Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Bragantia]]> vol. 76 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Plot size and number of repetitions in vetch]]> ABSTRACT The objectives of this work were to determine the optimum plot size and number of repetitions to evaluate the fresh matter weight of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in sowing densities. Fortyeight uniformity trials of 6 m × 6 m were conducted. Sixteen trials were evaluated in each sowing density (40, 60, and 80 kg∙ha−1). Each trial was divided into 36 basic experimental units (BEU) of 1 m × 1 m, totaling 1,728 BEU. In each BEU, the fresh matter was weighed. The optimum plot size was determined by the method of maximum curvature of the coefficient of variation model. The means were compared among sowing densities by the Scott-Knott’s test. The number of repetitions — for experiments with completely randomized and randomized block designs, in scenarios of i treatments (i = 3, 4, …, 50) and d minimal differences between treatments means being detected as significant with 5% probability by Tukey’s test, expressed in percentage of the experiment average (d = 10%, 11%, …, 20%), was determined by iterative process until convergence. The optimum plot size to evaluate the fresh matter weight of vetch is 4.52 m2 at the 3 sowing densities. Four repetitions, to evaluate up to 50 treatments, in completely randomized and randomized block designs, are enough to identify as significant, at 5% probability by Tukey’s test, differences between treatment means of 29.15% of the experiment average. <![CDATA[Non-invasive spectral detection of the beneficial effects of <em>Bradyrhizobium</em> spp. and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under different levels of nitrogen application on the biomass, nitrogen status, and yield of peanut cultivars]]> ABSTRACT High-throughput phenotyping using spectral reflectance measurements offers the potential to provide more information for making better-informed management decisions at the crop canopy level in real time. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of hyperspectral reflectance measurements of the crop canopy for the assessment of biomass, nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake, relative chlorophyll contents, and yield in 2 peanut cultivars, Giza 5 and Giza 6. Peanuts were grown under field conditions and subjected to 3 doses of nitrogen fertilizer with or without the application of 2 bio-fertilizers, Bradyrhizobium spp. or plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Simple linear regression of normalized difference spectral indices and partial least square regression (PLSR) were employed to develop predictive models to estimate the measured parameters. The tested spectral reflectance indices were significantly related to all measured parameters with R2 of up to 0.89. The spectral reflectance index values differed at the same level of nitrogen fertilizer, as well as among the 3 levels of nitrogen fertilizer application for inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. The calibration models of PLSR data analysis further improved the results, with R2 values reaching 0.95. The overall results of this study indicate that hyperspectral reflectance measurements monitoring peanut plants enable rapid and non-destructive assessment of biomass, nitrogen status, and yield parameters of peanut cultivars subjected to various agronomic treatments. <![CDATA[Genetic diversity and population densities of endophytic Bacillus spp. in yam plants]]> ABSTRACT This study was conducted as a first step in exploiting endophytic bacteria to improve yam production. Little information is available on population densities and genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in yam cultivated in tropical regions. This study demonstrated that higher densities of total endophytic bacteria and Bacillus occur in the interior of roots and decrease as the sampled plant organ departs from soil. Bacillus represents approximately 1% of the total bacterial endophytic population. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses performed with 88 randomly-selected Bacillus isolates resulted in 28 groups, and sequence analyses of the 16S region of the ribosomal DNA of 24 isolates representing all major RAPD groups revealed that they could be clustered in 2 clades: Bacillus cereus and B. pumilus. While B. cereus was able to colonize the entire plant, B. pumilus remained confined to the rhizophores. Further research should concentrate on the application of these isolates in biotechnological processes, such as biocontrol and yam growth promotion. <![CDATA[S<sub>H</sub>1 leaf rust and bacterial halo blight coffee resistances are genetically independent]]> ABSTRACT Coffee resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae has been associated to pleiotropic effect of SH1 allele, present in coffee plants resistant to certain races of Hemileia vastatrix, the causal agent of leaf rust, or genetic linkage between resistance alleles to both pathogens. To validate this hypothesis, 63 coffee plants in F2 generation were evaluated for resistance to 2 isolates of H. vastatrix carriers of alleles, respectively, v2, v5 (isolate I/2015) and v1; v2; v5 (isolate II/2015) with the objective to confirm presence of SH1 allele in resistant plants to isolate I/2015. The same coffee plants were evaluated for resistance to a mixture of P. syringae pv. garcae strains highly pathogenic to coffee. Results showed that, among F2 coffee allele SH1 carriers, resistant to isolate I/2015, resistant and susceptible plants to bacterial halo blight were found; the same segregation occurs between F2 homozygous for SH1 allele, susceptible to the same isolate (I/2015) of H. vastatrix. Results also indicate that there is no pleiotropic effect of gene or allele SH1 connection between genes conferring resistance to leaf rust caused by H. vastatrix and bacterial halo blight caused by P. syringae pv. garcae. <![CDATA[Maintenance pruning in physalis commercial production]]> ABSTRACT Due to field and literature divergences about the best management of physalis (Physalis peruviana L.), this paper aimed to verify the effect of maintenance pruning on the productivity and quality of its fruit. The plants were submitted to 4 different ways of management during their entire cycle: (i) no stem pruning; (ii) keeping only 4 stems; (iii) keeping 6 stems; and (iv) keeping 8 stems. The sampling began 80 days after transplantation (DAT) of the seedlings and it was executed weekly, totaling 7 evaluations. The results demonstrated that pruned plants produced higher caliber fruits. However, the plants that did not receive pruning were the most productive. Therefore, as long as the price of physalis fruit is a matter of quantity and not of quality, it is not recommended to perform maintenance pruning on the plants. <![CDATA[Use of microsatellites for evaluation of genetic diversity in cherry tomato]]> ABSTRACT Much of the diversity of tomato is found in wild forms, the most important being the Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium. The objective of this research was to assess the genetic diversity of 30 introductions of cherry tomato with 36 microsatellite molecular markers. The study was conducted at the Plant Transformation Research Center (PTRC) of the University of California. A dendrogram was built using the Dice-Nei and Li similarity index and the UPGMA clustering method, where introductions were differentiated without preserving a distribution pattern obeying the geographical area of origin. A coefficient of genetic differentiation was found (Fst = 0.3474), showing a high genetic differentiation of the introductions; those from Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru were the most genetically diverse, presenting 100% of polymorphic loci. The molecular variance analysis indicated a variation of 11% between the groups and 89% within the same. The broad genotypic variability of the evaluated introductions favors the possibility of selecting those for genetic improvement and sustainable use of the species. <![CDATA[Mapping and allelic sequencing of a long sterile lemma trait in rice]]> ABSTRACT Some outer floral organs are unique in gramineous plants, like the sterile lemma and rudimentary glume in rice. However, their development mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we used 4 mutants with long sterile lemma (LSL), named JF11, JF12, JF13 and JNY-7, to be crossed with Aijiaonante (AJNT) and Nipponbare (NIP), respectively. Genetic analysis indicated that LSL trait exhibited recessive heredity and was controlled by a common allele named sl-1(t). Using the method of bulk segregant analysis and linkage analysis between SSR markers and LSL trait based on F2 populations, the sl-1(t) gene was located at the interval between RM20903 and RM20948 on chromosome 7. The interval harbors a known G1 gene, which regulates the sterile lemma trait. The findings of allelic sequencing showed an 11-base deletion in gene G1 happened in the mutants of JF11, JF12 and JF13, which led to a frame-shifting mutation, whereas the mutant of JNY-7 had a base substitution that caused the change of the amino acid residue. Eight substitutions in the ORF and 10 in the upstream region from −1 to −824 were found between Indica and Japonica rice by DNA sequence analysis, but those polymorphisms have no effect on the gene function. In conclusion, we fine mapped the LSL gene, sl-1(t), and found 2 kinds of mutant alleles conferring the gene function and the DNA polymorphisms of G1 between Indica and Japonica rice. <![CDATA[Stem conduction systems effect on the production and quality of mini tomato under organic management]]> ABSTRACT This research evaluated the influence of stem conduction types on the production and physicochemical characteristics of tomato fruits (hybrid Coco, mini type) under organic management. The experiment was conducted between August 2013 and January 2014. The treatments consisted of 4 different conduction systems: 2 traditional stems; 2 stems emerging from axillary cotyledon buds (“bottom stem”); 3 “traditional” stems and 4 stems emerging from tip pruning. Eleven harvests were conducted from 22nd November 2013 to 31st January 2014. Data collected included fruit number per plant, yields (g∙plant−1), fruit physicochemical characteristics, average weight, fruit diameter, pH, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS), SS/TA ratio, reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, lycopene, β-carotene, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b. Stem conduction types did not affect fruit yields per plant (g∙plant−1). However, the greater number of stems resulted in more fruits per plant, but the fruit produced had a smaller diameter and average weight. The treatments with more stems also showed higher fruit lycopene levels, TA, and reducing sugars. Thus, under similar growing conditions, it may be recommended that organic mini tomatoes be pruned with 3 or 4 stems to increase the number of fruits per plant. <![CDATA[Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil]]> ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the usage of fire for sugarcane harvesting resulted in managing the crop on a trashblanketed soil, to which a proper recommendation of N fertilization is lacking, a problem that remains in the coastal tablelands of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of increasing N rates on stalk and sugar yields and the N use efficiency by the crop. The experimental area planted with sugarcane, at the first ratoon, is located in Linhares, Espírito Santo State. The treatments consisted of N rates varying from 80 to 160 kg N∙ha−1 as ammonium sulphate, and a control without N, in a completely randomized blocks experimental design. Stalk yield increased with the N rate, and fitting the results to a quadratic function suggests no response to fertilizer rates above 130 kg N∙ha−1. The highest margin of agricultural contribution was obtained at the rate of 100 kg N∙ha−1. The N use efficiency decreased from almost 49 to 38%, when the N rate increased from 100 to 160 kg N∙ha−1. There was no effect of increasing N rates on the sugar concentration, although the sugar yield response was positive and strongly influenced by the stalk production. Results showed the importance of reassessing the adequate N rate for maximizing yield in green cane production systems. <![CDATA[Resistance to Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean genotypes of different maturity groups]]> ABSTRACT Some species of pentatomids stink bugs have global economic importance, damaging various plant species during the vegetative and reproductive phases. Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), known as the green-belly stink bug, is part of the soybean stink bug complex in Brazil and has increasing importance in crops,with potential to reduce crop yield. This polyphagous stink bug has been registered in 29 plant species belonging to 10 plant families which include cultivated and non-cultivated plants. Plant resistance is a valuable tool in integrated pest management and may reduce insect populations below economic injury level. This study characterized the resistance of 17 soybean genotypes to the green-belly stink bug. All of the materials affected the biological performance of the green-belly stink bug, but PI 227687; ‘IAC 100’; PI 171451; IAC 78-2318; D 75-10169; IAC 74-2832; ‘IAC 23’ and ‘IAC 24’ caused mortality above 80% in the second instar. ‘IAC 17’; ‘IAC 18’; PI 171451; PI 274454; ‘Conquista’ and ‘IAC 19’ decreased the longevity of adults of D. melacanthus, showing the same mechanism of resistance. PI 227687 did not allow any insects to complete the immature stage. These results are unprecedented for the species D. melacanthus and can assist breeding programs that focus on resistance to members of the stink bug complex in soybean. <![CDATA[Resistance of <em>Botrytis cinerea</em> to fungicides controlling gray mold on strawberry in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to the fungicides currently used for its control in Brazil. Isolates of the fungus were collected from different strawberry-producing fields in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo, Brazil. First, a total of 183 isolates were identified at the species level using specific primers for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) gene. The isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing the fungicides procymidone, iprodione, and thiophanate-methyl in different concentrations: 0.0 (control), 0.1; 1.0; 10.0; 100.0 and 1,000.0 μg∙mL−1. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition was used to determine the effective concentration of the fungicide that was able to inhibit colony growth by 50% (EC50). Approximately 25.7% of the isolates were resistant to iprodione, 53.0% were resistant to procymidone, and 93.0% were resistant to thiophanate-methyl. Moreover, crossresistance and multiple resistance were verified, with 19.7% of the isolates showing resistance to 3 fungicides simultaneously. This finding explains the ineffectiveness of fungicides application to control gray mold in strawberry fields in Brazil and highlights the need for new strategies to manage this disease in the culture. <![CDATA[Symbiotic and agronomic efficiency of new cowpea rhizobia from Brazilian Semi-Arid]]> ABSTRACT Cowpea is a very important crop to Brazilian Semi-Arid mainly small family-based farmers. Rhizobia inoculation is a practice, easy to use, and cheap technology that increases cowpea productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two new rhizobia isolates in greenhouse and field as well as classify them taxonomically. To bacterial identification the 16S rRNA gene of ESA 17 and ESA 18 isolates were sequenced. The greenhouse test was conducted with pots containing 3 L of soil and the bacterial isolates evaluated were ESA 17, ESA 18, BR 3267 or BR 3262 strains. A field experiment was implemented on a Vertisol in Juazeiro, Bahia State, to evaluate the cowpea growth and productivity. In this experiment, the peat-based inoculants with ESA 17, ESA 18, BR 3267 or UFLA 3-84 were used in 2 cowpea cultivars. Both bacteria were identified as Bradyrhizobium, but related to different species. ESA 17 was related to B. japonicum and ESA 18 was closer to B. pachyrhizi. At greenhouse, both isolates increased cowpea nitrogen content in the shoots due to the presence of very efficient nodules. In the field, the isolate ESA 18 inoculated at BRS Pujante cultivar induced higher production than observed for the absolute control, and for BR 17 Gurguéia cultivar, the ESA 17 and BR 3267 stood out both by inducing high production and grain protein content. The results indicate that both isolates can be evaluated in network experiments aiming at official recommendation for new bacteria to cowpea inoculant in Brazil. <![CDATA[Nitrogen fertilization in top dressing for wheat crop in succession to soybean under a no-till system]]> ABSTRACT Agricultural intensification to improve wheat yield has increased the demand for nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to investigate the wheat response in succession to soybean due to application of nitrogen rates and sources in top dressing, as well as to determine the N rates of maximum technical yield (MTY) and maximum economic yield (MEY). A field experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, on a clayey Typic Hapludox (Oxisol) under a continuous no-till. A randomized block design was used, with 3 replications in a 4 × 3 complete factorial arrangement. The treatments consisted of a control and 3 N rates at 40; 80 and 120 kg∙ha−1 as calcium nitrate (CN), ammonium sulfate (AS), and urea (UR) in top dressing at tillering of wheat crop. Increasing N rate in top dressing increased plant height, 1,000-grain mass, and grain yield, but it also favored the plant lodging and reduced the hectoliter mass of wheat. The N, P, Ca, and S concentrations in grains increased with N fertilization. MTY would be obtained at 96; 69 and 67 kg N∙ha−1 in top dressing, respectively, as CN, AS, and UR. Although CN proved to be an effective source of N for application in top dressing, its use was infeasible by the high cost of fertilizer. Both AS and UR showed economic viability, and MEY with these 2 sources would be obtained at a rate of 45 kg N∙ha−1 in top dressing for wheat yield of 4.0 t∙ha−1 in succession with soybean. <![CDATA[Action of <em>Canavalia ensiformis</em> in remediation of contaminated soil with sulfentrazone]]> ABSTRACT This study evaluated the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) as a potential remediator of sulfentrazone in the soil. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a complete randomised block design. The treatments consisted of soils with and without herbicide application as well as the absence and presence of C. ensiformis cultivation associated with incorporation into the soil or the removal of shoots of C. ensiformis. Sorghum was planted as a bioindicator to evaluate the remediation efficiency of jack bean. Sulfentrazone application in areas without C. ensiformis cultivation decreased plants stands, productivity, and height of sorghum compared to treatments where C. ensiformis was cultivated. Sorghum cultivated in succession to C. ensiformis in areas contaminated with sulfentrazone resulted in dry matter production, plants numbers, productivity, and height of sorghum equivalent to uncontaminated areas. The results of this research indicate that the use of jack bean for the bioremediation of sulfentrazone treated soils would provide greater security in the planting of susceptible species in areas where this herbicide has been applied. The cultivation of C. ensiformis in contaminated areas may reduce the risk of environmental impacts caused by sulfentrazone. <![CDATA[Microbial activity of soil with sulfentrazone associated with phytoremediator species and inoculation with a bacterial consortium]]> ABSTRACT Phytostimulation plays a key role in the process of rhizodegradation of herbicides in soil. Additionally, bio-enhancement associated with phytoremediation may increase the efficiency of the decontamination process of soils with herbicides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and microbial activity of soil contaminated with sulfentrazone and cultivated with phytoremediator species plus a bacterial consortium. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, carried out with a 2 × 4 × 4 completely randomized factorial design with 4 replications. The first factor consisted of the presence or absence of bio-enhancement with a bacterial consortium composed of Pseudomonas bacteria; the second factor consisted of a monoculture or mixed cultivation of 2 phytoremediator species Canavalia ensiformis and Helianthus annuus, besides the absence of cultivation; the third factor was made up by the bio-remediation time (25, 45, 65, and 85 days after thinning). Uncultivated soils displayed low values of microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient as well as high values of metabolic quotient throughout the bio-remediation time, indicating the importance of cultivating phytoremediator species for the stimulation of soil microbiota. Bio-enhancement with the bacterial consortium, in general, promoted an increase in the microbial biomass and activity of soil contaminated with sulfentrazone. In the presence of the bacterial consortium, Canavalia ensiformis stimulated a greater activity of associated microbiota and supported a higher microbial biomass. Phytoremediation associated with microbial bio-enhancement are thus promising techniques for the bio-remediation for soils contaminated with sulfentrazone. This technique enhances the biomass and activity of soil microorganisms. <![CDATA[A practical approach for assessing the efficiency of coated urea on controlling nitrogen availability]]> ABSTRACT We propose an approach for assessing the efficiency of coating materials on controlling nitrogen (N) availability to plants. It is based on the use of coated and soluble urea (UR) applied to corn over 3 growing cycles, as follows: coated UR with longevity of 2 (UR-2m) or 4 months (UR-4m) with application of 900 mg N∙pot−1 at the beginning of the experiment, soluble UR with a split application of 900 mg N∙pot−1 (300 mg N∙pot−1 per growing cycle, UR-3x), soluble UR with a sole application of 900 mg N∙pot−1 at the beginning of the experiment (UR-1x), and a control treatment. At the end of each growing cycle, shoots were harvested to estimate N provision by the UR by quantifying dry matter (DM) and N uptake. In the first cycle, UR-2m and UR-4m promoted lower plant growth and N accumulation in shoots than UR-1x. However, in the third cycle, higher shoot N uptake and DM production was recorded in UR-4m than in UR-1x. Furthermore, fertilizer contribution for shoot N uptake in UR-4m plants was higher than those in UR-1x and UR-2m at the end of the experiment. Accordingly, consecutive growing cycles combined with forms of soluble UR application were able to characterize the pattern of N release from coated fertilizers, being, thus, a suitable method to evaluate the efficiency of such products. We argue that our practical approach could be used by the industry in fertilizer quality programs and to register fertilizer coating materials by regulatory agencies. <![CDATA[Escurecimento da polpa em pera ‘Rocha’ influenciado pela composição mineral do fruto e condições de atmosfera controlada]]> RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de condições de armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC) e da composição mineral do fruto sobre ocorrência de escurecimento da polpa em pera ‘Rocha’. Os frutos foram armazenados sob diferentes condições de AC: 0,5 kPa O2 + &lt; 0,03 kPa CO2; 1,0 kPa O2 + &lt; 0,03 kPa CO2; 1,0 kPa O2 + 1,0 kPa CO2; 1,0 kPa O2 + 2,0 kPa CO2 e 1,0 kPa O2 + 3,0 kPa C2. Os frutos foram avaliados quanto à incidência e severidade de escurecimento da polpa após 9 meses de armazenamento (−0,5 ± 0,1 °C e UR de 96 ± 2%). Posteriormente, frutos com e sem a presença do distúrbio foram avaliados quanto às concentrações de Ca, Mg, K, N e as relações K/Ca, Mg/Ca e N/Ca. O armazenamento sob 1,0 kPa O2 + 3,0 kPa CO2 proporcionou aos frutos maior incidência de escurecimento da polpa em relação aos armazenados sob 0,5 kPa O2 + &lt; 0,03 kPa CO2 e 1,0 kPa O2 + &lt; 0,03 kPa CO2, ocasionando ainda maior severidade do distúrbio em comparação às demais condições de armazenamento. Peras com escurecimento da polpa apresentaram menores concentrações de Ca, bem como concentrações mais elevadas de K e maiores relações dos elementos K/Ca, Mg/Ca e N/Ca, comparativamente a frutos sem incidência do dano. Todavia, a análise multivariada de todos esses elementos minerais mostrou que a relação K/Ca foi a mais indicada para discriminar frutos sem e com escurecimento da polpa em peras ‘Rocha’.<hr/>ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions and mineral contents on flesh browning in ‘Rocha’ pear. The fruits were stored at different CA conditions: 0.5 kPa O2 + &lt; 0.03 kPa CO2; 1.0 kPa O2 + &lt; 0.03 kPa CO2; 1.0 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2; 1.0 kPa O2 + 2.0 kPa CO2 and 1.0 kPa O2 + 3.0 kPa CO2. Fruit were evaluated for incidence and severity of flesh browning after 9 months of storage (−0.5 ± 0.1 °C and 96 ± 2% RH). Also, fruit with and without the disorder were assessed for contents of Ca, Mg, K, and N, as well as the K/Ca, Mg/Ca, and N/Ca ratios. Fruit stored at 1.0 kPa O2 + 3.0 kPa CO2 had higher incidence of flesh browning than those stored at 0.5 kPa O2 + &lt; 0.03 kPa CO2 and 1.0 kPa O2 + &lt; 0.03 kPa CO2, as well as higher severity of disorder than all the other storage conditions. Pears with flesh browning had lower Ca content, as well as higher K content and higher K/Ca, Mg/Ca, and N/Ca ratios than fruit without the disorder. However, the multivariate analysis of all these mineral elements showed that the K/Ca ratio provides the best discrimination between fruit with and without flesh browning in ‘Rocha’ pears. <![CDATA[Multivariate analysis of mineral content associated with flesh browning disorder in ‘Fuji’ apples produced in Southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Flesh browning is a physiological disorder that occurs in ‘Fuji’ apples during storage, which causes considerable postharvest losses of fruit produced in Southern Brazil. This work aimed to assess the mineral attributes [Ca; Mg and K contents and the Mg/Ca; K/Ca and (K + Mg)/Ca ratios] associated with the flesh browning disorder incidence, as well as to identify which of these mineral attributes better discriminate the differences in the degree of susceptibility to flesh browning disorder in ‘Fuji’ apples stored under controlled atmosphere (CA; 1.2 kPa O2 + 2.0 kPa CO2 and 1.2 kPa O2 + &lt; 0.5 kPa CO2; 0.5 ± 0.1 °C and 96 ± 2% RH, during an 8-month period). Apples from 2 orchards in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, 3 orchards in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, and 3 orchards in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul were used. The fruit with flesh browning disorder has lower levels of Ca and a higher Mg/Ca ratio when compared to the fruit without flesh browning. The Mg and K contents were not related to the physiological disorder. The canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) showed that the isolated Ca content better discriminated the fruit with and without flesh browning disorder. ‘Fuji’ apples with Ca contents &lt; 80 mg∙kg−1 in the flesh present a greater risk of developing this disorder in the Southern Brazil production region. <![CDATA[Respiration rate and ethylene metabolism of ‘Jonagold’ apple and ‘Conference’ pear under regular air and controlled atmosphere]]> ABSTRACT The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase activity, ethylene production, CO2 release and O2 uptake of ‘Jonagold’ apple and ‘Conference’ pear were investigated during regular air and controlled atmosphere storage. Storage conditions tested at 0 °C during 6 months, with a further 10 d shelf-life in air at 20 °C were: 0.5 kPa O2 + 6.0 kPa CO2; 3 kPa O2 + 6 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2 + 3 kPa CO2; 1.5 kPa O2 + 1.5 kPa CO2; 0.5 kPa O2 + 0.5 kPa CO2 and 2 kPa O2 + 1 kPa CO2. Apple and pear kept in regular air showed higher ACC-oxidase activity, ethylene production and respiration rates. Under controlled atmosphere, lower O2 and/ or higher CO2 partial pressures strongly inhibited ACC-oxidase activity and ethylene production of apple and pear. Agreeing with ACC-oxidase activity and ethylene production, respiration rate was affected by the controlled atmosphere in a similar manner. The controlled atmosphere condition of 0.5 kPa O2 + 6.0 kPa CO2 showed the strongest suppression in ethylene production, respiration and generated higher values in the respiratory quotient. However, fruit metabolism was strongly suppressed in ‘Jonagold’ than in ‘Conference’, persisting a strong residual effect of controlled atmosphere during the full 10 d shelf-life in apple. <![CDATA[Plant parameters and must composition of ‘Syrah’ grapevine cultivated under sequential summer and winter growing seasons]]> ABSTRACT Plant variables and must physicochemical properties were evaluated for the grapevine ‘Syrah’ cultivated in sequential growing seasons (summer and winter) from 2011 to 2015. The vines were trellised in vertical shoot position, grafted on Paulsen 1103, with approximate density of 5,800 plants∙ha−1. They were grown under plastic overhead cover. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the following variables were measured at the harvest: number of branches, number of clusters, cluster weight and yield, soluble solids content, pH, and titratable acidity. The highest values of yield, cluster weight, and titratable acidity were observed during the summer growing season, while the highest values of soluble solids content and pH were observed during winter. These results suggest that the grapes harvested during the winter show physicochemical characteristics more suitable than those observed during the summer crops for winemaking purposes.