Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Bragantia]]> vol. 77 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Ammonium excretion, auxin production and effects of maize inoculation with ethylenediamine-resistant mutants of <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp.]]> ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) comprise part of plant microbiome of biotechnological interest due to their potential to decrease the use of agrochemicals in agriculture. Among the commonly found PGPB species, the Pseudomonas genus is known for high competitiveness and efficiency in expressing growth-promotion traits. To increase the contribution of diazotrophic Pseudomonas sp. to the plant nitrogen nutrition, the strain AZM-01 was chemically mutagenized with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), following the selection for resistance to ethylenediamine (EDA). From the 13 EDA-resistant mutant strains selected, four showed increased the ammonium excretion, with the highest value reaching up to 284% increase as compared to the wild strain, and six strains were found to produce significantly more auxins than the wild strain. Two independent inoculation trials with the wild and EDA-resistant Pseudomonas were performed on maize, with the objective to study the influence of bacteria on seed germination and its potential to promote maize growth under N-limiting condition. In general, Pseudomonas inoculation modified the root architecture of germinating seeds, and increased biomass of maize plants grown under N-limiting conditions. Shoot dry weight of maize was increased by inoculation with several EDA-resistant mutants as compared to the strain AZM-01, with emphasis on the EDA-5 strain which supports biomass accumulation at equivalent amount of plants grown under full N supply. Significant correlations between in vitro and in vivo parameters were found although low coefficient values predominate. The strategy of random mutagenesis was found suitable to develop PGPB strains with higher potential to supply maize plants with nitrogen. <![CDATA[Changes in phenotypic variability of two tropical woody species due to short and long-term exposure to different irradiances]]> ABSTRACT Studies addressing the physiological and anatomical responses of plants under different light intensities normally are performed in short term. Thus, the present study includes a long term analysis. This study aims to verify whether the phenotypic variability off attributes in two woody tropical specieis, Paquira aquatica and Sterculia foetida, are compatible both under short term exposure to different light availability levels (full-light and half-light local irradiance) and long-term exposure in the same conditions. The study was developed in two phases: phase I (short term) and phase II (long term). The variables measured were referent to CO2 assimilation responses to light intensity, chlorophyll a fluorescence, chlorophyll content, morpho-anatomical attributes and phenotypic variability. In phase I, P. aquatica had differences between treatments in Amax (maximum net photosynthesis) and LCP (light compensation point), without differences in these attributes in phase II. S. foetida plants had differences only in phase I in Amax. In anatomical attributes, P. aquatica had a higher palisade and spongy parenchyma and mesophyll thickness compared to S. foetida plants, without differences between light treatments. In S. foetida, the aforementioned cell layers were thicker in full-light treatment. Both species showed a higher phenotypic variability in the same physiological attributes in phase I and similar attributes for mesophyll thickness of the abaxial epidermis in phase II. The species showed different anatomical and physiological strategies, however with plastic responses in similar attributes, only observable after a longer period of exposure. The results indicated the importance of lengthy exposure to light, mainly in tropical species, wich are naturally exposed to elevated irradiance levels for an extended period of time in the field. <![CDATA[Methodologies for selecting cassava with resistance to dry and black root rot under controlled conditions]]> ABSTRACT Cassava root rot diseases such as dry and black root rot are listed among the major threats, since its affect the main product (tuberous roots), causing a progressive decline in yield and affecting subsequent crop cycles, being the use of resistant varieties the most reliable control measure on field level. The objective of this study was to identify inoculation methods for the early evaluation of genotypes, considering the level of resistance to dry (DRR) and black (BRR) root rot diseases. Different methodologies and plant tissues were evaluated, based on the immersion of cassava tissues (roots and stem cuttings), soil infestation, and inoculation of detached tissues (leaves, tuberous roots and stem cuttings). The following parameters were evaluated for inoculations based on tissue immersion: disease index (ω); aerial part weight (g); fresh weight of the roots (g); and volume (cm3). For the inoculations on detached tissues, the percentage of lesioned area was determined. Immersion methods for roots and lesioned stems did not show typical symptoms of DRR and BRR during the two-month evaluation period. The soil infestation method did not differ from the stem immersion method as to the reduction of aerial part weight and the disease index, whereas both can be recommended for resistance selection trials. There was a positive correlation between the BRR and DRR data for the stem inoculation (r = 0.94, p = 0.001) and for DRR in the peel and root pulp (r = 0.73, p = 0.05). Therefore, the resistance within each tissue is apparently independent and should be compared with the behavior of the genotypes in the field. <![CDATA[Two independent grain-length mutants mapped to a single region on the long arm of chromosome 2 in rice]]> ABSTRACT Grain shape in rice is a key determinant of grain appearance, yield and market value, and thus has been widely studied. Rice mutant lines with long-grain phenotypes were previously isolated from an M2 population derived from mutagenized mature pollen grains that were treated with gamma-ray irradiation for a cultivar Ma85. To understand the genetic basis underlying the long-grain trait, two mutant lines, JF171 and JF178, were crossed with the short-grain parents JF222 and Samba, generating three F2 populations. Molecular marker-based genetic analysis was employed to detect the major QTLs that affected grain length, grain width, length-to-width ratio and grain weight. Based on the data obtained for the three populations, a joint major QTL for grain length was mapped to a 4.7 Mb region between the SSR makers RM263 and RM318 on the long arm of chromosome 2. The results suggested that the two independent mutations contained in JF171 and JF178 are likely due to alterations in the same genetic region. Furthermore, we developed a BC2F2 population using JF178 and Samba and narrowed the region to 0.6 Mb. The results of the current study will be helpful to reveal the genetic basis of the above long-grain mutant lines. In general, our results provide solid genetic data to identify the unknown gene that affects grain length by map-based cloning and practice marker-assisted breeding for long-grain rice cultivars. <![CDATA[Genetic gains in agronomic and technological traits of elite cotton genotypes]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to estimate the predicted genetic gains with the simultaneous selection of agronomic and technological traits from elite cotton lines using selection indexes. Data from the evaluation of 36 elite lines were evaluated in three trials located in Apodi-RN in 2013 and 2014 and Santa Helena, GO, Brazil in 2013, in a randomized block design with two replicates. The agronomic traits evaluated were: plant height (PH), average boll weight (ABW), percentage of fibers (PF) and seed cotton yield (YIE). In 20 bolls from each experimental unit, the following technological fiber traits were evaluated: fiber length (UHM), fiber uniformity (UNIF), short fiber index (SFI), fiber strength (FS), elongation (ELON), micronaire (MIC), reflectance (RD) and degree of yellowing (+b). Smith and Hazel, Pesek and Baker and Mulamba and Mock selection indexes were tested for selection of the seven superior genotypes, assigning the coefficients of genetic variation (CVg) as economic weight. There were no interaction between genotypes and environments for any of the evaluated traits. Smith and Hazel index resulted in negative gains for fiber length and positive for the traits whose reduction is of interest, such as plant height, micronaire and degree of yellowing. Pesek and Baker index provided positive predictive gains for all traits of interest. However, it promoted reduction only to the degree of yellowing. Mulamba and Mock presented satisfactory gains, being the most suitable for selecting genotypes aiming at simultaneous gains in yield and fiber technological components. <![CDATA[Comparative performance of forage cluster bean accessions as companion crops with sorghum under varied harvesting times]]> ABSTRACT Harvesting time and type of accession of forage legumes are important factors to determine their performance as companion crops for cereals. The objective of this multi-year field trial was to evaluate different harvesting times of forage cluster bean accessions sown as companion crops with forage sorghum under irrigated conditions. Treatments included two accessions (BR-90 and BR-99) and four harvesting times (pre-flowering, complete flowering, 50 and 100% pod formation). The BR-99 accession harvested at 100% pod formation had greater performance with respect to green forage yield (20.42 t·ha-1) and dry matter biomass (5.80 t·ha-1) and it was statistically at par within the same accession harvested at 50% pod formation. The highest quality forage with the maximum crude protein and ether extractable fat and lowest crude fiber was recorded by BR-99 harvested at 50% pod formation, while BR-90 did not perform at par at all harvesting times. Harvesting of BR-99 at 100% pod formation also resulted in the highest net income along with the benefit-cost ratio. The harvesting of BR-99 at 50 and 100% pod formation resulted in non-significant differences of forage yields and economic returns, however, the quality of cluster bean forage deteriorated at 100% pod formation thus harvesting at 50% pod formation would be preferred. <![CDATA[Properties of the enzyme acetolactate synthase in herbicide resistant canola]]> ABSTRACT Mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), conferring plant resistance to ALS inhibitor herbicides, can reduce or inhibit enzymatic function. The objective of this work was to determine the functionality and kinetic characteristics of the enzyme ALS and evaluate the action of the herbicides imazapic (imidazolinone) and metsulfuron-methyl (sulfonylurea) on the activity of the enzyme ALS in canola hybrid Hyola 571CL (imidazolinone resistant), compared to hybrids Hyola 555TT (triazine resistant) and Hyola 61 (conventional). The plants were grown in a greenhouse, and leaves were collected to perform ALS activity analysis. The concentration of pyruvate to provide initial velocity equal to half the maximum reaction rate (Km) and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) was determined, as well as the enzyme’s activity in the presence of imazapic and metsulfuron-methyl inhibitors. There was no change in the Km and Vmax in the hybrid Hyola 571CL in relation to Hyola 61. The hybrid Hyola 555TT presented Vmax higher than the other hybrids. In the hybrid Hyola 571CL, the activity of ALS was reduced only by the application of metsulfuron-methyl, and the functionality of the enzyme did not change in relation to the other hybrids. The hybrid Hyola 571CL is resistant only to the imidazolinone group herbicide and this resistance does not cause adaptive cost in relation to the other hybrids. <![CDATA[The influence of topdressing nitrogen on Azospirillum spp. inoculation in maize crops through meta-analysis]]> ABSTRACT The Azospirillum is considered one of the most studied plant growth promoter genus. These bacteria are capable of promoting plant growth through several factors. However, the effect of Azospirillum spp. associated to nitrogen fertilization on maize grain yield has brought about controversial results. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the influence of topdressing nitrogen on the effect of Azospirillum spp. inoculation on maize crops through meta-analysis. Data were collected from articles published in scientific journals, obtained from the Web of Science®, Scopus® and Google Scholar® databases. The bibliographic review included only articles with direct comparisons between maize yield in the presence and absence of Azospirillum spp. under field conditions in Brazil. The meta-analysis of the random effects was carried out using all entries. Subgroup and meta-regression analysis were realized to verify the influence of nitrogen fertilization on the explanation of the possible heterogeneity among effect measures. Maize inoculation with Azospirillum spp. showed an average yield increase of 651.58 kg·ha-1, considering all trials, and of 1034.28 kg·ha-1 considering only the trials without topdressing nitrogen. There was no significant increase in grain yield when inoculation with bacteria from the Azospirillum genus was realized together with nitrogen fertilization, indicating that such technologies are non-additive. <![CDATA[Improvement of saline soils with <em>Vicia sativa</em> L. from a semiarid region]]> ABSTRACT In the Cienega de Chapala region of the state of Michoacan, Mexico, forage crops form a major pillar for traditional livestock systems. In this region, high soil salinity due to poor groundwater quality is a common problem. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the forage species Vicia sativa L. for improved saline soil in a greenhouse and non-leaching conditions over the course of 90 days. In this experiment, three levels of NaCl salinity were tested: 5.3, 7.12 and 10.8 dS∙m–1. Samples of soil were analyzed for electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract (ECe), soluble and interchangeable cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) content. Then, the forage species Vicia sativa L were divided into three categories (leaf, stem, and root) and their shoot biomass production and Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ content was determined. Analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of salinity on each of the evaluated variables; Tukey’s test was used to detect differences between the mean values of the variables per treatment. In a greenhouse experiment, the species V. sativa is confirmed to be tolerant to a moderately saline level. The high concentrations of Na+ found in both the stems and leaves of this plant confirm that it may be used for the improvement of moderately saline soils. The decrease in pH, ECe, SAR and ESP in the pots via non-leaching conditions confirmed their role in the improvement of the chemical characteristics of the soil. <![CDATA[Irrigation management methods for the production of bell pepper in agricultural substrates]]> ABSTRACT This study’s objective was to assess the response and effectiveness of irrigation management systems for the production of bell pepper with different agricultural substrates, under protected conditions. The current study was conducted in a greenhouse located in Juazeiro, BA, in the northwest of Brazil. The experiment design was completely randomized in a split-plot system, with two irrigation treatments as the main plots (the drainage lysimeter and the Piché evaporimeter) and two substrates in each sub-plot (coconut fiber and pinus bark), with 5 replications per treatment. Harvest was conducted from 86 to 151 days after transplanting, and the following characteristics were evaluated: total, marketable and unmarketable yields, production per plant, fresh mass of fruits, fruit number per plant, length and diameter of fruits, length/diameter ratio, water use efficiency, pulp thickness, fruit pH, soluble solids, and titratable acidity. No interaction effects between irrigation treatments and substrates were observed on the following variables: total yield, marketable yield, non-marketable yield, production per plant, mean mass, and diameter of marketable fruits. Irrigation treatments and substrates did not show a significant effect on bell pepper yield. Drainage lysimeter-based management and coconut fiber substrate had the best results in terms of the physical quality of fruits, whereas pinus bark-based substrate positively influenced all chemical variables and the Piché evaporimeter-based irrigation management showed a good performance raising fruit pH in relation to fruits cultivated in lysimeter with pinus bark. Additional research is required under different environmental conditions so that this crop fully expresses its yield potential.