Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências]]> vol. 88 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Understanding the Cerrado biome, medicinal properties of a Piperaceae, and consequences of seasonal variation in Amazonian upland lakes]]> <![CDATA[On simple Shamsuddin derivations in two variables]]> Abstract We study the subgroup of k-automorphisms of k ⁢ [ x , y ] which commute with a simple derivation d of k ⁢ [ x , y ]. We prove, for instance, that this subgroup is trivial when d is a shamsuddin simple derivation. in the general case of simple derivations, we obtain properties for the elements of this subgroup. <![CDATA[Translation Hypersurfaces with Constant <em>S</em><sub>r</sub> Curvature in the Euclidean Space]]> Abstract The main goal of this paper is to present a complete description of all translation hypersurfaces with constant r-curvature S r, in the Euclidean space <mml:math alttext="\mathbb{R}{n+1}" id="p3.m3"> ℝ n + 1, where 3 ≤ r ≤ n - 1. <![CDATA[On reduced <em>L</em><sup>2</sup> cohomology of hypersurfaces in spheres with finite total curvature]]> Abstract In this paper, we prove that the dimension of the second space of reduced L2 cohomology of M is finite if is a complete noncompact hypersurface in a sphere ��n+1and has finite total curvature (n≥3). <![CDATA[On non-Kupka points of codimension one foliations on ℙ<sup>3</sup>]]> Abstract We study the singular set of a codimension one holomorphic foliation on ℙ 3 . We find a local normal form for these foliations near a codimension two component of the singular set that is not of Kupka type. We also determine the number of non-Kupka points immersed in a codimension two component of the singular set of a codimension one foliation on ℙ 3. <![CDATA[Enhancement of <strong><em>Hevea brasiliensis</em></strong> properties through chemical application]]> ABSTRACT The effects of four different types of bleaching agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite and oxalic acid) mixed together with 2% boron-based preservative (Celbor SP) were studied on green sawn rubberwood. Two concentration levels (1% and 2%) of were used. Whitish values (W) and colour changes (ΔE) of sawn rubberwood were assessed before and after chemical treatment using a colour meter. Preliminary observation indicated that timber treated with 1% and 2% hydrogen peroxide produced better and more homogeneous colour properties. Hydrogen peroxide treated timber gave higher whitish values (6.23 and 9.91 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) and lower colour changes (8.49 and 5.51 for 1% and 2% solution, respectively) when compared to the other three chemicals. Evaluation on the effects of bleaching (hydrogen peroxide with a higher level of concentration) on physical, mechanical and biological properties of rubberwood also have been determined in this study. <![CDATA[Barium and its Importance as an Indicator of (Paleo)Productivity]]> ABSTRACT Barium (Ba) is a trace element which occurs predominantly as barite mineral (BaSO4) in the marine environment. Previous work suggests that barite concentrations are related to the organic carbon flux and marine biological debris in the water column suggesting a direct or indirect involvement in the marine biological cycling. In addition, barite has a high preservation rate (~30%) in sediments and it is less affected by early diagenesis than other proxies for productivity such as carbonates (~10%) and organic carbon (~1%), for example. Therefore, Ba is considered an excellent proxy for ocean (paleo)productivity. However, correlating barite to productivity involves some caveats. Specifically, the post-depositional formation of barite in oxic sediments can lead to Ba release into porewaters under anoxic conditions, which can form barite again under oxic conditions. This diagenetic formation is not correlated to export production as the seawater authigenic barite formed with decaying organic matter in the water column. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to briefly review the marine Ba cycle and highlight its importance for (paleo)productivity research. <![CDATA[Holocene paleo-sea level changes along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southern Brazil: Comment on Castro et al. (2014)]]> ABSTRACT The present work discusses and reinterprets paleo-sea level indicators used to build Holocene sea-level curve for the coast of Rio de Janeiro at former works. We conclude that: (a) the paleo-sea levels inferred by vermetid remains show that sea-level has fallen over the past 4400 years, at least; (b) the paleo-sea level inferred by the beachrock facies and dated shells of Jaconé shows that sea-level was near the present elevation between 8198 and 5786 years before present; and (c) several shells from other beachrocks were deposited probably thousands of years after the specimens died and consequently do not allow precise reconstructions of paleo-sea levels. These conclusions differ from the conclusions of the original paper. <![CDATA[First Occurrence and Paleo-Ecological Implications of Insects (Orthoptera: Ensifera Gryllidae) in the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, Eo-Cretaceous of the Araripe Basin]]> ABSTRACT The Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, a lithostatigraphic unit attributed to a marine intrusion, is famous for its preserved fossils in calcareous concretions, which stand out for their diversity and excellent preservation levels. This paper aims to record the first occurrence of the Class Insecta in the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, as well as to describe and discuss the paleo-ecological implications of such finding. The first occurrence of the order Orthoptera (family Gryllidae) is presented for this unit. This new species is attributed to the genus Araripegryllus, that lasted throughout the deposition of the Crato Member, which is under the Romualdo Member. In reference to its statigraphic origin, the specimens was named Araripegryllus romualdoi sp. nov. <![CDATA[Geostatistical Approach for Spatial Interpolation of Meteorological Data]]> ABSTRACT Meteorological data are used in many studies, especially in planning, disaster management, water resources management, hydrology, agriculture and environment. Analyzing changes in meteorological variables is very important to understand a climate system and minimize the adverse effects of the climate changes. One of the main issues in meteorological analysis is the interpolation of spatial data. In recent years, with the developments in Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, the statistical methods have been integrated with GIS and geostatistical methods have constituted a strong alternative to deterministic methods in the interpolation and analysis of the spatial data. In this study; spatial distribution of precipitation and temperature of the Aegean Region in Turkey for years 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were obtained by the Ordinary Kriging method which is one of the geostatistical interpolation methods, the changes realized in 5-year periods were determined and the results were statistically examined using cell and multivariate statistics. The results of this study show that it is necessary to pay attention to climate change in the precipitation regime of the Aegean Region. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of the geostatistical approach in meteorological studies. <![CDATA[Dating stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo (Devil´S Cave) by TL and EPR techniques]]> ABSTRACT A cylindrical fragment of stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, has been studied and dated by thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The thermoluminescence glow curves of stalagmite samples and subsequently gamma irradiated, have shown rise of three peaks at 135, 180 and 265 °C. From electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of stalagmite was possible to clearly identify three paramagnetic centers in the g = 2.0 region: Centers I, II and III are due to , and , respectively. The additive method was applied to calculate the accumulated dose using thermoluminescence peak at 265 °C and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal at g = 1.9973 of CO- 2 radical. The ages of the different slices of stalagmite were determined from the Dac- values and Dan- value, obtaining an average of 86410 for central slice, 53421 for second slice, 31490 for third slice and 46390 years B.P. for the central region of upper end. <![CDATA[Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue) and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa). Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial. <![CDATA[Paralavas in the Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, Brazil - A genetic interpretation of the volcanic rocks containing phenocrysts and glass]]> ABSTRACT The occurrences of glassy rocks containing long and curved phenocrysts in the Paraná volcanic province, South America, are here interpreted as paralavas. The large number of thin (0.1-0.5 m) dikes and sills of glassy volcanic rocks with hopper, hollow or curved, large crystals of clinopyroxene (up to 10 cm), plagioclase (up to 1 cm), magnetite and apatite are contained in the core of thick (&gt;70 m) pahoehoe flows. They are strongly concentrated in the state of Paraná, coincident with the presence of the large number of dikes in the Ponta Grossa arch. These rocks were previously defined as pegmatites, although other names have also been used. A paralava is here interpreted as the product of melting of basaltic rocks following varied, successive processes of sill emplacement in high-kerogen bituminous shale and ascent of the resultant methane. As the gas reached the lower portion of the most recent lava flow of the volcanic pile, the methane reacted with the silicate and oxide minerals of the host volcanic rock (1,000 ºC) and thus elevated the local temperature to 1,600 ºC. The affected area of host rock remelted (possibly 75 wt.%) and injected buoyantly the central and upper portion of the core. This methane-related mechanism explains the evidence found in the paralavas from this volcanic province, one of the largest in the continents. <![CDATA[Hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Matter and energy flux dynamics of wetlands are important to understand environmental processes that govern biosphere-atmosphere interactions across ecosystems. This study presents analyses about hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil. This study was conducted in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH SESC, 16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''W) in Brazilian Wetland. According to Curado et al. (2012), the wet season occurs between the months of January and April, while the June to September time period is the dry season. Results presented same patterns in energies fluxes in all period studied. Wind speed and air temperature presented same patterns, while LE was relative humidity presented inverse patterns of the air temperature. LE was predominant in all seasons and the sum of LE and H was above 90% of net radiation. Analyses of linear regression presented positive interactions between wind speed and LE, and wind speed and H in all seasons, except in dry season of 2010. Confidence coefficient regression analyses present statistical significance in all wet and dry seasons, except dry season of 2010, suggest that LE and H had interaction with other micrometeorological variables. <![CDATA[Influence of seasonal variation on the hydro-biogeochemical characteristics of two upland lakes in the Southeastern Amazon, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Limnological characteristics of the Violão and Amendoim lakes, in the Serra dos Carajás, Amazon, were studied interannually (2013-2014). Climate data indicate anomalous conditions during the 2013 rainy period with higher rainfall and lower temperature in the beginning (November). Lake levels were influenced after the first and second hour of each rainfall, which showed a strong synchronization between seasonal fluctuation of lake levels and local weather patterns. Based on the water quality, both lakes are classified as classes "1" and "2" in the CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente) scheme and as "excellent" to "good" in the WQI (Water Quality Index) categories. However, the limnology is distinctly different between the lakes and seasons. Higher trophic state and phytoplankton productivity were observed mainly during the rainy period in Violão Lake compared to Amendoim Lake. This may be due to deposition of leached nutrients in the former, mainly total phosphorus (TP), which was probably derived from mafic soils and guano. This is consistent with the significant positive correlation between Chlorophyll-a and TP at the end of the rainy period (March-April), whereas this was not observed in the beginning (November). This could possibly be a consequence of the more intense cloud cover, and unusual high rainfall that limits nutrient availability. <![CDATA[Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of <em>Ottonia anisum</em> Spreng. (Piperaceae)]]> ABSTRACT Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey. <![CDATA[<em>Agaricus subrufescens:</em> substratum nitrogen concentration and mycelial extraction method on antitumor activity]]> ABSTRACT Antitumor activity of Agaricus subrufescens has been shown on vegetative mycelium and basidiocarp. However, few studies have assessed the effect of A. subrufescens cultivation conditions and extraction methods on antitumor activity. This study evaluated the effect of nitrogen concentration on the cultivation medium of A. subrufescens and the extraction method of mycelial antineoplastic actives against sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Two nitrogen sources (isolated soybean protein and NaNO3) and 10 nitrogen concentrations (0.25 to 8.0 g/L) were used. Dried mycelium extract was obtained by hot water infusion (1:10 mass:volume; 90 °C) or by aqueous mixture (1:10 mass:volume, ambient temperature) in ultrapure water. The doses were administered daily by gavage to mice implanted with sarcoma 180 cells. Isolated soy protein is more efficient to mycelial biomass production than NaNO3. The mycelial biomass production increases when the cultivation medium is added with high nitrogen concentrations as well as the splenic index and the antitumor activity of the moistened mycelial powder. Hot water extract is more effective than the moistened mycelial powder to reduce tumor. The antitumor activity of hot water mycelial extract is similar to the one of basidiocarps, presenting lower metabolic demand on the spleen, keeping blood parameters normal and promoting animal wellness. <![CDATA[Method validation for determination of metals in <strong><em>Vitis labrusca</em></strong> L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)]]> ABSTRACT Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se), chromium (53Cr), nickel (62Ni), cadmium (111Cd) and lead (206Pb) in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory. <![CDATA[The Complex Link between Apoptosis and Autophagy: a Promising New Role for RB]]> ABSTRACT Physiological processes, as autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis are affected during carcinogenesis. Restoring cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, such as the antineoplastic cocktails, has been explored as a strategy to eliminate cancer cells. Autophagy, a physiological process of recycling organelles and macromolecules can be deviated from homeostasis to support cancer cells survival, proliferation, escape from apoptosis, and therapy resistance. The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis is complex and many stimuli can induce both processes. Most chemotherapeutic agents induce autophagy and it is not clear whether and how this chemotherapy-induced autophagy might contribute to resistance to apoptosis. Here, we review current strategies to sensitize cancer cells by interfering with autophagy. Moreover, we discuss a new link between autophagy and apoptosis: the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (RB). Inactivation of RB is one of the earliest and more frequent hallmarks of cancer transformation, known to control cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Therefore, understanding RB functions in controlling cell fate is essential for an effective translation of RB status in cancer samples to the clinical outcome. <![CDATA[Iron restriction increases myoglobin gene and protein expression in Soleus muscle of rats]]> ABSTRACT Iron is an important trace element for proper cell functioning. It is present in cytochromes, hemoglobin and myoglobin (Mb), where it binds to oxygen. It is also an electron acceptor in the respiratory chain. Mb is an 18 kDa heme-protein, highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. The expression of several genes involved in the metabolism of iron is post-transcriptionally regulated by this element. Iron was shown to interfere with the polyadenylation step, modifying their poly (A) tail length and, as a consequence, their stability and translation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether iron supplementation or long and short-term restriction affects Mb gene and protein expression, as well as Mb mRNA poly(A) tail length, in cardiac and skeletal muscles of rats. Long-term iron restriction caused an increase in Mb gene and protein expression in Soleus muscle. No changes were observed in extensor digitorum longus muscle and heart. Short-term iron supplementation after iron deprivation did not alter Mb gene expression and mRNA poly(A) tail length in all tissues studied. These results indicate that Mb gene and protein expression is upregulated in response to iron deprivation, an effect that is tissue-specific and seems to occur at transcriptional level. <![CDATA[Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector]]> ABSTRACT Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks. <![CDATA[Formulation and <strong><em>in vitro</em></strong> evaluation of carbopol 934-based modified clotrimazole gel for topical application]]> ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to enhance topical permeation of clotrimazole gel preparation by using various permeability enhancers such as coconut oil, pistachio oil and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Clotrimazole gel preparations were prepared and optimized by using three factor, five level central composite design. A second-order polynomial equation was generated in order to estimate the effect of independent variables i.e. coconut oil (X1), pistachio oil (X2) and sodium lauryl sulphate (X3) at various dependent variables i.e. flux (Y1), lag time (Y2), diffusion coefficient (Y3), permeability coefficient (Y4), and input rate (Y5) of clotrimazole gel formulations. Ex vivo skin permeation study was performed through rat skin by using modified Franz diffusion cell system. Optimized formulation F8 exhibited highest flux 2.17 µg/cm2/min, permeability coefficient 0.0019 cm/min and input rate 1.543 µg/cm2/min, along with moderate lag time 77.27 min and diffusion coefficient 0.063 cm2/min, which is further supported by anti-fungal activity that exhibited more prominent zone of inhibition against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Mucor. Thus, it can be concluded that permeation of clotrimazole gel was enhanced by various combination of coconut oil, pistachio oil and sodium lauryl sulphate but optimized formulation F8 containing 0.4 ml pistachio oil, 0.8 ml coconut oil and 0.04 g of SLS exhibited more pronounced and promising effect through rat skin. <![CDATA[Popular medicinal uses of <strong><em>Calea uniflora</em></strong> Less. (Asteraceae) and its contribution to the study of Brazilian medicinal plants]]> ABSTRACT Calea uniflora Less. is widely used in southern Santa Catarina (Brazil), but there are no scientific studies which support its use. Then, this study was proposed to determine of the percentage use of C. uniflora in a city of southern Brazil and documentation of the knowledge that the population has about this species. The survey was conducted with semi-structured interviews using a questionnaire applied to 372 participants. In analyzing the results, it was observed that of the 94.1% who recognized C. uniflora, 74.3% utilize it as a medicinal plant and 65.4% of such knowledge originates in childhood, mainly through the family (84.6%). 93% reported using inflorescences macerated in alcohol or rum; this extract is generally used topically for wound healing and muscle pain. Furthermore, some reported using small quantities of this extract orally to treat cold and flu. Regarding effectiveness and safety, 97% stated an improvement in symptoms with the use of the plant, while 98.5% stated that it has no toxicity. In light of these results, future phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological analyses should be designed in order to ensure rational and safe use of this species. <![CDATA[Genotypic carriers of the obesity-associated <strong><em>FTO</em></strong> polymorphism exhibit different cardiometabolic profiles after an intervention]]> ABSTRACT Background: Children and adolescents with at-risk genotypes (AA/AT) of the rs9939609 polymorphism in FTO, a fat mass and obesity-associated gene, may exhibit different cardiometabolic profile responses than subjects with the TT genotype after an interdisciplinary intervention. Methods: The sample consisted of 36 school children from southern Brazil. We used DNA quantitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for polymorphism genotyping. We measured anthropometric parameters (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage and skinfold sum), biochemical parameters (glucose, lipid profile, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin and adiponectin) and blood pressure. The 4-month intervention consisted of physical education classes, nutritional counseling, and postural and oral health counseling. Results: We observed no significant differences among the groups (AA, AT and TT) after the intervention. However, we observed improvements in three parameters (waist circumference, hip circumference and C-reactive protein) in the AT/AA genotype group and in two parameters (hip circumference and uric acid) in the TT genotype group. Conclusions: After an intervention program, carriers of at-risk genotypes for obesity (AA/AT) do not exhibit differences in biochemical parameters, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters compared with carriers of the TT genotype. <![CDATA[New carbohydrazide derivatives of 1<em>H</em>-pyrazolo[3,4-<em>b</em>]pyridine and trypanocidal activity]]> ABSTRACT This paper reports the in vitro trypanocidal activity evaluation of new carbohydrazide derivatives from 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine, substituted at C-6 position by phenyl, methyl or trifluoromethyl group. These compounds were evaluated in order to identify the antiparasitic profile against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The 4-carbohydrazide derivatives presented different profiles of activity. In the investigation of the chemical structure influence in the trypanocidal activity, the results indicated there are large lipophilicity and volume differences among these derivatives. The complementarities of their stereoelectronic and physical-chemical aspects seem to be relevant for the biological activity against T. cruzi. <![CDATA[Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk]]> ABSTRACT Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) gene polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. IGF-1 is a key regulator of proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. It has important mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activities in normal cells and in breast cancer cells, acting synergistically with estrogen to increase neoplastic cell proliferation. This review aims to present the recent finds of IGF-1 gene polymorphism and its relationship with the risk of breast cancer through following the polymorphic dinucleotide repeat cytosine-adenine (CA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by searching in the PubMed database publications focused studies published from 2010 to 2015 related to IGF-1 gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk. A growing number of studies support an association between IGF-1 gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk with conflicting results, nevertheless elucidation of the patterns of IGF-1 gene expression may permit characterization of women at high-risk for breast cancer, as well as the development of strategies for early diagnosis and efficient treatment against the disease. <![CDATA[Evaluation of deciduous broadleaf forests mountain using satellite data using neural network method near Caspian Sea in North of Iran]]> ABSTRACT During the recent decades, deciduous forests have been molested by human intervention. Easy access, abundance and diversity of valuable forest products have led to increased population density, creating new residential areas and deforestation activities. Revealing changes is one of the fundamental methods in management and assessment of natural resources. This study is evaluated changes in forests area of 2013 using satellite images. In order to mapping the forest extent condition 2013, images of the mentioned years were digitized and geo-referenced by using the ground control points and the maps of mapping organization. After selecting the best set of band using the Bhattacharya distance index, the image classification was performed by using artificial neural network algorithm. Classification by neural network method 2013 in showed that it has a high overall accuracy equal to 95.96%. <![CDATA[Genetic structure from the oldest Jatropha germplasm bank of Brazil and contribution for the genetic improvement]]> ABSTRACT Jatropha is a potential oilseed crop, which requires mitigating factors such as the low genetic variability of the species. The solution runs through the research of Brazilian germplasm. Attention should be given to the germplasm of jatropha the north of Minas Gerais, because this is the oldest national collection and because this region may be a regions of jatropha diversity due to selection pressure arising from environmental adversities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of 48 accessions of collection from Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), using SSR and ISSR markers. The results showed low genetic diversity, but some individuals stood out as J. mollissima (48), J. podagrica (47), Mexican accessions (42, 43, 44 and 45) and some national accessions (28, 29, 41 and 46). Therefore, aiming to increase the genetic variability and improve the effectiveness of jatropha breeding programs, it is suggested to explore such as parental accessions to generate commercial hybrids. This fact implies the possibility to support future production of jatropha, since this culture may be an important source of income, especially for small farmers living in semiarid regions of Brazil. <![CDATA[Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( <strong><em>Origanum vulgare</em></strong> L.)]]> ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure. <![CDATA[Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder]]> ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges. <![CDATA[Experimental validation of a bearing wear model using the directional response of the rotor-bearing system]]> ABSTRACT The present work gives continuity in the analysis of the wear influence on cylindrical hydrodynamic bearings by presenting an experimental validation of the wear model previously proposed by the authors. This validation is carried on using the frequency response of the rotor-bearings system in directional coordinates. For this purpose, a test rig was assembled in order to evaluate the behavior of the rotating system when supported by hydrodynamic bearings with different wear patterns. The experimental measurements are used to validate the wear model, comparing the anisotropy influence on the experimental and numerical responses. The simulated directional frequency responses showed a good agreement with the experimental ones, demonstrating the potential of the proposed wear model in satisfactorily represent its influence on the rotor-bearings system response in the frequency range where the numerical model was validated. <![CDATA[Contributions of the complexity paradigm to the understanding of Cerrado's organization and dynamics]]> ABSTRACT The Brazilian Cerrado is a vegetation mosaic composed of different physiognomies. Discussions remain open regarding the factors and processes responsible for the dynamic and spatial organization of the Cerrado - in its different physiognomies. The contributions of the complexity paradigm in this context are still less exploited, despite its great potential for explanations and predictions presented in previous diverse dynamic systems of complex behavior researches, a category in which the Cerrado can be included. This article has the intention of contributing to the construction of this new perspective, discussing - from theoretical concepts - the paradigm of complexity for the understanding of the organization and the dynamics of the Cerrado. <![CDATA[Ecohydrological modeling and environmental flow regime in the Formoso River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT This paper aimed at determining the environmental flow regime in a 1 km stretch of the Formoso River, MG, using River2D model. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following information was used: bathymetry, physical and hydraulic features, and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the Hypostomus auroguttatus. In the River2D, the Weighted Usable Areas were determined from the average long-term streamflows with percentage from 10% to 100%. Those streamflows were simulated for the later construction of optimization matrices that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For H. auroguttatus Juvenile, higher values of Weighted Usable Area were associated with the percentage of 60% and 70% of the average long-term streamflows in October and September, respectively. For H. auroguttatus Adult, the highest value of Weighted Usable Area was associated with the percentage of 100% of the average long-term streamflow in September. The environmental flows found for this stretch of the Formoso River varied over the year. The lowest environmental flow was observed in December (2.85 m3 s-1), while the highest was observed in May (4.13 m3 s-1). This paper shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resources management actions. <![CDATA[Numerical Study of Wake Characteristics in a Horizontal-Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine]]> ABSTRACT Over the years most studies on wake characteristics have been devoted to wind turbines, while few works are related to hydrokinetic turbines. Among studies applied to rivers, depth and width are important parameters for a suitable design. In this work, a numerical study of the wake in a horizontal-axis hydrokinetic turbine is performed, where the main objective is an investigation on the wake structure, which can be a constraining factor in rivers. The present paper uses the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) flow simulation technique, in which the Shear-Stress Transport (SST) turbulent model is considered, in order to simulate a free hydrokinetic runner in a typical river flow. The NREL-PHASE VI wind turbine was used to validate the numerical approach. Simulations for a 3-bladed axial hydrokinetic turbine with 10 m diameter were carried out, depicting the expanded helical behavior of the wake. The axial velocity, in this case, is fully recovered at 12 diameters downstream in the wake. The results are compared with others available in the literature and also a study of the turbulence kinetic energy and mean axial velocity is presented so as to assess the influence of proximity of river surface from rotor in the wake geometry. Hence, even for a single turbine facility it is still necessary to consider the propagation of the wake over the spatial domain.