities (WRC- 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), and evaluated at four different time (T- 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). During the experimental period, seedlings presented the highest values for carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco (A/Ci), intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE = A/gs), chlorophyll index, and stomatal opening, when grown in the substrate with 75% WRC, but the stomatal index (SI) was less the 25% WRC. The efficiency of photosystem II was not significantly altered by the treatments. Comparison between the extreme treatments in terms of water availability, represented by 25% and 100% WRC, represent stress conditions for the species. Water availability causes a high activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) in the plant. <![CDATA[Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration]]> ABSTRACT Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment. <![CDATA[Pollen morphology and viability in Bromeliaceae]]> ABSTRACT Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests. Species belonging to Aechmea and Ananas genera presented medium size pollen, except for Ae. fasciata, with large pollen. Al. nahoumii, P. sagenarius and the Vriesea species analyzed showed large pollen, except for V. carinata, with very large pollen. Pollen of Aechmea, Ananas and P. sagenarius presented bilateral symmetry, diporate, exine varying from tectate to semitectate. Al. nahoumii and Vriesea species presented pollen with bilateral symmetry, monocolpate; exine was semitectate, reticulate and heterobrochate. Germination percentage and tube growth were greater in SM and BKM media. Histochemical tests showed pollen viability above 70% for all species, except for Ananas sp. (40%). Pollen morphology is important for the identification of species, especially in this family, which contains a large number of species. High rates of viability favor fertilization and seed production, essential for efficient hybrid production and conservation. <![CDATA[Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with arabica coffee and geographical distribution in the neotropical region]]> ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodities exported, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States are the main coffee producers. Scale insects are important coffee pests, and 73 species of Cerococcidae (3), Coccidae (18), Diaspididae (6), Eriococcidae (1), Ortheziidae (3), Pseudococcidae (21), Putoidae (2) and Rhizoecidae (19) have been associated with roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Arabica coffee in the Neotropics. Eight species were found associated with Arabica coffee in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States in this study, and Coccidae was the most frequent family. Coccus alpinus, Cc. celatus, Cc. lizeri, Cc. viridis, and Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) were found in both states; Alecanochiton marquesi, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Diaspididae), and Dysmicoccus texensis (Pseudococcidae) were only found in Minas Gerais. Alecanochiton marquesi and P. trilobitiformis are first reported in Minas Gerais, and Cc. alpinus in Espírito Santo, on Arabica coffee. All scale insect species were associated with coffee leaves and branches, except D. texensis, associated with coffee roots. Fourty seven scale insect species have been found occurring in Brazilian Arabica coffee, and in Espírito Santo (28) and Minas Gerais (23). Widespread and geographical distribution of each species found are discussed. <![CDATA[Bioethanol production with different dosages of the commercial Acrylamide polymer compared to a Bioextract in clarifying sugarcane juice]]> ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is to clarify the juice, which are added synthetic polymer acrylamide base, aiming the fast settling of impurities present in the juice. However, this input is expensive and may have carcinogenic and neurotoxic actions to humans. The search for new natural flocculants that have similarity with the commercial product is of great value. A bioextract that may be promising and has coagulant action is the Moringa oleifera Lam. In this context, the objective of the research was to evaluate the consequences of the use of moringa seed extracts and various concentrations of commercial polymer, such as sedimentation aids in clarifying sugarcane juice in the ethanol production, comparing the efficiency of the bioextract moringa. In the treatment of the juice, excessive addition of flocculants can result in reduction of sugars. The bioflocculant moringa was similar in technological features and the fermentative viability compared to usual dose of commercial polymer in Brazil. The fermentation efficiency was also higher for this flocculant, followed by moringa extract. The results obtained in this research indicate potential to the moringa bioextract, particularly in countries where the doses of flocculants are higher than 5 mg.L-1. <![CDATA[Thidiazuron (TDZ) increases fruit set and yield of ‘Hosui’ and ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pear trees]]> ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. The exogenous application of thidiazuron (TDZ) and aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG) has shown promising results in some pear cultivars and other temperate fruit trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TDZ and AVG on fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Hosui’ and ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in São Joaquim, SC. Plant material consisted of ‘Hosui’ and ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pear trees grafted on Pyrus calleryana. Treatments consisted on different rates of TDZ (0 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 and 60 mg L-1) sprayed at full bloom for both cultivars. An additional treatment of AVG 60 mg L-1 was sprayed one week after full bloom in ‘Hosui’. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, fruit weight, seed number, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield of both cultivars are consistently increased by TDZ, within the rates of 20 to 60 mg L-1. Besides, its application increased fruit size of ‘Hosui’ and did not negatively affect fruit quality attributes of both cultivars. <![CDATA[A Novel Porous Diamond - Titanium Biomaterial: Structure, Microstructure, Physico-Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility]]> ABSTRACT With the aim of introducing permanent prostheses with main properties equivalent to cortical human bone, Ti-diamond composites were processed through powder metallurgy. Grade 1 titanium and mixtures of Ti powder with 2%, 5% and 10 wt% diamond were compacted at 100MPa, and then sintered at 1250°C/2hr/10-6mbar. Sintered samples were studied in the point of view of their microstructures, structures, yield strength and elastic modulus. The results showed that the best addition of diamonds was 2 wt%, which led to a uniform porosity, yield strength of 370MPa and elastic modulus of 13.9 GPa. Samples of Ti and Ti-2% diamond were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity test, using cultures of VERO cells, and it resulted in a biocompatible and nontoxic composite material. <![CDATA[Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production]]> ABSTRACT Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.