Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0004-282X20150002&lang=en vol. 73 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: an old and yet not entirely unfold story]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200075&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Neurological examination: history, problems and facts in the 21<sup>st</sup> century]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200077&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Patterns of seizure control in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampus sclerosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200079&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) may present unstable pattern of seizures. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of relapse-remitting seizures in MTLE with (MTLE-HS) and without (MTLE-NL) hippocampal sclerosis. Method We evaluated 172 patients with MTLE-HS (122) or MTLE-NL (50). Relapse-remitting pattern was defined as periods longer than two years of seizure-freedom intercalated with seizure recurrence. “Infrequent seizures” was considered as up to three seizures per year and “frequent seizures” as any period of seizures higher than that. Results Thirty-seven (30%) MTLE-HS and 18 (36%) MTLE-NL patients had relapse-remitting pattern (X2, p = 0.470). This was more common in those with infrequent seizures (X2, p &lt; 0.001). Twelve MTLE-HS and one MTLE-NL patients had prolonged seizure remission between the first and second decade of life (X2, p = 0.06). Conclusion Similar proportion of MTLE-HS or MTLE-NL patients present relapse-remitting seizures and this occurs more often in those with infrequent seizures. <hr/> Objetivo Pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal mesial (ELTM) podem apresentar padrão instável de crises epilépticas. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar ocorrência de crises remitente-recorrentes em ELTM com (ELTM-EH) e sem (ELTM-NL) esclerose hipocampal. Método Avaliamos 172 pacientes com ELTM-EH (122) ou ELTM-NL (50). Padrão remitente-recorrente foi definido como períodos superiores a dois anos de remissão intercalados com recorrência de crises. Até três crises por ano foram consideradas como "infrequentes" e qualquer período com frequência maior como "frequentes". Resultados Trinta e sete (30%) pacientes com ELTM-EH e 18 (36%) com ELTM-NL apresentaram crises remitente-recorrentes (X2, p = 0,470), mais comum naqueles com crises infrequentes (X2, p &lt; 0,001). Doze pacientes com ELTM-EH e um ELTM-NL apresentaram remissão prolongada de crises entre a primeira e a segunda década de vida (X2, p = 0,06). Conclusão Proporção semelhante de pacientes com ELTM-EH e ELTM-NL apresentam crises remitente-recorrentes e isso ocorre com maior frequência em pacientes com crises esporádicas. <![CDATA[Etiological prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in hospitalized elderly in a Brazilian tertiary center – Salvador - Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200083&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Epilepsy in the elderly has high incidence and prevalence and is often underecognized. Objective To describe etiological prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on elderly patients who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures during hospitalization, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled. They were divided into two age subgroups (median 75 years) with the purpose to compare etiologies. Results The most common etiology was ischemic stroke (36.7%), followed by neoplasias (13.3%), hemorrhagic stroke (11.7%), dementias (11.4%) and metabolic disturbances (5.5%). The analysis of etiological association showed that ischemic stroke was predominant in the younger subgroup (45% vs 30%), and dementias in the older one (18.9% vs 3.8%), but with no statistical significance (p = 0.23). Conclusion This study suggests that epilepsy and epileptic seizures in the elderly inpatients have etiological association with stroke, neoplasias and dementias. <hr/>Epilepsia no idoso tem alta incidência e prevalência e é frequentemente sub diagnosticada. Objetivo Descrever a prevalência etiológica da epilepsia e crises epilépticas em idosos internados. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, envolvendo idosos hospitalizados, de 60 anos ou mais, que foram admitidos de janeiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010 por terem apresentado epilepsia e crises epilépticas durante a hospitalização. Cento e vinte pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois subgrupos de idade (mediana 75 anos), com o propósito de comparar etiologias. Resultados A etiologia mais comum foi o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (36,7%), seguido por neoplasias (13,3%), acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico (11,7%), demências (11,4%) e distúrbios metabólicos (5,5%). A análise da associação etiológica mostrou que o acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico predominou no subgrupo mais jovem (45% vs 30%), e as demências no subgrupo mais velho (18,9% vs 3,8%), contudo essa diferença não evidenciou significância estatística (p = 0,23). Conclusão Este estudo sugere que epilepsia e crise epiléptica em idosos internados têm associação etiológica com acidente vascular cerebral, neoplasias e demências. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200090&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9%) of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients. <hr/> Objetivo Avaliar como a melhora da depressão grave através da psicoterapia afeta a função cognitiva de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM) diagnosticados com depressão e disfunção cognitiva. Método Foram aplicados a pacientes com EM o “Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test” e o ınventário de depressão de beck (BDI). Os pacientes com depressão e disfunção cognitiva foram submetidos a psicoterapia de grupo por 3 meses. Depois desse período, foram reaplicados os mesmos testes. Resultados Depressão e disfunção cognitiva foram detectadas conjuntamente em 15 (13,9%) dos pacientes. Embora os pacientes se tivessem recuperado ao fim dos 3 meses de psicoterapia de grupo, somente através do BDI e do “Paced Auditory Test” foi possível detectar uma recuperação significativa. Conclusão Psicoterapia de grupo pode diminuir o comprometimento cognitivo em pacientes com EM. <![CDATA[Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of attention and ADHD comorbidity in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200096&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Children with epilepsy present significant problems concerning attention and comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective To determine the prevalence of attention complaints, ADHD diagnosis and attention profile in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy. Method 36 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy and 37 genre and age matched healthy controls underwent several procedures to diagnose their neuropsychological profile and comorbidity with ADHD. Results The prevalence of ADHD was higher in patients with epilepsy [χ2= 4.1, p = 0.043, 6 (16.7%) vs 1 (2.7%)], with worse results in attention related WISC items and factors in patients with epilepsy comparing to the controls, but not between patients with and without ADHD. Clinical characteristics did not influence those results. Conclusion This study found a greater prevalence of problems wih attention in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy, but not a distinct profile between those with or without ADHD. <hr/>Crianças com epilepsia podem apresentar problemas de atenção e comorbidade com transtorno de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH). Objetivo Determinar a prevalência de queixas de atenção, diagnóstico de TDAH e perfil atentivo em uma amostra de crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia idiopática. Método 36 crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia idiopática e 37 controles saudáveis foram submetidos a vários procedimentos para diagnosticar perfil neuropsicológico e comorbidade com TDAH. Resultados A prevalência de TDAH foi maior em pacientes com epilepsia [χ2 = 4,1, p = 0,043, 6 ( 16,7%) vs 1 (2,7%)] , que também apresentaram piores resultados em itens e fatores dependentes de atenção do WISC. Não foram observadas diferenças entre pacientes com e sem TDAH. As características clínicas não influenciaram resultados. Conclusão Este estudo encontrou uma maior prevalência de problemas com atenção em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia idiopática , mas não um perfil distinto entre aqueles com ou sem TDAH. <![CDATA[Waiting time to radiotherapy as a prognostic factor for glioblastoma patients in a scenario of medical disparities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective To evaluate the effect of waiting time (WT) to radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients as a reliable prognostic variable in Brazil, a scenario of medical disparities. Method Retrospective study of 115 GBM patients from two different health-care institutions (one public and one private) in Brazil who underwent post-operative RT. Results Median WT to RT was 6 weeks (range, 1.3-17.6). The median OS for WT ≤ 6 weeks was 13.5 months (95%CI , 9.1-17.9) and for WT &gt; 6 weeks was 14.2 months (95%CI, 11.2-17.2) (HR 1.165, 95%CI 0.770-1.762; p = 0.470). In the multivariate analysis, the variables associated with survival were KPS (p &lt; 0.001), extent of resection (p = 0.009) and the adjuvant treatment (p = 0.001). The KPS interacted with WT to RT (HR 0.128, 95%CI 0.034-0.476; p = 0.002), showing that the benefit of KPS on OS depends on the WT to RT. Conclusion No prognostic impact of WT to RT could be detected on the OS. Although there are no data to ensure that delays to RT are tolerable, we may reassure patients that the time-length to initiate treatment does not seem to influence the control of the disease, particularly in face of other prognostic factors. <hr/> Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do tempo de espera (TE) até radioterapia na sobrevida global de pacientes com glioblastoma como um fator prognóstico confiável. Método Estudo retrospectivo de 115 pacientes com glioblastoma, que foram submetidos à radioterapia pós-operatória, em dois serviços diferentes no Brasil (um público e outro privado). Resultados Mediana de TE para radioterapia foi de 6 semanas (variação, 1,3-17,6). A mediana de sobrevida para TE ≤ 6 semanas foi de 13,5 meses (IC95%, 9,1-17,9) e para TE &gt; 6 semanas foi de 14,2 meses (IC95%, 11,2-17,2) (HR 1,165, 0,770-1,762; p = 0,470). Na análise multivariada, as variáveis associadas à sobrevida foram perfomance status (p &lt; 0,001), extensão da ressecção (p = 0,009) e tratamento adjuvante (p = 0,001). Conclusão Não se observou impacto prognóstico para TE até a radioterapia na sobrevida. Diante de outros fatores prognósticos, é possível assegurar de que o espaço de tempo até a radioterapia não parece influenciar o controle da doença. <![CDATA[Artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured subjects: how to assess clinical performance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200111&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Method Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A) participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a paired t test. Multiple r-squared was also calculated. Results The 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2 were not statistically different for heart rate, distance, mean speed and blood pressure. Multiple r-squared (r2 = 0.96) explained 96% of the variation in the distance walked. Conclusion The use of 6MWT in artificial gait towards assessing exercise walking capacity is reproducible and easy to apply. It can be used to assess SCI artificial gait clinical performance. <hr/> Objetivo Adaptar o teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos (TC6) para marcha artificial de pacientes com lesão medular completa associado a eletroestimulação neuromuscular. Método Nove participantes do sexo masculino com paraplegia (AIS A) participaram do estudo. O nível de lesão variou entre T4 e T12 , tempo de lesão variou entre 4 e 13 anos. Os pacientes realizaram dois TC6 (TC6-1 e TC6-2). Os participantes usaram eletroestimulação neuromuscular e foram auxiliados por andador. As diferenças entre os dois TC6 foram avaliadas pelo teste t pareado e calculado o r2. Resultados Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre TC6-1 e TC6-2 para frequência cardíaca, distância, velocidade média e pressão arterial. O r2 = 0,96 explica 96% da variação na distância caminhada. Conclusão O uso do TC6 em marcha artificial para avaliação da capacidade de exercício de caminhada é reprodutível e fácil de aplicar. Esse teste pode ser utilizado para avaliar o desempenho clínico da marcha artificial de indivíduos com lesão medular. <![CDATA[Piribedil and Pathological Gambling in six Parkinsonian patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Impulse control disorders (ICD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have attracted increasing interest. They are characterized by the inability to control the impulse to perform an act that can be detrimental to them or to others. Although dopamine agonists (DA), as a group, have been associated with impulse control disorders (ICD), piribedil has rarely been reported to cause them. Method Case reports of six parkinsonian patients on piribedil presenting pathological gambling (PG). Results All of the patients presented ICD associated with piribedil use. Two of them received this medication as first treatment and four of them who had developed ICDs secondary to other DA that reappeared with piribedil. Conclusion Despite piribedil is commercially available in only a few countries, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PG in patients with PD. <hr/>Os distúrbios do controle do impulso (DCI) na doença de Parkinson (DP) têm atraído crescente interesse. Eles são caracterizados pela incapacidade da pessoa em controlar o impulso para realizar um ato que pode ser prejudicial a ela própria ou aos outros. Embora os agonistas dopaminérgicos (AD), como um grupo, têm sido associados com distúrbios do controle do impulso, o piribedil tem sido relatado raramente como causa dos mesmos. Método Relatos de seis casos de pacientes parkinsonianos em uso de piribedil apresentando jogo patológico (JP). Resultados Todos os pacientes apresentaram DCI com o uso do piribedil. Dois deles receberam piribedil como primeiro tratamento e quatro deles que haviam desenvolvido DCI devido a outro AD, reapresentaram o quadro com piribedil. Conclusão Apesar de o piribedil estar disponível comercialmente apenas em alguns países, deveria ser considerado no diagnóstico diferencial de JP em pacientes com DP. <![CDATA[A Case-Control study of the prevalence of neurological diseases in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. <hr/>Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. <![CDATA[Effects of iodinated contrast media in a novel model for cerebral vasospasm]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200125&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objective We developed an in vitro model for vasospasm post subarachnoid hemorrhage that was suitable for investigating brain vessel autoregulation. We further investigated the effects of iodinated contrast medium on the vascular tone and the myogenic response of spastic cerebral vessels. Method We isolated and perfused the superior cerebellar arteries of rats. The vessels were pressurized and studied under isobaric conditions. Coagulated blood was used to simulate subarachnoid hemorrhage. The contrast medium iodixanol was applied intraluminally. Results Vessels exposed to blood developed significantly stronger myogenic tone (65.7 ± 2.0% vs 77.1 ± 1.2% of the maximum diameter, for the blood and the control group, respectively) and significantly decreased myogenic response, compared with the control groups. The contrast medium did not worsen the myogenic tone or the myogenic response in any group. Conclusion Our results show that deranged myogenic response may contribute to cerebral blood flow disturbances subsequent to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The contrast medium did not have any negative influence on vessel tone or myogenic response in this experimental setting. <hr/> Objetivo Desenvolvemos um modelo in vitro para vasoespasmo subsequente à hemorragia subaracnóide que foi adequado para investigar a autorregularão dos vasos cerebrais. Em seguida investigamos os efeitos o meio de contraste iodado no tônus vascular e na resposta miogênica dos vasos cerebrais espásticos. Método Isolamos e perfundimos as artérias cerebelares superiores de ratos. Os vasos foram pressurizados e estudados em condições isobáricas. Sangue coagulado foi utilizado para simular hemorragia subaracnóide. O meio de contraste iodixanol foi aplicado intraluminarmente. Resultados Os vasos expostos ao sangue desenvolveram aumento significativo do tônus miogênico (65.7 ± 2.0% vs 77.1 ± 1.2% do maior diâmetro, para o grupo de sangue e o grupo controle, respectivamente) com resposta miogênica significativamente menor do que aquela dos controles. O meio de contraste iodado não piorou o tônus miogênico ou a resposta miogênica em nenhum dos grupos. Conclusão Nossos resultados mostram que uma resposta miogênica pode contribuir para as alterações de fluxo sanguíneo cerebral subsequentes à hemorragia subaracnóide. O meio de contraste iodado não teve nenhuma influência negativa no tônus vascular ou na resposta miogênica neste modelo experimental. <![CDATA[Tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones to induce anxiety and depression-like behavior in rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200132&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on anxiety and depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) and naïve female rats were investigated. The animals were divided into Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham and OVX groups. Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility times in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were higher than in the Sham group. In the open field, the numbers of central crossings in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, and the number of peripheral crossings in the OVX group was lower than the number in the Sham group. In the elevated plus maze, the numbers of entries to the open arm among the animals in the Sham-TAM and OVX groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, while the number of entries to the open arm in the OVX-TAM group was higher than the number in the OVX group. It was shown that deletion of ovarian hormones induced anxiety and depression-like behavior. Administration of tamoxifen in naïve rats led to anxiety and depression-like behavior that was comparable with the effects of ovarian hormone deletion. It can be suggested that tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones. It also seems that tamoxifen has anxiolytic effects on ovariectomized rats.<hr/>Foram investigados os efeitos do tamoxifeno (TAM) no comportamento semelhante a ansiedade de depressão de ratas ooforectomizadas (OVX) e controles. Os animais foram divididos em Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham e OVX groups. Tamoxifeno (1 mg/kg) foi administrado por quatro semanas. No teste de natação forçada, os tempos de imobilidade nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram maiores que aqueles do grupo Sham. No campo aberto, os números de cruzamento no centro nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram menores que aquele do grupo Sham, e o número dos cruzamentos na periferia no grupo OVX foi menor que o número no grupo Sham. No labirinto elevado, os números de entradas com braços abertos entre os animais nos grupos Sham-TAM e OVX foram menores do que aqueles do grupo Sham, enquanto o número de entradas com os braços abertos no grupo OVX-TAM foi maior que aquele no grupo OVX. Foi observado que a deleção dos hormônios ovarianos induziu comportamento similar a ansiedade e depressão. A administração de tamoxifeno em ratos controle induziu a um comportamento que era comparável aos efeitos da deleção do hormônio ovariano. Pode ser sugerido que o tamoxifeno antagoniza os efeitos dos hormônios ovarianos. Parece também que o tamoxifeno tem efeito ansiolítico nas ratas ooforectomizadas. <![CDATA[Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200140&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.<hr/>O objetivo deste artigo é destacar alguns dos primeiros e mais importantes livros-texto interessados em difundir o ensino do exame neurológico e seus autores. Durante o século XIX, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers e Charles Mills foram pioneiros na literatura neurológica, seguidos por Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes e Russel DeJong no século XX. Com determinação, grande senso de observação e pesquisa, eles competentemente disseminaram a técnica e a arte de se realizar o exame neurológico. <![CDATA[Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200147&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.<hr/>O objetivo foi descrever o estado atual na literatura científica sobre privação do sono associado a experiências dolorosas no prematuro e o papel na evolução do sono em ambiente de terapia intensiva. Realizou-se uma busca sistemática para estudos sobre sono, dor, prematuridade e programas de atenção ao neonato. Foram consultados as bases Web-of-Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, BVS e SciELO. A associação entre privação do sono e dor gera efeitos que são observados na atividade cerebral, fisiológica e comportamental dos prematuros. A polissonografia nas unidades intensivas e o manejo da dor em neonatos permitem comparação no primeiro ano de vida com crianças nascidas a termo. Encontraram-se poucas evidências de que programas de cuidado neonatal podem influenciar o desenvolvimento do sono e diminuir o impacto negativo do ambiente. Estas evidências são discutidas na perspectiva de como a intervenção hospitalar pode melhorar o desenvolvimento do prematuro. <![CDATA[Andreas Vesalius as a renaissance innovative neuroanatomist: his 5<sup>th</sup> centenary of birth]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200155&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is considered the Father of Modern Anatomy, and an authentic representative of the Renaissance. His studies, founded on dissection of human bodies, differed from Galeno, who based his work on dissection of animals, constituted a notable scientific advance. Putting together science and art, Vesalius associated himself to artists of the Renaissance, and valued the images of the human body in his superb work De Humani Corporis Fabrica.This paper aims to honor this extraordinary European Renaissance physician and anatomist, who used aesthetic appeal to bind text and illustration, science and art. His achievements are highlighted, with an especial attention on neuroanatomy. Aspects about his personal life and career are also focused.<hr/>Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) é considerado o Pai da Anatomia Moderna e um autêntico representante da Renascença. Seus estudos, baseados na dissecação de corpos humanos, diferiam dos de Galeno, que baseava seu trabalho em dissecação de animais, constituiu-se em um notável avanço científico. Reunindo ciência e arte, Vesalius associou-se a artistas da Renascença e valorizou as imagens do corpo humano em seu soberbo trabalho De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Este artigo visa honrar esse extraordinário médico e anatomista da Renascença europeia, que fez uso do apelo estético para coligar texto e ilustração, ciência e arte. Suas realizações são realçadas, com atenção especial na neuroanatomia. Também são colocados em foco aspectos da sua vida pessoal e de sua carreira. <![CDATA[Alzheimer's 100<sup>th</sup> anniversary of death and his contribution to a better understanding of Senile dementia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200159&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Initially the trajectory of the historical forerunners and conceptions of senile dementia are briefly presented, being highlighted the name of Alois Alzheimer who provided clinical and neuropathological indicators to differentiate a group of patients with Senile dementia. Alzheimer's examination of Auguste D’s case, studied by him with Bielschowsky’s silver impregnation technique, permitted to identify a pathological marker, the intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, characterizing a new disease later named after him by Kraepelin – Alzheimer’s disease. Over the time this disorder became one of the most important degenerative dementing disease, reaching nowadays a status that may be considered as epidemic.<hr/>Incialmente é apresentada brevemente a trajetória histórica dos precursores e dos conceitos da demência senil, sendo destacado o nome de Alois Alzheimer que forneceu indicadores clínicos e neuropatológicos para diferenciar um grupo de pacientes com Demência senil. O exame de Alzheimer do caso de Auguste D, estudado por ele com a técnica de impregnação argêntica de Bielschowsky, permitiu identificar um marcador patológico, os emaranhados neurofibrilares intraneuronais, caracterizando uma nova doença, mais tarde denominada com seu nome por Kraepelin – doença de Alzheimer. Com o passar do tempo esta desordem tornou-se uma das mais importantes doenças demenciante degenerativa, alcançando, na atualidade, um status que pode ser considerado como epidêmico. <![CDATA[Aloysio de Castro and Uruguay]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200163&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Aloysio de Castro, when Director of the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and Américo Ricaldoni, when Dean of the School of Medicine of Montevideo, Uruguay, started a period of intense collaboration between both institutions. In this period, Aloysio visited Montevideo in many occasions, giving lectures, donating scientific material and publishing papers in Uruguay. Ricaldoni retributed his visits, distinguishing Aloysio as the first foreign Honorary Professor of the Medical School of Uruguay, participating in the inauguration of the new building of the School in Rio. Even after Ricaldoni’s death in 1928, for many years, Aloysio continued with his visits. A poem by Aloysio de Castro dedicated to Montevideo is attached.<hr/>Aloysio de Castro, sendo Diretor da Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro, e Américo Ricaldoni, como Decano da Faculdade de Medicina de Montevidéu, Uruguai, começaram um período de estreita colaboração entre as duas instituições. Nesse então, Aloysio visitou Montevidéu várias vezes, dando palestras, doando material científico e publicando artigos no Uruguai. Ricaldoni retribuiu as suas visitas distinguindo ao Aloysio como o primeiro Professor Honorário estrangeiro da Faculdade de Medicina, e participando na inauguração do novo edifício da Faculdade no Rio. Após a morte de Ricaldoni, em 1928, Aloysio continuou com as suas visitas. Anexa-se um poema do Aloysio de Castro dedicado à Montevidéu. <![CDATA[Neurology at <em>Escola Paulista de Medicina</em> (1933-1995). From Fausto Guerner to José Geraldo Camargo Lima]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200166&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[The corneomandibular reflex: a light touch and wide conclusions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200170&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) – a case with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dissociation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200171&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[Gasserian ganglion neurosarcoidosis mimicking trigeminal schwannoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200173&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[Michelangelo, mammillary bodies and the Creator]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200175&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[The relationship between neurocysticercosis and the development of mesial temporal lobe sclerosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200176&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[Seasonality of 278 neuromyelitis optica relapses in a Brazilian cohort]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200177&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi’s death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980’s and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.<hr/>A Escola Paulista de Medicina foi fundada em 1933 e o primeiro Professor de Neurologia foi Fausto Guerner, que morreu prematuramente em 1938, antes do início das aulas. O Professor Paulino Longo foi o seu sucessor. Longo, juntamente com outros, fundou os Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria e a Academia Brasileira de Neurologia. Professor Paulo Pupo, seu sucessor, introduziu a eletroencefalografia no Brasil. O Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima tornou-se chefe da Neurologia em 1974. Criou o Pronto-Socorro de Neurologia, iniciou a Pós-Graduação e dividiu a disciplina em setores especializadas. A partir dos anos 1980, a Neurologia da EPM tornou-se um dos centros acadêmicos mais importantes do Brasil. <![CDATA[Surgical treatment of type I Chiari malformation: the role of Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200179&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The treatment for type 1 Chiari malformation (CM 1) is one of the most controversial topics in the neurosurgical field. The present study evaluated two of the most applied surgical techniques to treat CM 1. Method 32 patients were evaluated and divided in two groups: group 1 had 16 patients that were submitted to decompression of occipital bone and dura mater of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ); group 2 also had 16 patients and in addition to the previous procedure, they were submitted to Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation. The comparison between the groups included neurological exam and cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging during pre and postoperative periods. Results Both techniques were equivalents in terms of neurological improvement of the patients (p &gt; 0.05), but the group 2 had more surgical complications, with relative risk of 2.45 (CI 1.55-3.86) for adverse events. Whatever the cerebrospinal fluid flow at CVJ, the patients of the group 1 achieved greater amount of flow than the group 2 (p &lt; 0.05) during the postoperative period. Conclusion The cranial and dural decompression of the CVJ without arachnoidal violation was the best surgical intervention for treatment of CM 1, between these two compared techniques. <![CDATA[Dr José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva March 18, 1938 - July 19, 2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-282X2015000200180&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The treatment for type 1 Chiari malformation (CM 1) is one of the most controversial topics in the neurosurgical field. The present study evaluated two of the most applied surgical techniques to treat CM 1. Method 32 patients were evaluated and divided in two groups: group 1 had 16 patients that were submitted to decompression of occipital bone and dura mater of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ); group 2 also had 16 patients and in addition to the previous procedure, they were submitted to Magendie’s foramen opening e tonsils manipulation. The comparison between the groups included neurological exam and cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging during pre and postoperative periods. Results Both techniques were equivalents in terms of neurological improvement of the patients (p &gt; 0.05), but the group 2 had more surgical complications, with relative risk of 2.45 (CI 1.55-3.86) for adverse events. Whatever the cerebrospinal fluid flow at CVJ, the patients of the group 1 achieved greater amount of flow than the group 2 (p &lt; 0.05) during the postoperative period. Conclusion The cranial and dural decompression of the CVJ without arachnoidal violation was the best surgical intervention for treatment of CM 1, between these two compared techniques.