Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Bragantia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0006-870520150001&lang=en vol. 74 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA) as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’), intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’) and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’) upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI), harvest indexes (HI) and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL) and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A) were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i) a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii) greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii) a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation). <![CDATA[Pollen germination and boric acid applying in loquat flower buds]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo do trabalho foi estabelecer meio de cultura e avaliar a germinação de grãos de pólen in vitro e após a aplicação de boro na panícula em cultivares de nespereira. Foi determinado o meio de cultura ideal para germinação dos grãos de pólen e avaliada a porcentagem de germinação utilizando pólen da cultivar Mizauto. Também avaliou-se o melhor estágio de desenvolvimento floral e horário do dia para coleta do pólen, bem como o tempo de incubação para sua germinação. Após estabelecido o meio, foi determinada a germinação de nove cultivares: Mizauto, Mizuho, Fukuhara, Parmogi, Centenária, Kurisaki, Néctar de Cristal, Mizumo e Precoce de Campinas. Em campo, avaliou-se a aplicação de ácido bórico em panículas de nespereiras Mizauto, nas concentrações 600 mg L–1, 1.200 mg L–1 e 1.800 mg L–1, além do controle sem aplicação. O meio de cultura estabelecido foi de 200 g L–1 de sacarose, 1.200 mg L–1 de ácido bórico, solidificado com 10 g L–1 de agar e pH 6, incubado por sete horas. O melhor estágio do botão floral foi na pré-antese, coletado entre 14 e 18 horas. A aplicação de 900 mg L–1 de ácido bórico em campo elevou a germinação dos grãos de pólen para 57,68%.<hr/>This study aimed to establish a culture media and evaluate pollen grains germination in vitro and after boron applying in the panicles of Loquat cultivars. Was established an appropriate culture media for pollen grains germination and evaluated the germination percentage in Mizauto cultivar. Was also evaluated the best stage of floral growth and the best period of the day to collect the pollen, beyond the evaluation of incubation time for their germination. After established the appropriate culture media, it was determined the germination of 9 cultivars: Mizauto, Mizuho, Fukuhara, Parmogi, Centenária, Kurisaki, Néctar de Cristal, Mizumo and Precoce de Campinas. On the field, was evaluated the applying of boric acid with different concentrations 600, 1200 and 1800 mg L–1 and without applying on the panicles of Mizauto cultivar. The culture media established was composed by 200 g L–1 of sucrose, 1200 mg L–1 of boric acid, solidified with 10 g L–1 of Agar and pH 6, and incubated during seven hours. The best stage of floral bud was in pre-anthesis, collected between two and six pm. The applying of 900 mg L–1 of boric acid on field raised the pollen grain germination to 57.68%. <![CDATA[Sample size in the estimation of correlation coefficients for corn hybrids in crops and accuracy levels]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tamanho de amostra necessário para a estimação de coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson para híbridos simples, triplo e duplo de milho em safras e níveis de precisão. Em 361, 373 e 416 plantas, respectivamente, dos híbridos simples, triplo e duplo da safra 2008/2009 e em 1.777, 1.693 e 1.720 plantas, respectivamente, dos híbridos simples, triplo e duplo da safra 2009/2010 foram mensurados 12 caracteres: altura de planta; altura de inserção e peso de espiga; número de fileiras de grãos por espiga; comprimento e diâmetro de espiga; peso e diâmetro de sabugo; massa de 100 grãos; número de grãos por espiga; comprimento de grãos; e produtividade de grãos. Em cada híbrido e safra foram estimados os coeficientes de correlação para os 66 pares de caracteres e determinou-se o tamanho de amostra para estimação de coeficientes de correlação em quatro níveis de precisão [amplitudes do intervalo de confiança de 95% (AIC95%) de 0,15, 0,25, 0,35 e 0,45] por meio de reamostragem com reposição. O tamanho de amostra varia entre híbridos, safras e pares de caracteres. Maior tamanho de amostra é necessário para a estimação do coeficiente de correlação entre caracteres fracamente correlacionados e menor tamanho de amostra é necessário para a estimação do coeficiente de correlação entre caracteres altamente correlacionados. Independentemente do híbrido, da safra e do par de caracteres, 375, 195 e 120 plantas são suficientes, respectivamente, para a estimação de coeficientes de correlação com AIC95% máximas de 0,25, 0,35 e 0,45.<hr/>This study determined the sample size necessary for the estimation of the Pearson linear correlation coefficients for single, triple and double corn hybrids in crops and accuracy levels. In 361, 373 and 416 plants, respectively, of the single, triple and double hybrids of the 2008/2009 crop and, in 1,777, 1,693 and 1,720 plants, respectively, of the single, triple and double hybrids of the 2009/2010 crop, twelve traits were measured: plant height, ear insertion height, ear weight, number of grain rows per ear, ear length and diameter, cob weight and diameter, weight of hundred grains, number of grains per ear, grain length and grain yield. Then, in each hybrid and crop, were estimated the correlation coefficients for the 66 pairs of traits and determined the sample size necessary to estimate the correlation coefficients in four accuracy levels [amplitudes of the confidence interval of 95% (ACI95%) of 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45], by resampling with replacement. The sample size varies among hybrids, crops and pairs of traits. Larger sample size is required to estimate the correlation coefficient between weakly correlated traits and smaller sample size is needed to estimate the correlation coefficient between highly correlated traits. Independently of hybrid, crop and pairs of traits, 375, 195 and 120 plants are sufficient, respectively, to estimate the correlation coefficients with maximum ACI95% of 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45. <![CDATA[Genes differentially expressed in castor bean genotypes (<em>Ricinus communis</em> L.) under water stress induced by peg]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A mamoneira é uma cultura de relevância econômica e social no Brasil e no mundo. O óleo produzido por suas sementes, composto principalmente pelo ácido ricinoleico, é estratégico para as indústrias de lubrificantes, cosméticos, polímeros, dentre outras. Embora a mamoneira seja considerada tolerante à seca, a ausência de chuvas no período da floração pode reduzir a produtividade da planta. Respostas diferenciais ao déficit hídrico na espécie têm sido observadas em acessos de bancos de germoplasma e entre cultivares comerciais. Com intuito de conhecer melhor os mecanismos fisiológicos de resposta ao déficit hídrico e direcionar programas de melhoramento genético, o objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a expressão diferencial de genes potencialmente relacionados com a tolerância da mamoneira ao déficit hídrico e o comportamento de enzimas do sistema de defesa antioxidante. O estudo foi conduzido com três acessos (China Careca, IAC 2028 e PB 07) submetidos a um ensaio com solução de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6.000) por um período de 24 horas para indução do déficit hídrico. Os genes CAT, APX, SOD-Cu/Zn, SOD-Fe e SOD-Mn tiveram maior expressão diferencial no acesso China Careca. O gene SOD-Cu/Zn foi o mais diferencialmente expresso quanto comparado ao controle (3,57 vezes) no acesso China Careca. Análise da atividade de enzimas relacionadas com estresse oxidativo (Catalase – CAT, Ascorbato Peroxidase – APX, Guaiacol Peroxidase – GPOX e Superoxide Dismutase – SOD) revelou que os acessos possuem diferentes mecanismos de resposta ao déficit hídrico. Os resultados apontam que o acesso China Careca pode ser considerado de grande importância para programas de melhoramento genético por apresentar característica de precocidade, sistema de defesa antioxidante mais eficiente e resistência ao déficit hídrico.<hr/>Castor bean is a crop of social and economic importance in Brazil and worldwide. The oil produced from its seeds, comprised mainly of ricinoleic acid, is strategic for the manufacture of lubricants, cosmetics, polymers, among others. Although castor bean is considered drought tolerant, the lack of rain during flowering can reduce plant yield. Differential responses to drought in the species have been observed in the genebank accessions and between cultivars. In order to better understand the physiological mechanisms of response to water deficit and direct breeding programs, the objective was to analyze the differential expression of genes potentially related to tolerance to water deficit in castor bean and the behavior of enzymes of the antioxidant defense system. The study was conducted with three accessions (China Careca, IAC 2028 and PB 07) subjected to a test solution with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6.000) for a period of 24 hours for induction of drought. CAT, APX, SOD-Cu/Zn, Fe-SOD and Mn-SOD genes had higher differential expression in China Careca accession. The SOD-Cu/Zn gene was the most differentially expressed in China Careca access when compared to control (3.57 times). Analysis of the activity of enzymes related to oxidative stress (catalase - CAT, ascorbate peroxidase - APX, Guaiacol Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase-GPOX activity-SOD) revealed that the accessions have different mechanisms of response to water deficit. The results indicate that China Careca accession can be considered of great importance for breeding programs by presenting precocity characteristic, more efficient antioxidant defense system and resistance to drought. <![CDATA[Inheritance patterns and identification of microsatellite markers linked to the rice blast resistance in BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>1</sub> population of rice breeding]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The BC2F1 population was derived from a cross between rice variety, MR219 (susceptible to blast) and Pongsu Seribu 1 (resistant to blast). The objectives of this research were to know the inheritance pattern of blast resistance and to identify the linked markers associated with blast resistance in BC2F1 population. Sixteen microsatellite markers were found as polymorphic between the parents related to blast resistant genes (Pi-genes). Among the selected blast resistant linked markers, two markers RM6836 and RM8225 showed expected testcross ratio (1:1) for single-gene model in the BC2F1 population with the association between resistant and susceptible progeny. A total of 333-BC2F1 plants were challenged with the most virulent pathotype P7.2 of Magnaporthe oryzae. Chi-square (χ2) analysis for phenotypic segregation in single-gene model showed goodness of fit (P = 0.4463) to the expected segregation ratio (1:1). In marker segregation analysis, two polymorphic markers (RM6836 and RM8225) clearly showed goodness of fit to the expected segregation testcross ratio (1:1) for the single-gene model. The marker RM8225 and RM6836 showed significant R2 values higher than 10 for the trait of the blast lesions degree (BLD). The positions of RM6836 and RM8225 markers on rice chromosome 6 and the distance between these two markers is 0.2 cM. We conclude that single dominant gene control the blast resistance in Pongsu Seribu 1 located on chromosome 6, which is linked to RM8225 and RM6836 microsatellite markers. This information could be useful in marker-assisted selection for blast resistance in rice breeding involving Pongsu Seribu 1. <![CDATA[Diallel analysis and inbreeding depression of hybrid forage corn for agronomic traits and chemical quality]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a capacidade combinatória e a depressão endogâmica de híbridos de milho para caracteres agronômicos e qualidade de forragem. Foram avaliados nove híbridos de milho, 36 combinações F1 oriundas de um dialelo, nove populações S1 e duas testemunhas, em dois experimentos delineados em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições, nas safras 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os genitores Impacto, CD304 e DKB390 são recomendados para a formação de um composto a ser submetido a um programa de seleção recorrente visando à melhoria na produção de forragem. Os cruzamentos entre o genitor Impacto e os parentais DKB390, P30P34 e P30B39 são promissores à melhoria da qualidade da forragem por meio da redução nos teores de fibra e aumento de proteína, sendo recomendados para extração de linhagens ou melhoramento interpopulacional. Foi detectada uma alta depressão endogâmica para rendimento de grãos, indicando que efeitos não aditivos contribuíram para a herança do caráter.<hr/>This study aimed to estimate the combining ability and inbreeding depression of corn hybrids for agronomic traits and forage quality. Nine corn hybrids, 36 F1 combinations from a diallel, 9 S1 populations and two checks were evaluated in two experiments in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. The parents Impacto, CD304 and DKB390 are recommended to form a composite to be subjected to a recurrent selection program aiming to improve forage production. Crosses between Impacto and parents DKB390, P30P34 and P30B39 are promising to increase forage quality by reducing the fiber content and also by increasing the protein content, being recommended for extracting inbred lines and interpopulation improvement. High inbreeding depression for grain yield was detected, indicating that non-additive effects contributed to the inheritance of the trait. <![CDATA[Resistance of conventional and isogenic transgenic maize hybrids to <em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100050&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Avaliou-se o efeito dos danos ocasionados por S. frugiperda na produtividade de híbridos de milho convencionais e suas versões isogênicas transgênicas com diferentes toxinas Bt, em condições de campo. Experimentos foram instalados nas localidades de Campinas e Mococa, nas safras 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: produtividade de grãos, massa de cem grãos e rendimento de grãos. Para a avaliação dos danos ocasionados por S. frugiperda, verificou-se a intensidade das injúrias foliares por meio de escala visual de notas, com variação de 0 a 9, dos 15 dias até os 60 dias após a semeadura. Menores notas de danos causados por S. frugiperda são verificadas em híbridos transgênicos. A maioria dos híbridos convencionais não difere em produtividade de grãos de pelo menos uma de suas versões isogênicas transgênicas. Os mesmos híbridos de milho com toxinas Bt diferentes podem apresentar comportamentos produtivos diferentes em condições de campo. Toxinas Bt diferentes respondem de forma distinta em relação aos danos ocasionados por S. frugiperda.<hr/>This study evaluated the effect of damage caused by S. frugiperda on yield of maize hybrids and their conventional and isogenic transgenic versions, with different Bt toxins, in field conditions. Experiments were conducted in the municipalities of Campinas and Mococa, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, in a randomized complete block design, with 12 treatments and four replications. The variables evaluated were: grain productivity, one hundred grain weight and grain yield. For the assessment of damage caused by S. frugiperda was verified the intensity of leaf injuries through visual scale of notes, with variation of 0 and 9, from 15 to 60 days after sowing. Lower scores of damage caused by S. frugiperda were found in transgenic hybrids. Most conventional hybrids do not differ in grain productivity from at least one of isogenic transgenic versions. The same maize hybrid with different Bt toxins may have different productive behavior in field conditions. Different Bt toxins respond differently to damage caused by S. frugiperda. <![CDATA[Performance of cassava cultivars in subtropical environment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100058&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar as variáveis de crescimento, o desenvolvimento e os componentes de produtividade de raízes e hastes de cinco cultivares de mandioca em ambiente subtropical no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O experimento de campo foi conduzido nos anos agrícolas de 2010-2011 e 2011-2012, em Santa Maria, RS, com cinco cultivares de mandioca (Fepagro-RS13, Fepagro-RS14, Estrangeira, Fécula Branca e Cascuda) no delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em esquema bifatorial. Foram coletadas variáveis de crescimento e desenvolvimento como área foliar, altura de plantas e número de folhas e componentes de produtividade de raízes e hastes. As cultivares Fepagro-RS13 e Fepagro-RS14 possuem maior IAF com elevada produção de parte aérea e maior altura total comparadas às das cultivares Estrangeira, Fécula Branca e Cascuda por emitirem maior quantidade de ramificações simpodiais. As cultivares Fepagro-RS13 e Fepagro-RS14 possuem elevada produção tanto de parte aérea quanto de raiz, enquanto as cultivares Estrangeira, Cascuda e Fécula Branca possuem maior aptidão para produção de raízes tuberosas em ambiente subtropical no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.<hr/>The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare variables of growth, development and yield components of roots and stems of five cassava cultivars in subtropical environment in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A field experiment was conducted in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 growing seasons at Santa Maria, RS, with five cassava cultivars, Fepagro - RS 13, Fepagro - RS 13, Fepagro - RS 14, Estrangeira, Fécula Branca and Cascuda in a randomized block design with four replicates and a two factor scheme. Variables of growth and development such as leaf area, plant height and leaf number and yield components of roots and stems were collected. The cultivars Fepagro - RS 13 and Fepagro - RS 14 have the highest LAI, above-ground biomass and height compared to the cultivars Estrangeira, Fécula Branca and Cascuda, because the former have greater sympodial branching. Cultivars Fepagro – RS13 and Fepagro – RS 14 have high production of both above-ground and tuber roots whereas cultivars Estrangeira, Cascuda and Fécula Branca are adapted for tuber roots production in subtropical environment of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. <![CDATA[Relative competitiveness of irrigated rice cultivars and <em>Aeschynomene denticulata</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100067&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a habilidade competitiva relativa de cultivares de arroz na presença de um biótipo de angiquinho (Aeschynomene denticulata) em diferentes proporções substitutivas de plantas na associação. Os experimentos foram instalados no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Primeiramente, tanto para o arroz quanto para o angiquinho, determinou-se a população de plantas em que a produção final de massa seca se torna constante (24 plantas vaso–1). Posteriormente instalaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a competitividade das cultivares de arroz BRS Querência e BRS Sinuelo CL com plantas de angiquinho, ambos conduzidos em série de substituição, nas diferentes combinações da cultura e da planta daninha, variando-se as proporções relativas de plantas vaso–1 (24:0, 18:6, 12:12, 6:18 e 0:24). A análise da competitividade das espécies foi efetuada por meio de diagramas aplicados a experimentos substitutivos e também pelos índices de competitividade relativa. Aos 50 dias após a emergência das espécies efetuou-se a aferição do perfilhamento ou do número de folhas, da estatura, da área foliar e da massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Ocorreu competição entre as cultivares de arroz e o angiquinho, sendo ambos afetados negativamente, independentemente da proporção de plantas, provocando, em todos os casos, redução das variáveis avaliadas. Foi observado diferenciação da habilidade competitiva entre as cultivares de arroz quando na presença do angiquinho. A cultivar BRS Querência foi mais competitiva que a BRS Sinuelo CL na presença do angiquinho em todas as proporções de plantas e variáveis testadas.<hr/>This study evaluated the relative competitive ability of rice cultivars in the presence of a joint-vetch (Aeschynomene denticulata) biotype, at different replacement levels of plants in the association. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. First, it was determined the population of plants in which the final dry mass remains constant, both for the rice and for the joint-vetch (24 plants per pot). Later, two experiments were carried out to evaluate the competitiveness of the rice cultivars BRS Querência and BRS Sinuelo CL with joint-vetch plants, both conducted in replacement series, in different crop and weed combinations, varying the relative proportions of plants per pot (24:0, 18:6, 12:12, 6:18 and 0:24). Competitiveness of each species was analyzed by diagrams applied to replacement experiments and by the relative competitiveness indices. Fifty days after the emergence, tillering or number of leaves, height, leaf area and shoot dry mass were determined. Competition occurred between the rice cultivars and the joint-vetch, both were adversely affected, irrespective of the plant proportion. This resulted in reductions in all evaluated variables. Different competitive abilities were observed between rice cultivars in the presence of joint-vetch. The 'BRS Querência' was more competitive than the 'BRS Sinuelo CL' for all plant proportions and variables tested. <![CDATA[Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100075&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D), we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes. <![CDATA[Classification of physiological races of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp. <em>phaseoli</em> in common bean]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100084&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. phaseoli Kendrick and Snyder (FOP), is a major disease of common bean, causing large economic losses. Genetic resistance is one of the main mechanisms of pathogen control, and knowledge of the physiological variability is fundamental in breeding for resistant cultivars. Thus, a method of pathogen classification that describes the variability and is useful in plant breeding of isolates from different sources was evaluated by different methodologies. Common bean plants of different sets of differentiating cultivars were inoculated with 25 FOP isolates and 3 controls, totaling 28 isolates evaluated 30 days after inoculation. The variability in the isolates found in this study differs from the results of other authors, who reported a small number of physiological races of the pathogen and disagrees with their evaluation of the races and the evaluation methodology. The proposed approach for binary classification based on a group of 12 differentiating cultivars demonstrated that the variability in pathogenicity of FOP is greater than reported so far. By this methodology, 27 different physiological races of the pathogen were obtained. The methods led to contrasting results, with double race classification in the same isolate. The physiological variability found indicates that the physiological races of the pathogen are not limited to 7 as previously mentioned. <![CDATA[Microscopic analysis of rice resistance to sheath blight mediated by silicon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100093&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A queima das bainhas, causada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, é uma das mais importantes e destrutivas doenças que afetam a produção de arroz no mundo. Embora o silício (Si) seja capaz de reduzir a intensidade da queima das bainhas, os mecanismos de resistência mediados por esse elemento permanecem desconhecidos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a nível microscópico o efeito do Si na resistência do arroz à infecção por R. solani. Plantas de arroz das cultivares BR-Irga-409 e Labelle foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva contendo 0 ou 2 mM de Si e inoculadas no estádio de máximo perfilhamento utilizando-se pedaços de palito de dente colonizados por R. solani. Ambos cultivares supridas com Si apresentaram intensa e homogênea deposição de Si nos tecidos das bainhas colonizados por R. solani. A maior concentração de Si nas bainhas de plantas de arroz de ambas cultivares contribuiu para reduzir os sintomas da queima das bainhas. Com o auxílio da microscopia de luz e da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, observou-se menor crescimento micelial do fungo sobre as bainhas foliares das plantas de ambas cultivares que foram supridas com Si. Secções das bainhas de plantas de ambos cultivares supridas com Si exibiram intensa autofluorescência nos tecidos próximos a regiões necrosadas devido a colonização por R. solani. Em conclusão, o suprimento de Si às plantas de arroz desempenhou um papel importante na redução dos sintomas da queima das bainhas.<hr/>Sheath blight, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most important and destructive diseases affecting rice production in the world. Although silicon (Si) is able to reduce the sheath blight intensity, the mechanisms of resistance mediated by this element remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate at the microscopical level the effect of Si on rice resistance to infection by R. solani. Rice plants from cultivars BR-Irga-409 and Labelle were grown in nutrient solution containing 0 or 2 mM of Si and inoculated at the maximum tillering stage using pieces of toothpick colonized by R. solani. Both cultivars supplied with Si showed intense and homogeneous deposition of Si in the leaf sheaths tissue colonized by R. solani. The highest Si concentration on the leaf sheaths of plants of both cultivars contributed to reduce the sheath blight symptoms. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, it was observed reduced fungal growth on the leaf sheaths of plants from both cultivars which were supplied with Si. Sections of the leaf sheaths of plants from both cultivars supplied with Si exhibited intense autofluorescence in tissues near to the necrotic areas due to R. solani colonization. In conclusion, the supply of Si to rice plants played an important role in reducing the sheath blight symptoms. <![CDATA[Effect of phosphorus nutrition on quality of fresh tuber of potato cultivars]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O fósforo (P) é essencial para aumentar a produtividade e a qualidade nutricional dos tubérculos de batata. Porém não se sabe se a influência da adubação fosfatada na qualidade dos tubérculos produzidos pode variar em função da cultivar e da disponibilidade de P no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre a qualidade e composição nutricional dos tubérculos comercializáveis de cultivares de batata. Foram conduzidos experimentos em solos com baixa, média e alta disponibilidade de P, utilizando delineamento de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 × 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por duas cultivares de batata (Agata e Mondial) e cinco doses de P2O5 (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1.000 kg ha–1). A adubação fosfatada aumentou o teor de P e de amido, o tamanho e a produtividade de tubérculos comercializáveis, com resposta mais expressiva às maiores doses nos solos com baixa e média disponibilidade de P. A cultivar Mondial foi mais produtiva, por apresentar maior massa média de tubérculos e maiores aumentos nessa característica em resposta a adubação fosfatada. A cultivar Mondial produziu tubérculos com polpa mais firme, com maior percentagem de matéria seca e com maiores teores de Ca, Cu e Zn do que a Agata. Em solo com baixo P disponível, a adubação fosfatada reduziu o teor de Zn mas, de maneira geral, teve pouca influência na composição nutricional dos tubérculos de batata.<hr/>Phosphorus (P) is essential to increase tuber yield and nutritional quality of potato tubers. However, it is unclear whether the influence of P fertilization on quality of tubers produced can vary depending on the cultivar and P availability in soil. This study evaluated the effect of P fertilization on the quality and nutritional composition of marketable tubers of potato cultivars. Experiments in soils with low, medium and high P availability were conducted in a randomized block design, with four replications. Treatments consisted of a 2×5 factorial arrangement of two potato cultivars (Agata and Mondial) and five P2O5 rates (0, 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 kg ha–1). Phosphorus fertilization increased the contents of P and starch, the size and yield of marketable tubers, with more expressive response to higher P rates in the soils with low and medium P availability. The Mondial cultivar had the highest yield, due to a greater tuber weight and greater increases in this characteristic in response to P fertilization. The Mondial cultivar produced tubers with firmer pulp, with higher dry matter percentage and higher contents of Ca, Cu, and Zn than Agata. In the soil with low P availability, P fertilization reduced Zn content, but, in general, had little influence on the nutritional composition of potato tubers.<hr/>Phosphorus (P) is essential to increase tuber yield and nutritional quality of potato tubers. However, it is unclear whether the influence of P fertilization on quality of tubers produced can vary depending on the cultivar and P availability in soil. This study evaluated the effect of P fertilization on the quality and nutritional composition of marketable tubers of potato cultivars. Experiments in soils with low, medium and high P availability were conducted in a randomized block design, with four replications. Treatments consisted of a 2×5 factorial arrangement of two potato cultivars (Agata and Mondial) and five P2O5 rates (0, 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 kg ha–1). Phosphorus fertilization increased the contents of P and starch, the size and yield of marketable tubers, with more expressive response to higher P rates in the soils with low and medium P availability. The Mondial cultivar had the highest yield, due to a greater tuber weight and greater increases in this characteristic in response to P fertilization. The Mondial cultivar produced tubers with firmer pulp, with higher dry matter percentage and higher contents of Ca, Cu, and Zn than Agata. In the soil with low P availability, P fertilization reduced Zn content, but, in general, had little influence on the nutritional composition of potato tubers. <![CDATA[Microclimate and soil moisture in a silvopastoral system in southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100110&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, the microclimate changes in silvopastoral systems are quantified at different time and spatial scales and compared with single-pasture systems. The study was conducted in a silvopastoral system in São Carlos, Brazil (22°01' South and 47°53' West). The silvopastoral system consisted of grass pastures [Urochloa (sin. Brachiaria) decumbens cv. Basilik] lined with strips of native trees spaced at 17 m. Continuous microclimate measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and incident photosynthetically active radiation) were carried out from September 2010 to September 2012 at two positions of the silvopastoral system (2.0 and 8.5 m from the rows of trees) and at a pasture under full sunlight, located in an adjacent area. The soil moisture was monitored weekly from 24 March 2010 to 1 April 2012 at distances of 0.0, 2.0, 4.75, and 8.5 m from the rows of trees. The rows of native trees reduced wind speeds (46% reduction) and changed the photosynthetically active radiation incidence pattern on the pasture (up to 40% reduction of incidence at the point nearest to the trees). The combined action of these factors promoted thermal and air humidity changes on the pasture at the different points measured. With respect to soil moisture, there was greater soil moisture removal at the sampling points near the rows of native trees under the silvopastoral system, mainly due to enhanced exploration by tree roots at greater depths in dry spells or early dry periods, when compared with the midpoints between the rows. <![CDATA[Surface energy exchange and evapotranspiration from cotton crop under full irrigation conditions in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazilian Semi-Arid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100120&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The main objectives of this study were documenting how energy balance partitioning and ET vary seasonally along each growth season of cotton crop under full irrigation conditions in the Brazilian semiarid. The studied area was located in the Apodi Plateau, which is located on west of Rio Grande do Norte state and is an area with extensive agricultural suitability and semiarid climate. Micrometeorological measurements were taken during cotton growth season on dry seasons of 2008 and 2009 years in a cotton crop field of about 5 ha, and the energy balance components were derived from Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method. The obtained results revealed important role of the vegetative growth of cotton crop in the energy balance partitioning. The values of LE/Rn ranged from 58% (Initial growth season) to 81% (Middle-growth season) in 2008 and from 63% (Initial) to 81% (Middle season) in 2009. These variations is in accordance to LAI variations, which ranged from 0.14 cm2 cm–2 (Initial growth season in 2008) and 0.18 cm2 cm–2 (Initial growth season in 2009) to about 5.0 cm2 cm–2 (middle season). On the other hand, H/Rn and G/Rn varied inversely with the LAI variations. The concordance between LE/Rn and LAI is evidenced by similarity between curves of ET and LAI and between curves of Kc and LAI, especially when LAI reaches values greater than 3.0. <![CDATA[Errata]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052015000100129&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The main objectives of this study were documenting how energy balance partitioning and ET vary seasonally along each growth season of cotton crop under full irrigation conditions in the Brazilian semiarid. The studied area was located in the Apodi Plateau, which is located on west of Rio Grande do Norte state and is an area with extensive agricultural suitability and semiarid climate. Micrometeorological measurements were taken during cotton growth season on dry seasons of 2008 and 2009 years in a cotton crop field of about 5 ha, and the energy balance components were derived from Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) method. The obtained results revealed important role of the vegetative growth of cotton crop in the energy balance partitioning. The values of LE/Rn ranged from 58% (Initial growth season) to 81% (Middle-growth season) in 2008 and from 63% (Initial) to 81% (Middle season) in 2009. These variations is in accordance to LAI variations, which ranged from 0.14 cm2 cm–2 (Initial growth season in 2008) and 0.18 cm2 cm–2 (Initial growth season in 2009) to about 5.0 cm2 cm–2 (middle season). On the other hand, H/Rn and G/Rn varied inversely with the LAI variations. The concordance between LE/Rn and LAI is evidenced by similarity between curves of ET and LAI and between curves of Kc and LAI, especially when LAI reaches values greater than 3.0.