Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Bragantia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0006-870519520004&lang=en vol. 12 num. 10-12 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<B>Melhoramento da mamoneira</B>: <B>VII - Quarta, quinta, sexta e sétima séries de ensaios de linhagens</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Four series of experiments carried out from 1943 to 1951 in five experiment stations of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas are described, in which 22 castor bean strains were compared with the dwarf variety n.° 38. This series comprises 10 experiments, one in Campinas, one in Tatui, two in Jau, three in Ribeirão Preto, all in the "terra roxa" type of soil, and three experiments in Pindorama, in sandy soil. It was noted that the strains L881, L882 and L883, in Ribeirão Preto, and the strains L 168 and L 881 in Pindorama yielded more than the check variety n.° 38. In all other locations none of the new strains was significantly better than variety n.° 38. The regional behaviour of the strains will be tested in new experiments in the locations where they gave higher yields, before they are released for multiplication. <![CDATA[<B>Precisão dos delineamentos tipo <I>Lattice</I> em milho</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O presente artigo estuda a eficiência do delineamento em lattice comparada à do delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram analisadas 51 experiências, das quais 32 foram instaladas na Estação Experimental Central de Campinas, 12, na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto e 7 na Estação Experimental de Pindorama. Êsse total de 51 experiências reúne as de competição de híbridos de milho nos anos de 1939/40 até 1950/51. O delineamento em lattice mostrou-se pouco eficiente em relação ao cm blocos ao acaso, dando um aumento de eficiência de 8,2% em Campinas, 9,6% em Ribeirão Prêto e apenas 1,7% em Pindorama. Pode-se atribuir esse fato à utilização de canteiros pequenos, de 5 ou 10 m² e também à acertada distribuição das repetições no terreno. Foi feito, também, um estudo do coeficiente de variação, que veio mostrar que as experiências instaladas em Campinas e Pindorama foram mais precisas do que as instaladas em Ribeirão Prêto.<hr/>Lattice design for testing hybrid corn is being used since 1939 at the Genetics Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Preliminary observation from the comparative analysis of experiments carried out in 1950 and 1951 as lattice and randomized blocks indicated that only a small increase in efficiency was obtained by use of lattice analysis. Presented here are the results of a larger number of comparisons of both types of analysis for 32 lattice experiments carried out at the Central Station of Campinas, 12 from Ribeirão Preto Station and 7 from Pindorama Station of this Institute. Both the efficiency of the lattice design and the precision of the experiments were calculated and the results are presented in table 1. The results of these experiments analysed as a lattice in comparison with randomized blocks gave an average efficiency increase of only 8.2% for the experiments from Campinas, 9.6% for R. Preto and 1.7% for the Pindorama experiments. The average coefficient of variability indicated that the experiments from Campinas and Pindorama, were more precise than that from It. Preto where the stand of plants in the field was usually lower due to insect attack. It was concluded that the small increase in efficiency of the analysis as lattice in comparison with randomized blocks must be due to the small size of the plots and location of the replication in the field. <![CDATA[<B>Novos tipos de batata doce oriundos de mutação somática</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As mutações somáticas que ocorrem nas variedades econômicas de batata doce podem apresentar características vantajosas, passando a constituir novos tipos comerciais, utilizados com finalidades diversas. No decorrer dos trabalhos em realização na Secção de Raízes e Tubérculos deste Instituto, sôbre vários aspectos agronômicos e sôbre o melhoramento da batata doce, foram observadas seis mutações somáticas, tôdas elas afetando principalmente a coloração das raízes. A descrição dessas mutações e o seu valor econômico são mencionados. Na variedade 98-Castelo, a mutação afetou a côr da periderme que, de roxo, passou para creme, enquanto na variedade 18-Viçosa (Dahomey), a mudança de côr se deu na periderme e córtex que, ao mesmo tempo, de roxo mudaram para roxo-avermelhado e creme, respectivamente. Na variedade 39-Roxa pilosa, a periderme roxo-escura se tornou côr de cobre e o córtex e o cilindro central de roxo-escuro se tornaram creme. Na variedade 104-Peçanha rosa, a alteração ocorreu na periderme, que passou de rosa-pardo a vermelho-arroxeada. No "seedling" 104 S50-6, a periderme roxo-escura se tornou creme, enquanto no "seedling" 113 S50-11 a periderme amarelada mudou para lilás e o córtex e cilindro central, de amarelados, passaram a ter a côr roxa. Chamou-se atenção para a combinação de côres encontrada nesta última mutação, ainda não observada em Campinas. Apenas as duas primeiras mutações foram estudadas quanto à produção. Verificou-se, neste particular, que se assemelham às variedades originais, as quais são das mais recomendáveis para a agricultura de São Paulo. Ambas, porém, apresentam a vantagem de possuir a casca mais clara, o que melhora sua aceitação no mercado.<hr/>During these last 5 years six somatic mutations were found in commercial varieties of sweet potatoes grown in experimental fields of the Roots and Tubers Dept. of the Insiitvto Agronômico de Campinas. All these mutations affected the color of various root layers and their descriptions are presented in this paper. In variety 98-Caslelo the purple periderm became cream in the mutated form while in the variety 18-Dahomey the purple color of periderm and cortex have been changed to purple-reddish and cream respectively. The mutation in var. 39-Roxa pilosa affected the periderm color, which changed from dark-purple to light copper and the cortex and central cylinder from dark-purple to cream color. In the variety 104-Peçanha rosa which possesses a rose-brown periderm the mutation produced a red-purplish periderm. In the seedling 104-S50-6 the dark-purple periderm became cream while in the mutated form of the 113 S50-11 seedling the yellowish periderm was changed to light-purple and the yellow cortex and central cylinder became purple. Attention has been called to the root flesh color of the seedling 113 S50-11 which is unique in the collection of sweet potatoes types at Campinas. Only the mutations that ocurred in varieties 98-Castelo and 18-Dahomey have been tested for yield dining these last two years. It has been found that both new types are similar in yield capacity to the original varieties and can be considered as very promissing types of sweet potatoes. <![CDATA[<B>Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo</B>: <B>II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level) respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3). The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa) the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3). It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf), capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth), capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd.) and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi) and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes), capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash), seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes. <![CDATA[<B>Observações sôbre a biologia do <I>Pseudococcus maritimus</I> (Ehrhorn, 1900)</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The author presents some laboratory data on the biology of Pseudococcus maritimu (Ehrhorn) a potato pest in Brazil. With the exception of the first instar larvae, there is a broad difference betweei males and females, in shape, development and behaviour. The female feed throughout the period of development, going through three instars. The lif cycle takes an average of 73 days. The number of eggs per female averages 323 The male feeds only during the first and part of the second instar, and develop thereafter in a cocoon, passing through four instars. The life cycle takes an averag of 41 days. The adult lives an average of 3.4 days while the female adult lives 3J days. It appears that this species does not reproduce by parthenogenesis. Pseudococcus maritimus is a species widely distributed over many countries, livini on numerous kinds of plants. <![CDATA[<B>Diplópoda depredador de tubérculos de batatinha</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In two independent Irish potato experiments carried out at the Lameira Exp. Sta. of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, in 1952, serious damage was observed in the tubers due to the attack of a Diplopoda - Pseudonannolenidae, Pseudonannolene paulista Brölemann, 1902. One of these experiments was undertaken in order to test the varieties Konsuragis and Eigenheimer imported from Sweden. Amonium sulphate, cotton or ricinus meal were used as source of Nitrogen at the rate of 80 kg of N per hectare. Superphosphate at the rate of 120 kg of P2O5 and Potassium sulphate at the rate of 60 kg of K2O were also used in this experiment. It has been observed that the number of affected tubers was greater in the Konsuragis variety and also that the attack by Diplópoda was more intensive in the plots where cotton or ricinus meal was used. In the other experiment the following varieties were tested, all them received from Holland: Bintje, Eersteling, Saskia, Gineke, Eigeriheimer, Voran and Alpha. Only Amonium sulphate was used as source of nitrogen, this element, P2O5, and K2O, having been added at the same rate as in the first experiment. The varieties Bintje, Eersteling and Saskia had a great number of damaged tubers while Alpha seemed to be much more resistent. The maximum temperature observed during the experiment varied from 21.3 to 30.2°C and the minimum temperature from 5.5 to 14.2°C. The amount of rainfall was very small, only 16 mm being registered during February to May. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed that it was poor in mineral contents and had high acidity. The present observation confirms the findings of Blunck, who established that when the soil is hot and dry, Diplópoda feeds on potato tubers in order to get water. It has been suggested that the attack by the Diplópoda here observed is of the same nature as that caused by the Diplópoda Cylindroiulus frisius Verhoeff and C. teutonicus Poc. observed in Germany in tubers of Irish potato. <![CDATA[<B>Ensaios de variedades de amendoim</B>: <B>resultados de ensaios regionais</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From 1940 to 1951, 20 experiments were planted with several peanut varieties in order to test them in five different regions in the State of São Paulo. It has been noted that the varieties 76 - Spanish -2B and 40- Roxo produced higher yields (weight of pods in Campinas while varieties 40 Roxo and 54-Roxo yielded larger crops in Ribeirão Preto and Pindorama (table 8). The varieties 40-Roxo and 54-Roxo are both very similar. They have long and narrow pods, the husk is reticulated and the number of seeds per pod varies from 1 to 4, with higher frequencies of 2 and 3. The seed coat is red-purplish. The variety 76-Spanish-2B was received from the the North Caroline Experimental Station, U.S.A., in 1941' In almost all experiments the varieties 40-Roxo, 54-Roxo and 76-Spanish-2B proved to be superior to the check variety 53-Tatu, which largely cultivated in S. Paulo. They will replace variety 53-Tatu in a very near future. <![CDATA[<B>Observações sôbre ocorrência de moléstias do arroz</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From 1940 to 1951, 20 experiments were planted with several peanut varieties in order to test them in five different regions in the State of São Paulo. It has been noted that the varieties 76 - Spanish -2B and 40- Roxo produced higher yields (weight of pods in Campinas while varieties 40 Roxo and 54-Roxo yielded larger crops in Ribeirão Preto and Pindorama (table 8). The varieties 40-Roxo and 54-Roxo are both very similar. They have long and narrow pods, the husk is reticulated and the number of seeds per pod varies from 1 to 4, with higher frequencies of 2 and 3. The seed coat is red-purplish. The variety 76-Spanish-2B was received from the the North Caroline Experimental Station, U.S.A., in 1941' In almost all experiments the varieties 40-Roxo, 54-Roxo and 76-Spanish-2B proved to be superior to the check variety 53-Tatu, which largely cultivated in S. Paulo. They will replace variety 53-Tatu in a very near future. <![CDATA[<B>O combate ao <I>Pseudococcus maritimus</I> (Ehr.) da batatinha, pelo brometo de metilo</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From 1940 to 1951, 20 experiments were planted with several peanut varieties in order to test them in five different regions in the State of São Paulo. It has been noted that the varieties 76 - Spanish -2B and 40- Roxo produced higher yields (weight of pods in Campinas while varieties 40 Roxo and 54-Roxo yielded larger crops in Ribeirão Preto and Pindorama (table 8). The varieties 40-Roxo and 54-Roxo are both very similar. They have long and narrow pods, the husk is reticulated and the number of seeds per pod varies from 1 to 4, with higher frequencies of 2 and 3. The seed coat is red-purplish. The variety 76-Spanish-2B was received from the the North Caroline Experimental Station, U.S.A., in 1941' In almost all experiments the varieties 40-Roxo, 54-Roxo and 76-Spanish-2B proved to be superior to the check variety 53-Tatu, which largely cultivated in S. Paulo. They will replace variety 53-Tatu in a very near future. <![CDATA[<B>Tratamento dos tubérculos-semente de batatinha com brometo de metilo no combate aos nematóides das galhas</B>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87051952000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From 1940 to 1951, 20 experiments were planted with several peanut varieties in order to test them in five different regions in the State of São Paulo. It has been noted that the varieties 76 - Spanish -2B and 40- Roxo produced higher yields (weight of pods in Campinas while varieties 40 Roxo and 54-Roxo yielded larger crops in Ribeirão Preto and Pindorama (table 8). The varieties 40-Roxo and 54-Roxo are both very similar. They have long and narrow pods, the husk is reticulated and the number of seeds per pod varies from 1 to 4, with higher frequencies of 2 and 3. The seed coat is red-purplish. The variety 76-Spanish-2B was received from the the North Caroline Experimental Station, U.S.A., in 1941' In almost all experiments the varieties 40-Roxo, 54-Roxo and 76-Spanish-2B proved to be superior to the check variety 53-Tatu, which largely cultivated in S. Paulo. They will replace variety 53-Tatu in a very near future.