Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Bragantia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0006-870520180002&lang=pt vol. 77 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Plot size related to numbers of treatments and replications, and experimental precision in dwarf pigeon pea]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200212&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the optimum plot size to evaluate the fresh matter of aerial part of dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), cultivar IAPAR 43 (Aratã), in scenarios formed by combinations of numbers of treatments, number of replications, and precision levels. The fresh matter of aerial part was weighed on basic experimental units of 1 m × 1 m in three uniformity trials with size of 24 m × 12 m (288 m2 in each trial). The soil heterogeneity index of Smith was estimated. Also, the optimum plot size was determined by Hatheway’s method in scenarios formed by combinations of i treatments (i = 5, 10, 15, and 20), r replications (r = 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 8, 9, and 10), and d precision levels (d = 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). In experiments designed on randomized block design with 5 to 20 treatments and four replications, plots with 9 m2 were enough to identify significant differences among treatments regarding the fresh matter of aerial part in dwarf pigeon pea at 5% probability of 30% of the experiment overall mean. <![CDATA[Models for leaf area estimation in dwarf pigeon pea by leaf dimensions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200221&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most suitable model to estimate the leaf area of dwarf pigeon pea in function of the leaf central leaflet dimension. Six samplings of 200 leaves were performed in the first experiment, at 36, 42, 50, 56, 64, and 72 days after emergence (DAE). In the second experiment, seven samplings of 200 leaves were performed at 29, 36, 43, 49, 57, 65, and 70 DAE, totaling 2600 leaves. The length (L) and width (W) of the central leaflet were measured in all leaves composed by left, central, and right leaflets, the product of length times width (LW) was calculated, and the leaf area (Y – sum of left, central, and right leaflet areas) was determined by digital images. Linear, power, quadratic, and cubic models of Y as function of L, W, and LW were built using data from the second experiment. Leaves from the first experiment were used to validate the models. In dwarf pigeon pea, the linear (Ŷ = – 0.4088 + 1.6669x, R2 = 0.9790) is preferable, but power (Ŷ = 1.6097x1.0065, R2 = 0.9766), quadratic (Ŷ = – 0.3625 + 1.663x + 0.00007x2, R2 = 0.9790), and cubic (Ŷ = 0.7216 + 1.522x + 0.005x2 – 5E–05x3, R2 = 0.9791) models in function of LW are also suitable to estimate the leaf area obtained by digital images. The power model (Ŷ = 5.2508x1.7868, R2 = 0.95) based on the central leaflet width is less laborious because requires only one variable, but it presents accuracy reduction. <![CDATA[Variability, plot size and border effect in lettuce trials in protected environment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200230&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The variability within rows of cultivation may reduce the accuracy of experiments conducted in a complete randomized block design if the rows are considered as blocks, however, little is known about this variability in protected environments. Thus, our aim was to study the variability of the fresh mass in lettuce shoot, growing in protected environment, and to verify the border effect and size of the experimental unit in minimizing the productive variability. Data from two uniformity trials carried out in a greenhouse in autumn and spring growing seasons were used. In the statistical analyses, it was considered the existence of parallel cultivation rows the lateral openings of the greenhouse and of columns perpendicular to these openings. Different scenarios were simulated by excluding rows and columns to generate several borders arrangements and also to use different sizes of the experimental unit. For each scenario, homogeneity test of variances between remaining rows and columns was performed, and it was calculated the variance and coefficient of variation. There is variability among rows in trials with lettuce in plastic greenhouses and the border use does not bring benefits in terms of reduction of the coefficient of variation or minimizing the cases of heterogeneous variances among rows. In experiments with lettuce in a plastic greenhouse, the use of an experimental unit size greater than or equal to two plants provides homogeneity of variances among rows and columns and, therefore, allows the use of a completely randomized design. <![CDATA[Correlations between agronomic traits and path analysis for silage production in maize hybrids]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200243&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of the current study is to estimate the correlation coefficients and the consequence of genotypic correlations on direct and indirect effects through path analysis between agronomic traits of maize hybrids used for silage production. Eight (8) topcross hybrids and seven (7) checks were analyzed in completely randomized blocks, with six replications, in two environments: Campos do Goytacazes and Itaocara counties – Rio de Janeiro State, in the crop year 2015/2016. The following agronomic traits were assessed: plant height, first ear height, culm diameter, number of ears, ear yield with straw at silage maturity, ear yield without straw at silage maturity, grain yield at silage maturity, grains ratio in the fresh matter and fresh matter yield. The highest correlation estimates were found between the variables ear yield without straw and grain yield, and between ear yield with straw and ear yield without straw, with magnitudes 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. The coefficient of determination was high, which indicates that the assessed components explain most of the existing variation in fresh matter yield. According to the path analysis, the trait showing the strongest direct effect on fresh matter yield was the ear yield with straw at silage maturity, in association with the high correlation (r = 0.91), which showed the possibility of achieving significant gains through indirect selection. <![CDATA[Statistical methods to study adaptability and stability in breeding lines of food-type soybeans]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200253&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The grains of food-type soybean cultivars, which are characterized by the absence of lipoxygenases and the presence of high levels of proteins and isoflavones, are regarded as functional foods with high acceptance by consumers. However, few cultivars of food-type soybeans are currently available in the Brazilian market. The aim of this work was to study the adaptability and stability of various genotypes of food-type soybeans and to compare the performance of methods, which are based on analysis of variance, non-parametric, regression, multivariate and mixed models. Ten lines of food-type soybeans obtained from the Breeding Program of Soybeans for Human Consumption of the State University of Londrina (UEL/BPSHC) and two commercial varieties, the foodtype cultivar BRS 257 and the cultivar BMX Potência RR, were evaluated in the counties of Londrina, Guarapuava, Ponta Grossa and Pato Branco, Paraná, Brazil, during the two sowing seasons of the harvest of 2014/2015. The characteristic evaluated was grain yield. The adaptability parameters of Eberhart and Russel and Cruz methods showed high correlations with the Wricke model. The parameters provided by the analyses of Lins and Binns and REML/BLUP showed higher grain yield associations and moderated correlations with the Eskridge parameters. The AMMI offered the possibility of use in conjunction with the other methodologies. When yield, adaptability and stability were considered, the genotypes UEL 110, UEL 122, UEL 121 and UEL 123 demonstrated potential for the development of new cultivars of food-type soybeans in which lipoxygenases are absent. <![CDATA[Productivity, adaptability and stability of high-oleic peanut lines in the State of São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200265&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Estimating stability and adaptability parameters of cultivars is a widely used study to access the genotype × environment interaction, in order to identify the best genotypes for each cultivation area. In this study, the adaptability and stability parameters were estimated in eight high-oleic lines and two peanut cultivars in 11 experiments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2008 to 2013, based on the data of the plots mean productivity (Kg·ha–1), with the objective of recommending the most productive genotypes in peanut producing regions in the State of São Paulo. The design used for these experiments was the randomized complete blocks, with four replications. Lines L. 599 and L. 551 were the best genotypes regarding overall adaptability and stability in yield, considering the methods of Eberhart and Russell and of Lin and Binns modified by Carneiro. Results produced by both methods were convergent as for the classification of the lines, and the use of one of them would not be detrimental to the recommendation of productive lines associated to production adaptability and stability. The overall adaptability in addition to the stability in the productivity of the lines here evaluated showed outstanding performance in relation to the cultivars IAC Caiapó and Runner IAC 886. <![CDATA[Yield, berry quality and physiological response of grapevine to foliar humic acid application]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200273&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Environmentally friendly grape growing is an important objective of modern viticulture. The aim of the study was to examine the response of two grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cultivars to humic acids (HA) foliar application as biostimulant in order to provide sustainable viticultural practices for farmers. The experiment was carried out under field conditions and repeated in two consecutive years. In order to evaluate the effect of humic acids application, the grapevines were treated with three concentrations: 30 ml.L-1 (HAT1), 40 ml∙L-1 (HAT2) and 50 ml∙L-1 (HAT3). The grapevines were represented by two grape varieties: cv. Feteasca Regala (cv. FR) and cv. Riesling Italian (cv. RI). Foliar sprays with humic acid derived from vermicompost at a concentration of 50 ml∙L-1 induced a significant increase in the total leaf area, yield and total soluble solids. For several measurements performed in plants we found no significant difference between grapevines treated with HAT2 and those with HAT3. The experimental results in the present study confirm that foliar application with humic acid may improve growth, yield, and berry quality attributes of grapevine. <![CDATA[Spatio-temporal reconciliation to lessen losses in yield and quality of forage soybean (Glycine max L.) in soybean-sorghum intercropping systems]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200283&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Soybean suffers a serious blow to forage yield and quality while in intercropping with cereal forages like sorghum. The aim of this field investigation was to optimize planting time and spatial arrangement for boosting yield, quality and profitability of intercropped soybean. Treatments included soybean sown 20 days before and after sorghum under different spatial arrangements (3-1, 1-3, 2-3, 3-2 and 3-3 row proportions). The factorial arrangement was used to employ randomized complete block design (RCBD) for experimental execution with four replicates. Soybean sown 20 days prior to sorghum in 2-3 row replacement series was effective in yielding the highest yield attributes of soybean, which led to the highest green forage yield and dry matter biomass. The same intercropping system proved to be superior in generating the highest net income and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) (4.31). Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between agronomic variables under study and forage yield of soybean. Better quality forage with significantly higher crude protein, ether extractable fat and ash along with the lowest crude fiber content was given by soybean planted 20 days before sorghum in 3-2 row proportion. Soybean sown 20 days after sorghum under all spatial arrangements did not perform at par with soybean sown 20 days before sorghum. Thus, in order to avoid the drastic effects of sorghum on soybean forage yield and quality in soybean-sorghum intercropping systems, deferred sowing of sorghum might be considered keeping in view the availability of irrigation water and available time with respect of next crop. <![CDATA[<em>Rhizobium</em> strains selected from the Amazon region increase the yield of snap bean genotypes in protected cultivation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200292&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Although the use of inoculants containing rhizobia is encouraged, there are no official recommendations for inoculation of snap bean. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of Rhizobium strains in symbiosis with snap bean cultivars with different growth habits and crop cycles. The experiment was carried out in pots with soil in a greenhouse in the spring-summer season in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with 4 replications, in a 4 × 7 factorial arrangement involving four snap bean cultivars and seven treatments – five strains of Rhizobium (UFLA 02-100, UFLA 02-127, UFLA 04-173, CIAT 899, and PRF 81), plus two controls without inoculation (with and without 500 mg N-NH4NO3∙dm–3). We conclude that: i) while genetic differences were observed among cultivars with respect to nodulating capacity, in all cases significant benefits were observed from BNF inoculation and ii) inoculation with selected strains of Rhizobium, as well as fertilization with mineral N, favors plant growtht, snap bean yields, and accumulation of N in the pods and, therefore, can fully substitute nitrogen fertilization in snap bean grown under protected cultivation. <![CDATA[Residual polysaccharides from fungi reduce the bacterial spot in tomato plants]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200299&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Polysaccharides from fungal wastes were partially characterized and evaluated for their protective effects against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas gardneri on four tomato cultivars: Santa Cruz Kada, Natália, BRS Sena and Forty. The polysaccharides were extracted from spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus, residual brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and basidiocarps discarded from Lentinula edodes production. These polysaccharides were characterized for total carbohydrates, phenolics and proteins content, pH, scatter intensity, conductivity, Zeta potential, DPPH scavenging assay and infrared spectroscopy. The effects of time interval between treatment and inoculation (4 or 7 days) and polysaccharide concentrations (0.5 or 1.5 mg.mL–1) were assessed for disease severity using a susceptible tomato cultivar. The polysaccharide action mode was investigated by determining the activity of peroxidases and phenylalanine ammonialyase and by quantifying flavonoids and total phenolics in the plants treated and challenged with X. gardneri. The polysaccharides obtained from Lentinula edodes (PSHII), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PRC) and Pleurotus ostreatus (PSPO) (1.5 mg.mL-1) reduced bacterial spot severity by 50% on tomato cotyledons, leaflets and five-leaf plants. Furthermore, PRC and PSHII (1.5 mg.mL–1) could decrease disease severity in all tested cultivars. PSHII, the most effective, did not cause change in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity or flavonoid content on the cultivars Kada and Natália. However, an increase in peroxidase activity and total phenol content on cv. Kada was noted. The polysaccharides obtained from food industry wastes could provide protection against bacterial spot on tomato cultivars by inducing defense mechanisms and can be useful in formulating products with phytosanitary potential. <![CDATA[Resistance of sugarcane cultivars to <em>Mahanarva fimbriolata</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200314&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is one of the most important pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Population control measures are currently restricted to the use of chemical insecticides and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, in part because very little information exists regarding the resistance of sugarcane cultivars. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance mechanisms of 18 sugarcane cultivars to M. fimbriolata to provide information for growers hoping to manage this pest. Isolated buds of each cultivar were planted in pots and maintained in a greenhouse for approximately three months. The pots were then moved to climate-controlled chambers (26 ± 1 ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; 12 h photoperiod) to carry out laboratory tests to evaluate adult feeding and female oviposition preferences (using both free-choice and no-choice tests) as well as the effects of the cultivars on nymph development and the cultivars tolerance to the pest attack. The least attractive cultivar for adult feeding and oviposition in free-choice test was RB867515, which was also one of those that received the fewest eggs in the no-choice oviposition tests. Cultivar CTC9 showed the highest level of antibiosis resistance, with a root nymph survival rate of 52.5%. Finally, cultivar RB966928 was the most tolerant to M. fimbriolata, but it showed 19% reduction in aboveground biomass weight due to the pest. <![CDATA[Morphological and molecular characterization of <em>Curvularia lunata</em> pathogenic to andropogon grass]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200326&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The fungal genus Curvularia is associated with a number of diseases in plants, commonly producing foliar spots in forage grasses. The objective of this study was to characterize the morphological and molecular diversity of the isolates of Curvularia sp. associated with Andropogon seeds, and to assess both their capacity to transmit disease and the pathogenicity of this fungus to crop. Ten isolates of Curvularia sp. were sourced from Andropogon seeds from agricultural producing regions in the Brazilian states Tocantins and Pará. Morphological characterization was achieved by observing fungus colonies and conidia and molecular characterization by DNA extraction and amplification with sequence-specific primers. The disease transmission was evaluated from seed sowing, in which after 40 days typical symptoms of Curvularia sp. were observed. Pathogenicity was evaluated by inoculating conidial suspension into the leaves of healthy plants, and after ten days, inspecting for pathogenic symptoms. Based on morphological and molecular features, the pathogen associated with Andropogon seeds was identified as Curvularia lunata, which, as such, is transmitted through the Andropogon plants via its seeds and is pathogenic to this species of forage grass. <![CDATA[Copper and zinc fractions in the profile of an Inceptisol cultivated with apple in southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200333&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation and distribution of Cu and Zn fractions in the profile of an Inceptisol by application of fungicides with a previous history of apple cultivation in southern Brazil. Stratified soil samples (0.0 – 0.025 m, 0.025 –0.050 m, 0.05 – 0.10 m, 0.10 – 0.15 m, 0.15 – 0.20 m and 0.20 – 0.40 m depth) were collected in two apple orchards (8 years old and 18 years old), and in a native pasture area adjacent to the orchards. The soil was subjected to analysis of physical and chemical properties and to chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn. The fractions of soluble, exchangeable, organic, residual and total Cu and Zn accumulated in the topsoil (0.0 – 0.025 m) of the orchards, being higher in the orchard cultivated for 18 years. Most Cu, especially in the topsoil of the 18 years old orchard, accumulated in the less stable organic fraction, which can potentiate toxicity to plants and transfer Cu e Zn to ground water. In deeper layers, Cu was also distributed in the residual and mineral fractions, which are more stable. Most Zn in the soil of the apple orchards was distributed in the mineral and residual fractions, which have low mobility and low potential toxicity to plants. <![CDATA[Safflower root and shoot growth affected by soil compaction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200348&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a commercial seed crop grown for its good yield of high-quality oil. It is tolerant to water stress but may be sensitive to soil compaction. The aim of this study was to assess safflower growth under different degrees of soil compaction at depths of 0.15 m to 0.20 m. The experiment was carried out in PVC pots constructed from three rings. Five levels of penetration resistance (0.20, 0.33, 0.50, 0.93, and 1.77 MPa) were applied in the intermediate ring, and two safflower genotypes, IMA-4904 and IMA-2106, were examined. There was no difference between safflower genotypes with respect to their resistance to soil compaction, which reduced root length density in the compacted layer and changed the root distribution in the soil profile, but did not prevent the roots from crossing the compacted layer and developing in depth. Increased soil bulk density in the compacted layer increased root diameter of the IMA-2106 genotype. Penetration resistance levels over 0.20 MPa (density of 1.2 mg.dm–3) limited safflower root development. The maximum safflower growth occurred when the soil penetration resistance was 0.86 MPa. In this study, the Q1/2 index was higher than 1.77 and 1.55 for the IMA-2106 and IMA-4904 genotypes, respectively. Hence, safflower has proven to be tolerant to soil compaction, and stands out as a species with potential to decrease soil bulk density. <![CDATA[Soil organic matter fractions affected by N-fertilizer in a green cane management in Brazilian Coastal Tableland]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200356&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the use of fire for sugarcane harvesting (green cane) resulted in managing the crop on a trash-blanketed soil, which changed the content and dynamic of carbon and the nitrogen requirement. These alterations are relevant due to economic and environmental aspects of sugarcane production systems. This study aimed to evaluate changes in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter fractions with the application of N-fertilizer on the residues of green cane. The experiment was with sugarcane at the fourth ratoon in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The soil is a Xanthic Dystrudults, originated from Barreiras Group sediments in the coastal tableland region. The treatments were set in a completely randomized blocks experimental design and consisted of N (as ammonium sulphate) dosages varying from 80 to 160 kg N.ha–1 and the control. The application of increasing N doses resulted in accumulation of TOC and carbon in the humic, granulometric and oxidizable fractions of soil organic matter (SOM). It was obtained a model adjustment for quadratic regression for TOC, NT and SOM fractions. The doses between 80 and 100 kg N.ha–1 were the most favorable to accumulate carbon and the SOM fractions. N doses higher than 100 kg N.ha–1 favored SOM mineralization. The SOM fractions were responsive to application of N-fertilizer on harvesting residues of the green cane management area. <![CDATA[Copper supply and fruit yield of young Citrus trees: fertiliser sources and application methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200365&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the fertiliser sources and application methods of copper (Cu) in citrus trees during the first years of fruit production. Two experiments were set up in an orchard with 3-year-old sweet orange trees, which were applied with three sources of Cu (nitrate, sulfate or EDTA) either via fertigation (Experiment 1) or via foliar sprays (Experiment 2). Regardless of the fertiliser source, Cu application via fertigation was not efficacious to increase the micronutrient concentration in leaves and, consequently, did not affect fruit yield. Conversely, foliar application of Cu, either as nitrate or sulfate, increased this nutrient level in leaves but when applied as copper nitrate, visual phytotoxicity symptoms were verified in leaves due to salt accumulation in the plant canopy, which reduced the fruit yield. Considering the plant growth and intensified phytosanitary management of the orchard with the application of copperbased products after the third year of the experiment, the effects of Cu treatments on fruit yield are expected to be negligible as the trees age. <![CDATA[Ripening characteristics of vapour heat treated ‘Frangi’ papaya (<em>Carica papaya</em> L. cv. Frangi) as affected by maturity stages and ethylene treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200372&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT ‘Frangi’ papaya is a F1 hybrid cultivar produced by Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Bhd in 2006. Since then, ‘Frangi’ papaya is a new hybrid and its physiology may differ from another cultivars. Several importer countries, such as Japan and China, have made the vapour heat treatment (VHT) an export requirement for disinfestation of fruit flies in Malaysia. The exporting country is also required to carry out ripening treatments with ethylene before export. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the effects of maturity stages (4, 5 and 6) and ethylene treatments on ripening characteristics of vapour heat treated papaya during storage at 25 °C. Papaya fruits were treated with VHT systems. After VHT, the fruits were exposed with 100 µL.L–1 ethylene gas at 20 °C for 24 h. Non-ethylene treated fruits (control) were kept separately at 20 °C for 24 h. After 24 h, the fruits were removed from the ripening rooms, and stored at 25 °C. The ripening characteristics of fruits that reached maturity stages 4, 5, and 6 were recorded. Results showed that the fruits ripened normally at 25 °C with or without ethylene following VHT with respect to peel and pulp color, edible firmness and soluble solids concentration (SSC). Fruits at maturity stage 5 were considered at the edible stage by taking into account the firmness, SSC, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid contents. It is recommended that no ethylene treatment is needed to ripen vapour heat treated fruits, since the ethylene treatment did not affect the ripening process of the fruits. <![CDATA[Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200385&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’). The conditions were: (1) control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1); (2) 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1); (3) NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1); and (4) NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1). NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution) treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution) treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution) treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits. <![CDATA[On the performance of three indices of agreement: an easy-to-use r-code for calculating the Willmott indices]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200394&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT A key step for any modeling study is to compare model-produced estimates with observed/reliable data. The original index of agreement (also known as original Willmott index) has been widely used to measure how well model-produced estimates simulate observed data. However, in its original version such index may lead the user to erroneously select a predicting model. Therefore, this study compared the sensibility of the original index of agreement with its two newer versions (modified and refined) and provided an easy-to-use R-code capable of calculating these three indices. First, the sensibility of the indices was evaluated through Monte Carlo Experiments. These controlled simulations considered different sorts of errors (systematic, random and systematic + random) and errors magnitude. By using the R-code, we also carried out a case of study in which the indices are expected to indicate that th empirical Thornthwaite’s model produces poor estimates of daily reference evapotranspiration in respect to the standard method Penman-Monteith (FAO56). Our findings indicate that the original index of agreement may indeed erroneously select a predicting model performing poorly. Our results also indicate that the newer versions of this index overcome such problem, producing more rigorous evaluations. Although the refined Willmott index presents the broadest range of possible values, it does not inform the user if a predicting model overestimate or underestimate the simulated data, resulting in no extra information regarding those already provided by the modified version. None of the indices represents the error as linear functions of its magnitude in respect to the observed process. <![CDATA[NDVI and meteorological data as indicators of the Pampa biome natural grasslands growth]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052018000200404&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The present study aimed to characterize the dynamics of NDVI and meteorological conditions, relating both to the annual dynamics of biomass accumulation in natural pastures of the Pampa biome as a way of subsidizing growth modeling. Forage accumulation rate data from a long-term experiment, NDVI data from the MODIS images, and meteorological data measured at the surface were used. We verify that the agrometeorological element associated to the accumulation of forage in the natural grasslands is different according to the season, which is typical of the subtropical climate. Winter is the critical season for livestock production due to the lower forage accumulation rate and lower values of NDVI, conditioned by the decrease of solar radiation and air temperature. In the summer, the limiting factor to forage accumulation is the hydric condition. It was also verified that the variability in the growth of grasslands can be associated with the ENSO phenomenon, being the El Niño favorable and the La Niña unfavorable, especially in the spring-summer period. Considering the verified associations, spectral indices combined with agrometeorological elements are recommended to the adjustment of models of forage accumulation in the Pampa biome natural grasslands.