Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0031-104920190001&lang=es vol. 59 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Ichthyofauna of Trairí river basin, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeastern Brazil: a century after the study of the naturalist Edwin Starks in the Papari lagoon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100201&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Fishes from the coastal basins of the Mid-Northeastern Caatinga ecoregion (MNCE) were first sampled by the Stanford expedition at the beginning of the 20th century, and published by Edwin C. Starks in 1913. This material included specimens from the Papary lake (= Papari lagoon) in the lower portion of the Trairí river basin, draining towards the eastern coast of Rio Grande do Norte State. In 1941, Henry Fowler provided a broad taxonomic study of the freshwater fishes from northeastern Brazil, including material from the Papari lagoon, besides describing four species assigned to this locality. However, these previous surveys focused only in the lower portion of the Trairí river basin and might be incomplete. Given this framework, the present study aimed at perform a wide ichthyofaunal inventory of Trairí river basin and compare with previously surveys performed in the regions. In 2013 and 2014, four expeditions along the whole basin, including the Papari lagoon itself, resulted in 28 species of fishes belonging to 17 families and seven orders. At Papari lagoon area 16 species were registered whereas 26 and 18 species were recorded by Starks and Fowler’s studies, respectively. Considering all records, 50 species were documented in the basin with 14 (28%) new records, including Serrapinnus potiguar, whose distribution was extended to the south. Two species described by Fowler, Pimelodella papariae and Pseudancistrus papariae, were not found in this study or in any fish collection, and are only known from their type-material. These two species can be naturally rare, locally extinct, or there were inaccuracies in their type-locality. However, species of these genera are only found in larger basins of the MNCE, which drains to the north, corroborating the latter assumption. Although not being a definitive list, the recent extensive fish surveys conducted in the MNCE’s coastal basins are helping to elucidate species’ geographic distribution and little knowing taxonomic issues. <![CDATA[Butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) in a heterogeneous area between two biodiversity hotspots in Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100202&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This paper investigates the butterfly fauna of the ‘Serra do Rola-Moça’ State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We evaluate i) the seasonal variation of species richness and composition; and ii) the variation in composition of the local butterfly assemblage among three sampling sites and between the dry and rainy seasons. Sampling was carried out monthly between November 2012 and October 2013, using entomological nets. After a total sampling effort of 504 net hours, 311 species were recorded. One of them is endangered in Brazil, and eight are probable new species. Furthermore, two species were new records for the region and eight considered endemic of the Cerrado domain. There was no significant difference in species richness between the dry and the rainy seasons, however the species composition varies significantly among sampling sites. Due to its special, heterogeneous environment, which is home to a rich butterfly fauna, its preservation is important for the conservation of the regional butterfly fauna. <![CDATA[New records of <em>Helicina schereri</em> (Gastropoda: Helicinidae) from the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100203&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract New records for Helicina schereri Baker, 1913, are reported. It was a species previously restricted to the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Tocantins in Northeastern Brazil, and State of Santa Catarina, much further south. The new occurrences reported herein fill distribution gaps and also significantly expand the range of the species ca. 970 km westwards. The new records are from the following locations: Bahia State (Ituaçu and Itaquara municipalities) in Northeast Brazil; Mato Grosso do Sul State (Bonito Municipality) in the Midwest; and Minas Gerais (Lagoa Santa municipality) in the Southeast. <![CDATA[Characterization of insect galls from a vegetation area in Altinópolis, São Paulo State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100204&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Herein, we studied the occurrence of insect galls from natural vegetation around the Itambé Cave, Altinópolis, SP, Brazil. A sampling effort of 7.5 hours resulted in 41 gall morphotypes on 21 host plant species from 14 families. The richest families of host plants in morphotypes were Fabaceae (N = 11), Euphorbiaceae (N = 7), and Malpighiaceae (N = 5). Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (N = 8), Croton floribundus Spreng. (N = 7), Diplopterys pubipetala (A. Juss.) W.R. Anderson &amp; C.C. Davis (N = 5), and Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. (N = 4) were the super host plant species. Among the gall makers obtained, cecidomyiids were reared in 81% of cases and Hemiptera (Diaspididae), Hymenoptera (Eurytomidae), Coleoptera (Apion sp./Apionidae), and Lepidoptera in 4.5% of cases, each. The parasitoids belong to the Chalcidoidea superfamily (Hymenoptera). One new species of Camptoneuromyiia (Cecidomyiidae) was found in Smilax oblongifolia Pohl ex Griseb. (Smilacaceae) as inquiline and a new species of Lestodiplosis in Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae) was a predator. We also present the first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae. We also present the first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae, and we expand the occurrence of Rochadiplosis tibouchinae Tavares, Lopesia spinosa Maia and Couridiplosis vena Maia to São Paulo State. The results of this paper are a continuation of the description of gall morphotypes from the vegetation in Northeastern São Paulo State, and they also increase knowledge about the diversity of host plant and gall-maker associations in the Neotropical region. <![CDATA[An overlooked hotspot for birds in the Atlantic Forest]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100205&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Montane and submontane forest patches in the state of Bahia, Brazil, are among the few large and preserved Atlantic Forests remnants. They are strongholds of an almost complete elevational gradient, which harbor both lowland and highland bird taxa. Despite being considered a biodiversity hotspot, few ornithologists have surveyed these forests, especially along elevational gradients. Here we compile bird records acquired from systematic surveys and random observations carried out since the 1980s in a 7,500 ha private protected area: Serra Bonita private reserve. We recorded 368 species, of which 143 are Atlantic Forest endemic taxa. Some 16 and 13 species are threatened at the global and national levels, respectively. If one accounts for subspecies, the number of Brazilian threatened taxa raises to 21. Species composition differs between lower and higher elevations, in which case lowlands harbor Amazonia-related taxa, whereas highlands are the home of Atlantic Forest-related taxa. <![CDATA[Belostomatidae (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) held in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil: inventory and new distributional records]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100206&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Belostomatidae is a family of giant water bugs with 52 valid species in Brazil. Here, we list 33 valid species housed in the Invertebrates Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Manaus, Brazil. Of the total species examined, 26 had their distributional ranges increased (new records provided in parentheses): Belostoma amazonum Estévez &amp; Polhemus (Mato Grosso and Roraima); B. aurivillianum (Montandon) (Rondônia); B. bosqi De Carlo (Maranhão); B. candidulum Montandon (Mato Grosso do Sul); B. carajaensis Ribeiro &amp; Estévez (Amazonas); B. dallasi De Carlo (Bahia and Pará); B. dentatum (Mayr) (Roraima); B. denticolle Montandon (Roraima); B. dilatatum (Dufour) (Maranhão); B. discretum Montandon (Rio Grande do Sul); B. elongatum Montandon (Paraná); B. estevezae Ribeiro &amp; Alecrim (Amazonas); B. fittkaui De Carlo (Roraima); B. gestroi Montandon (Pará); B. guianae Lauck (Brazil, in Roraima); B. micantulum (Stål) (Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia and Roraima); B. minusculum (Uhler) (Brazil, in Amazonas, Pará and Rio Grande do Norte); B. parvum Estévez &amp; Polhemus (Amazonas and Roraima); B. plebejum (Stål) (Roraima); B. pygmeum (Dufour) (Pará); B. ribeiroi De Carlo (Mato Grosso do Sul); B. stollii (Amyot &amp; Serville) (Roraima); Horvathinia pelocoroides Montandon (Rondônia); Lethocerus annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Maranhão, Paraíba and Paraná); L. delpontei De Carlo (Amazonas and Pará) and L. maximus De Carlo (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas and Roraima). In addition, we provide a list of type and non-type specimens of Belostomatidae from INPA’s collection identified to the species level, photographs of these species and relevant taxonomic notes, when available. <![CDATA[Orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini) are seasonal in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest fragments, southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100207&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of orchid bees have already been reported. The variations in population dynamics may be expected to occur in more predictable and pronounced manners in environments with a clear distinction between rainy and dry seasons, where climatic variables are regarded to be good predictors of populational patterns. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the seasonality of males of orchid bees in fragments of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in southern Brazil. Data comprise bait samples from five one-year periods on four forest fragments. The seasonality of species abundance was tested with circular statistics. Results suggest two phenological patterns, one for Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard), Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus), whose abundances are concentrated in late spring and early-middle summer and another for Euglossa fimbriata Moure with a tendency to be collected in middle-late summer and early autumn. These patterns are discussed, as well the possible driven factors, (i) the species life cycle and nesting behavior, (ii) synchrony with resource, and (iii) climate. We can postulate an important impact of climate change in local euglossine assemblage due to the small populations and marked seasonality. <![CDATA[Relative growth and population dynamics of <em>Macrobrachium iheringi</em> (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100208&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract During the ontogenetic development of crustaceans, the relative growth of some structures may change, especially during the transition from juvenile to adult. This study describes the relative growth of body structures of Macrobrachium iheringi, and provides information on its population dynamics, such as structure, fecundity, and morphological sexual maturity. The sampling of M. iheringi was carried out in “Ribeirão da Hortelã”, in Botucatu (SP, Brazil). The length of the carapace (CL), abdomen (AL), and ischium (IL), merus (ML), carpus (CrL), propodus (PpL), and dactyl (DcL) of the second right pereopod were measured. In addition, the width of the second abdominal pleura (PW) and propodus height (PpH) were included in analyses. The relationships that best demonstrated the changes in the allometric coefficient were CL vs PpL in males and females. The CL, in which males and females reach morphological sexual maturity, was estimated as 13.3 mm and 11.1 mm, respectively. The sex-ratio differed from the expected 1:1 and was skewed towards females. Precipitation and temperature influenced the abundance of different demographic classes. Macrobrachium iheringi has few but large eggs, which is expected since this species has an abbreviated larval development. Based on these results, we conclude that the propodus are good indicators of the size at onset of morphological sexual maturity. In addition, important information was obtained on the biology of M. iheringi, including its life cycle pattern, reproduction and influence of abiotic factors. <![CDATA[New species and first record of <em>Coeliaria</em> Mulsant, 1850 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from French Guiana]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100209&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The genus Coeliaria Mulsant, 1850 of the tribe Chnoodini Mulsant, 1850 is recorded for French Guiana for the first time. One new species, Coeliaria monnei Churata &amp; Almeida sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MNHN: Montagne des Chevaux 04°44’56”N, 52°26’28”W, 75 m, 26.IX.2015, SEAG col.) is described and illustrated. The key published anteriorly is modified to include this new species. Currently, the genus is recorded for Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and French Guiana. <![CDATA[Spatiotemporal ecology of two Neotropical herbivorous mammals]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100210&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract On this study, we used camera traps in a Semi deciduous Seasonal Forest, northeast of Brazil, to estimate the frequencies of occurrence of two Neotropical herbivorous mammals: the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca) and the tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), analyzing their seasonal variations of spatial distribution. We also characterized the activity pattern of the species and their seasonal variation. The herbivorous frequencies of occurrence were constant during all the seasons. In general, both species were mostly active at night. However, between the rainy and dry season, we identified differences in spotted paca activity peaks. Here we present one of the first studies on the tapeti, whose ecology is understudied. Our results also show a general view of the spotted paca and tapeti behavior strategies to seasonal variations. Due to the scarce food resource in the dry season, possibly these herbivorous need to search for different kinds of food available IFS around. <![CDATA[Impacts of food-based enrichment on behaviour and physiology of male greater rheas (<em>Rhea Americana,</em> Rheidae, Aves)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100211&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Distress can be defined as a biological response of an individual to long-term threats to its homeostasis and it should be avoided from an animal welfare perspective. High levels of stress hormones and the expression of abnormal behaviours are responses normally observed in distressed animals. Captive environments can provoke distress, especially when inappropriate stimuli are provided to the animals. The concomitant use of behavioural and non-invasive hormonal measures is a means to evaluate captive animal welfare. Environmental enrichment is a tool that can reduce distress and minimize the expression of abnormal behaviour in captive animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate greater rheas’ responses (behavioral and hormonal) to food-based enrichment. Three birds from the Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil were studied. The study was divided into three phases (baseline, enrichment and post-enrichment): fruits scattered around the birds’ enclosure were used as enrichment. Behaviour and faecal sampling were undertaken in all phases of the study. Abnormal behaviours and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) levels showed significant reduction during the environmental enrichment phase, and a significative positive correlation between GCM production and abnormal pacing was observed. From the results of this study, we conclude that the use of food as environmental enrichment should be encouraged because of its positive effects on animal welfare. Besides, studies with larger groups of greater rheas, with individuals of both sexes, should also be encouraged to evaluate if the results found in this pilot study are consistent and can be generalized to the species. <![CDATA[Medium and large sized mammals of the Boqueirão da Onça, North of Bahia State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100212&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT The mosaic of protected areas of Boqueirão da Onça (8.636 km²), created in the north of Bahia state, is located in the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, but exposed to a range of anthropic impacts that threaten its species and natural resources. Few data are available for various zoological groups in Caatinga, including mammals. In order to characterize the community of mammals of this region, considering species richness, we installed 80 camera-trap stations. With a sampling effort of 10,370 camera-days we recorded 28 species (22 wild and six domestic). Opportunistically, we recorded four mammals, resulting in a total richness of 32 species, five of which are included in the global list of endangered species, and seven in the national list. The results are significant, since the richness of wild mammals of the Boqueirão da Onça (S = 26) presented a high value when compared to other Caatinga localities. During the study we found evidence of human activities threatening the conservation of the region, such as poaching and deforestation. Therefore, there is an urgent need in the publication of the Management Plan of the recently created Boqueirão da Onça National Park, to minimize negative impacts on biodiversity and ensure the maintenance of ecological processes. <![CDATA[A new genus, a new species and taxonomic notes in Oxycoleini Martins & Galileo, 2003 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100213&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Oxylopsebus Clarke, 2008 is considered as a junior synonym of Oxycoleus Lacordaire, 1868. Equescollum is proposed as a new genus for E. birai sp. nov. from Costa Rica, which is described and illustrated. <![CDATA[Structural differences in mammal assemblages between savanna ecosystems of the Colombian Llanos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100214&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The Colombian Orinoquia region is characterized by a high diversity of mammals, which is associated with complex ecosystems that include large extensions of Neotropical savannas (known locally as “Llanos Orientales”). Despite accelerated anthropogenic transformations in savanna ecosystems, the knowledge to design effective conservation strategies, such as the distribution of mammal assemblages, is still lacking for this region. In this paper, we evaluate if assemblages of medium and large mammals (i.e., species richness, relative abundance and the contribution of the different trophic guilds) are homogeneous across the Colombian Llanos by comparing three savanna ecosystems: floodplains savannas associated with an Andean river, aeolian floodplains savannas and highland savannas. After a sampling effort of 3,150 camera trap/days, we recorded 16 mammal species from the three savanna ecosystems. We compared the three assemblages and their constituent trophic guilds by ANOSIM and SIMPER non-parametric permutation tests. The three assemblages differed in composition, structure and trophic guilds. The floodplains savannas, associated to an Andean river, present the highest diversity, contrastingly, the high-plain associated with the Guyanese Shield presents the lowest diversity. This pattern could be explained due to the greatest floristic diversity, complex vegetation structure and more fertile soils present in the riparian forests of the floodplains savannas, despite being the most anthropogenically transformed. The carnivores were the most variable category and herbivores were the most abundant. Our results show that the diversity of medium and large mammals is heterogeneously distributed in the Colombian Llanos. Therefore, it is necessary to implement targeted conservation strategies according to the characteristics, local fragility of each ecosystem in the territory and each species response by local conditions. <![CDATA[Descriptions, notes and new records in south american Cerambycidae (Coleoptera)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100215&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ABSTRACT Three new species and one new genus are described: Psyrassa lisitskyi sp. nov., from Peru (Elaphidiini); Ophtalmibidion antonkozlovi sp. nov., from Colombia (Neoibidionini); and Nappella gen. nov., is proposed to N. antonkozlovi sp. nov., from Peru (Calliini). Epectasis mexicana Breuning, 1954 is redescribed, and figured for the first time, and recorded for Colombia. Psyrassa lisitskyi is included in a modified couplet from a previous key. A key to species of Ophtalmibidion and genera of Calliini are provided. Chorenta biramiguelus is recorded for Peru. <![CDATA[Cercopoidea types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de la Plata entomological collection (Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100216&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Type material of 11 species from seven genera of Cercopoidea is housed at the Entomology Division of the Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. The types listed herein correspond to species described by C. Berg (10 spp.) and Lallemand (1 sp.). The collection contains 24 type specimens. Lectotype and paralectotypes of Deois (Deois) knoblauchii (Berg), Kanaima katzensteinii (Berg), Mahanarva (Ipiranga) aguirrei (Berg), Tomaspis argentina Berg [= Deois terrea (Germar)], T. perezii Berg [= Deois terrea (Germar)] and T. platensis Berg are designated. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information supports the existence of 2 holotypes, 6 lectotypes, 10 paralectotypes and 6 syntypes. The following information is given for each species: original species names, taxonomic catalogue, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector’s name, and hosts). Information about subsequent nomenclatural changes with corresponding references, the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and pictures of each species are also provided. <![CDATA[Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) type specimens deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100217&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract This catalogue lists the type specimens of Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). The collection includes a total of 83 type specimens (17 holotypes, 66 paratypes), 82 of which belong to nine genera and 35 species of Crabronidae and only one of Sphecidae. All labels contents and additional information obtained from other available sources are presented. High resolution photographs of the primary types are also provided. <![CDATA[Run to the nest: A parody on the Iron Maiden song by <em>Corotoca</em> spp. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100218&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Rove beetles belonging to the genus Corotoca (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) are termitophiles exclusively found in nests of Constrictotermes (Isoptera: Termitidae). We observed the reproductive behavior of Corotoca melantho and C. fontesi during host (Constrictotermes cyphergaster) foraging events. The reproductive behaviors of both species are similar. The variables collected for analysis were distance traveled, the time of larval deposition, nest return time, and locomotion speed. The fact that the female stops in the middle of the foraging trail to deposit the larva leads to a discussion of how its physiological or voluntary mechanisms function to determine the correct stopping time and the importance of speed when returning to the nest as a strategy to avoid predation. This study provides new information concerning the life cycle of Corotoca spp., although complete understanding of host-termitophile relationships, their evolutionary history, and the significance of viviparity will require additional studies. <![CDATA[State of knowledge of viviparity in Staphylinidae and the evolutionary significance of this phenomenon in <em>Corotoca</em> Schiødte, 1853]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100219&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Viviparity is characterized by the retention of fertilized eggs in reproductive tract of the female. This condition is very common in vertebrates, but relatively rare in invertebrates, including insects. The present work presents a review on viviparity in Staphylinidae, with special attention on genus Corotoca Schiødte, 1853. The genus is composed by six termitophilous species with neotropical distribution, and together with Spirachtha Schiødte, 1853 are the only to genera with species confirmed as viviparous in the family. Also, information and discussion are presented on the life cycle of Corotoca species based on dissection of females in laboratory and field observations. During the dissection of females of four species of Corotoca we observed that each female carries three eggs at the same time. The embryos present asynchronous development: when one is located at apex of abdomen, the other two are at IV segment, on abdomen curvature. These observations are complementary with those obtained in field observation, when the female deposits a larva outside the nest, on the foraging trail of termite Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Silvestri, 1901). The strategy of Corotoca species focused on the immature as dispersing agent is derived and probably favor the fitness in relation to a hypothetical condition in which the adult is the dispersive agent. <![CDATA[Mycophagous Drosophilidae (Diptera) guild and their hosts in the Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100220&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The composition and potential hosts of mycophagous Drosophilidae from a section of the Brazilian Amazon forest in the Caxiuanã National forest were investigated. Sampling was performed in three different periods at long the wet season (January (beginning) and July (end) 2013 and May (middle) 2014). The samples were collected from existing trails by actively searching for fungal fruiting bodies where Drosophilidae were present. We present composition and richness analysis over two years of sampling sampling Drosophilidae and Fungi. We evaluate sampling completeness using asymptotic species richness estimators. Out of 159 fruiting body samples and 64 fungal species, 5,124 drosophilids belonging to 55 species and 5 genera were collected. The mycophagous Drosophilidae richness values estimated by Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap were 69 and 61, respectively. The estimated fly richness correlated positively with fungal richness and abundance. Among the Drosophilidae species identified in this study, approximately 5% represent new occurrences for Brazil and 56% represent new species. Four genera belonging to the Zygothrica genus group are found in the Amazon region, and these genera represent 80% of the fungus-associated fauna known to date for the tropics. In conclusion, our results show that the fungal richness and abundance were the factors that determined the high diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae. <![CDATA[<em>Brachionus rotundiformis</em> Tschugunoff, 1921 from the <em>Brachionus plicatilis</em> species complex (Rotifera: Monogononta): A new record from Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100221&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The presence of the rotifer species Brachionus rotundiformis from the B. plicatilis species complex in Lake Arcturo, a saline lake in the Genovesa Island of the Galápagos Islands, is here reported. This is the first record of the species for the rotifer fauna of Ecuador as well as of the species complex to the Galápagos Islands. This finding is consistent with the idea of high dispersion capacity, and of cosmopolitan distribution of this species complex. Because Genovesa Island is uninhabited, passive transport by wind currents and zoochory by migrant birds seem to emerge as the most plausible factors in this process of colonization. Integrative studies on the morphological variations, genetic, molecular, and ecological aspects are still required to further understand the process of dispersion and the ecology of this member of the B. plicatilis species complex in this remote and isolated locality, and the exact taxonomical position of the island’s population to the other members of the complex. <![CDATA[Odonate Communities of the Sucupira Reservoir, Rio Uberabinha, Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100222&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) are widely distributed among freshwater ecosystems of tropical and temperate environments. They are also particularly sensitive to anthropogenic changes. The objective of this study was to inventory the odonate fauna of a section of the Sucupira Reservoir on Rio Uberabinha, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to document the species composition of the odonate fauna during the dry and rainy seasons. The study also aimed to describe the distribution of the sampled species in Brazilian states. Sampling took place in August and September of 2017 (dry season) and in February and March of 2018 (rainy season), and recorded 860 individuals of 43 species belonging to 26 genera and six families. Six new records representing the families Gomphidae, Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais. Seventeen species were collected only during the rainy season and eight only during the dry season, while 18 species were found in both seasons. The rainy season had greater abundance, with four times as many individuals as the dry season. This study increases the number of records for Odonata in the Minas Gerais state, and reinforces the trend for greater predominance of this group during the rainy season in this biome. <![CDATA[Identification key for the Brazilian species and subspecies of the family Ilyocryptidae (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anomopoda)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100223&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In recent years, an increase in knowledge about the diversity and biogeography of Brazilian Cladocera fauna has been evident. To keep up with these changes, it is opportune to carry out an update of the taxonomy and biogeography for the main cladoceran groups. Since 2008, some progress has been observed in Ilyocryptidae, with reports of four new taxa. In this study, an updated checklist of Ilyocryptidae from Brazil is provided, with a diagnosis for each cited taxon, as well as an identification key. Some of these taxa are considered rare; however, this issue might be an artifact of sampling. As this is the first in a series of papers compiling current information about Brazilian Cladocera, an identification key to orders and families occurring in Brazil is also provided. <![CDATA[Identification key for the Brazilian genera and species of Aloninae (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anomopoda, Chydoridae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100224&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Since early 2000 years, the knowledge about the taxonomy of Aloninae (Cladocera: Chydoridae) has been in rapid progress. For this reason, the most of Brazilian fauna was affected concerning nomenclature, besides an increase in the number of known genera and species. Thus, in this study, we bring an updated species list of Aloninae in Brazil, as well as identification keys based in current nomenclature and morphological standards. Our finding pointed to the occurrence of 46 valid species, belonging to 21 genera and three groups of Alona sensu lato. Two of these genera are endemic to Brazil. So far, South-East Asia and Brazil have the most well-studied Aloninae fauna in the entire planet. <![CDATA[Discovery of the mud shrimp genus <em>Anacalliax</em> de Saint Laurent, 1973 (Decapoda: Callianassidae) in the Brazilian coast]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100225&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Previously known only from Argentina and Uruguay, Anacalliax argentinensis is herein reported for the first time from Rio de Janeiro, representing the first occurrence of genus Anacalliax in the Brazilian coast and the northernmost record of the species in the Atlantic Ocean. Morphological variations on the third maxilliped and first pereopods are discussed based in our material. <![CDATA[What do we know about Neotropical trap-nesting bees? Synopsis about their nest biology and taxonomy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100226&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Cavity-nesting bees are enigmatic because they are difficult to observe in the wild, hence trap-nests (man-made cavities) provide the means by which these bees may be studied. Trap-nests is an efficient methodology to study these bees and are common worldwide. These traps have been used for a variety of reasons, including inventories, to examine pollen load, to study habitat disturbance, and bee conservation. However Neotropical trap-nesting bees’ taxonomy and biology are still poorly known and here we provide a review about these subjects. We searched for trap-nest bee studies in the Neotropical Region using Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science at any time in the past to December 2017. We found 109 independent studies, most of which were from Brazil (87 studies), followed by Argentina (10 studies), and other countries had fewer than five studies each. A total of 140 species, 24 genera, 10 tribes and three subfamilies were reported in trap-nests. Nest architecture was described for only 49 species. Taxonomy is only well-known for 14 genera, somewhat known for seven and is essentially unavailable for three genera. Construction material, closing plug and cell shape are similar among species in the same tribes and genera. Vestibular and intercalary cells, and the preliminary plug are variable, even at the specific level. Apinae is the most studied group with available data for all genera recorded in trap-nests. Colletinae is the least-studied group and nothing is known for their nesting biology. Megachilinae is intermediate, with some studies of taxonomy and nesting. We suggest that further trap-nest studies should provide more detailed information on nest architecture and construction materials, including explicit mention of structures that are absent. All Neotropical bees need more taxonomic studies, but some, such as Hylaeus and Megachile, require more attention since Hylaeus is essentially unknown and Megachile is very common on trap-nests. <![CDATA[Eating with the enemy? Mimic complex between a stingless bee and assassin bugs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100227&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract In this study, we record for the first time the genus Notocyrtus (Heteroptera, Reduviidae) from Argentina based on three species: Notocyrtus dorsalis (Gray), Notocyrtus dispersus Carvalho &amp; Costa, and Notocyrtus foveatus Stål. We also describe and illustrate a mimetic complex comprising the three Notocyrtus species and Tetragona clavipes (Fabricius) (Apidae, Meliponini), that were collected on Bahuinia forficata Link (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). We include biological comments on the plant-reduvid-bee interaction and hypothesize about the functionality of the mimetic complex described. <![CDATA[Distribution, threats and conservation of the White-collared Kite (<em>Leptodon forbesi,</em> Accipitridae), the most threatened raptor in the Neotropics]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0031-10492019000100228&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The White-collared Kite (Leptodon forbesi) is an endemic and threatened raptor of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Here we present the known records of the species, describe the vegetation types where it was found and show Ecological Niche Models generated using Maxent algorithm. Most of the presence data were recorded in open ombrophilous forest and seasonal semideciduous forest in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Maxent model had a good performance (AUC = 0.982 ± 0.004 SD), showing higher suitability for the species from Paraíba to Alagoas states. Maxent average model revealed a distribution range of 20,344 km² and an area of occupancy of 1,636.89 km². The most suitable areas for the species are those near watercourses and streams. We suggest the creation of protected areas, including private ones, and possible restoration actions to connect the most suitable forest fragments, along with the captive breeding, as the most appropriate strategies for the conservation of the White-collared Kite.