Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Ceres]]> vol. 66 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Bioactive compounds in edible flowers of garden pansy in response to irrigation and mycorrhizal inoculation]]> ABSTRACT Edible flowers have been increasingly used in the Brazilian gastronomy because they are considered functional foods with high antioxidant potential. Studies on the management of cultivation of edible flowers to increase the production of bioactive compounds have been developed aiming at the improvement of production systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of bioactive compounds in garden pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams ex Nauenb. &amp; Buttler) plants submitted to different levels of irrigation and mycorrhizal inoculation. The greenhouse experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in a 2x5 factorial design with the presence and absence of mycorrhizal inoculation in combination with 5 levels of water evaporation (120%, 100%, 80%, 60% and 40%) replaced by irrigation, totaling 10 treatments with 6 replicates. The contents of bioactive compounds (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and total anthocyanins) present in the flowers, collected over the reproductive period, were evaluated. There was a significant interaction between the factors mycorrhizal inoculation and irrigation levels by F test (p &lt; 0.05) for total flavonoids and anthocyanins. The best results in the production of bioactive compounds were obtained for irrigation at the 100% replenishment level of water evaporation without the presence of mycorrhizal inoculation. <![CDATA[Growth and yield parameters of white oat and wheat as affected by canola residues]]> ABSTRACT Despite being an important crop option for Brazilian agriculture, canola has some characteristics that may limit its insertion in some cropping systems, such as its allelopathic effects. Thus, the present work aimed to study the effect of canola crop residues on the seed germination, growth and grain yield of white oat and wheat plants. In laboratory conditions, white oat (Milton) and wheat (Tbio Pioneiro) seeds were germinated in the presence of aqueous extracts of (i) aboveground part, (ii) root system, (iii) whole plant and (iv) twice the concentration of the whole plant extract, besides a control. In green house conditions, the same oat and wheat cultivars were grown until harvest, on soil mixed with fresh canola crop residues (whole plant residues, aboveground residues and root residues) and a control. Aqueous extract of the whole canola plant reduced the germination and increased abnormal seedlings of white oat and wheat, mainly in high concentration. For soil crop, the presence of canola residues did not affect the white oat emergence, growth and grain yield. For wheat, plant emergence was lower in the presence of canola residues, but growth and yield were not affected. <![CDATA[Nitrogen sufficiency index for estimating nitrogen fertilizer requirement of irrigated rice]]> ABSTRACT The proper nitrogen management is required to achieve high irrigated rice yield. This study aimed to determine the rice response to nitrogen topdressing doses and calibrate the chlorophyll meter reading. Three experiments were conducted in a randomized block design. In the first experiment, five N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha-1) were evaluated as the first, and 30 kg ha-1 N as the second topdressing, which were combined with the application of 30 kg ha-1 N as the first and five N rates, as the second topdressing. The other experiments assessed the application of 30 kg ha-1 of N, as the first, and four N rates (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1), as the second topdressing. There was a response to N application, with maximum technical efficiency reaching 33 kg ha-1 in the first and between 40 and 50 kg ha-1 in the second topdressing. The chlorophyll meter was sensitive to estimate the amount of N to be applied in topdressing, using the nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI). To each percent unit of NSI below 95%, one should apply 10 kg ha-1 of N as the first and 2-3 kg ha-1 of N as the second topdressing. <![CDATA[Phenological behavior and agronomic potential of blackberry and hybrids in a subtropical region]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenological behavior and agronomic potential of blackberry varieties and hybrids in a subtropical region. Blackberry seedlings of four varieties and two hybrids were purchased in April 2015 in the form of stem cuttings and transplanting in July 2015. Winter pruning was carried out on August 18, 2016 and 2017. The experimental design was composed of a randomized complete block design, containing four varieties and two hybrids, four blocks and five useful plants per experimental unit. The harvest was performed every two days to the determination of fresh biomass, longitudinal and transverse diameter, volume, number of fruits per plant, yield and estimated productivity. The average duration of the phenological cycles in the two harvests varies between 109 and 162 days and 114 and 148, respectively. Hybrids Boysenberry and Olallie presented a shorter cycle in both harvests. In the 2016/2017 crop, the harvest lasted from 39 to 88 days. In the 2017/2018 harvest, it lasted 23 to 57 days, starting in mid-November through early January. The Tupy and Chickasaw cultivars were the most productive in the first crop. In the second crop, the Tupy and Navaho cultivars were prominent. <![CDATA[Genetic diversity in F<sub>3</sub> population of ornamental peppers (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> L.)]]> ABSTRACT Peppers belong to the Solanaceae family and present a wide genetic variability that may be accessed through phenotypic and genotypic traits. This work aimed to study the genetic divergence in an ornamental pepper F3 population by multivariate methods based on the individual and simultaneous analyses of qualitative, quantitative, and molecular data. The work was developed in the Center of Agrarian Sciences (CCA) of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Paraíba state, Brazil. 44 progenies from an F3 generation were used and the characterization of 30 qualitative traits, 16 quantitative traits, and 18 pairs of microsatellite primers was performed. Individual and simultaneous analyses of the variables were performed by using the clustering method of Ward’s algorithm. Tocher’s method was used based on distance matrixes. A non-metric multidimensional scaling was applied (nMDS) for the graphic representation of the distance matrixes in the bidimensional space. Data analysis was efficient to separate the genotypes into distinct groups. There is genetic variability among the individuals of the C. annuum F3 population, verified by individual and joint trait measurements. The three clustering methods were efficient to represent the genetic distance between individuals of ornamental pepper plants. Individuals 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, 21, 27, 29, 35, and 38 are indicated to advance generation and continue the breeding program. <![CDATA[Characterization of cultivars and low-temperature pollen grain storage in amaryllis <em>(Hippeastrum sp.)</em>]]> ABSTRACT The determination of viability and the preservation of pollen grains are useful tools for breeding of ornamentals, especially when the synchronization of flowering between species or cultivars does not occur naturally. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the flowering and to evaluate the preservation and maintenance of the viability of pollen grains in cultivars of amaryllis (Hippeastrum sp.) subjected to three storage temperatures. Anthers of five cultivars of amaryllis were collected from 12 to 24 hours after anthesis. One part of the anthers was immediately used for germination tests using in vitro germination in culture medium and the other part was stored at temperatures of 25, 8 and -20 °C. Pollen grains were germinated in culture medium at 0, 20, 75, 125, 165, 205 and 245 days after storage. All cultivars of amaryllis showed an accelerated loss of viability at 25 °C storage temperature. The 'Bull' cultivar showed higher recalcitrance to cold-storage, while 'Intokazie' and 'Pink Panther' cultivars showed higher longevity and higher percentage of germination along storage. The temperature of -20 °C resulted in the best responses for the maintenance of the integrity and preservation of the viability of pollen grains of different cultivars of amaryllis. <![CDATA[Chlorophyll content in beet cv. Early Wonder under nitrogen fertilization]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of nitrogen fertilizer in association with types of basal dressing fertilizers on the physiological characteristics of beet cultivar Early Wonder in a protected environment. The experiment was conducted in safe environment at the Federal University of Campina Grande, using a randomized block design with three replications and a 5x3 factorial scheme, in five doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg dm-3) applied through fertigation, and three types of basal dressing fertilizers (unfertilized soil, earthworm humus and earthworm humus + NPK). At 45 and 90 days after transplanting (DAT), it was determined the chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids and SPAD index. Organo-mineral fertilizer (earthworm humus + NPK) provides greater efficiency for the photosynthetic pigments when compared with organic fertilizer (earthworm humus) and without fertilization (control).The increase of nitrogen dose up to 200 mg dm-3 is the one which contributes most to the increment of chloroplastid pigments. Nutrients were absorbed by the plants and the humus and humus + NPK treatments supplied the nutritional demands during the beet cultivation cycle. <![CDATA[Silicate fertilization in non-conventional vegetables in the southern region of Minas Gerais in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Considering that the beneficial effects of silicon on human health and it´s accumulation in plants are little explored, studies of mineral nutrition in non-conventional vegetables are extremely relevant. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify non-conventional vegetables responsive to silica fertilization and evaluate the effect of fertilization on the content and accumulation of Si and macronutrients in these plants. The experiment followed a 4 x 5 factorial design, with four species of non-conventional vegetables (Rumex acetosa L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Stachys byzantina) and five doses of Si (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3). The relative chlorophyll index, the fresh and dry matter masses, the content and accumulation of Si and macronutrients were evaluated. The species A. retroflexus, S. oleraceus. and S. byzantina showed the highest contents and accumulation of Si. The application of doses above 100 mg dm-3 promoted the highest silicon content estimated for the species. The species A. retroflexus, R. acetosa and S. byzantina are non-silicon accumulators, whereas S. oleraceus is intermediate. <![CDATA[Alternative method of sowing canola hybrids using adhesive tape]]> ABSTRACT Canola, which has tiny oil-producing seeds, requires care during planting, so that there is an ideal number of plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate alternative method of sowing using adhesive tape and the influence it has on the emergence and vigor of the seedlings of different canola hybrids and define the best positioning of the adhesive tape for the formation of the experimental field. The study was carried out at the Seed Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Goiás. The tests were conducted with hybrid canola seeds (Hyola: 50, 61, 433, 571CL and 575CL). The seed characterization was performed in terms of physiological quality. They were then sown: without adhesive tape; seeds arranged on adhesive tape with the tape facing down, sideways and up, with a completely randomized experimental design, in a 5x4 factorial scheme. The evaluations were performed: emergence, speed of emergence index and first seedling emergence count in sand. The use of the adhesive tape did not interfere in the emergence of canola hybrids seedlings, with the Hyola 571CL characterized as having the best performance while the Hyola 50 and 61 had inferior performances. <![CDATA[<strong><em>Physalis angulata</em> L. propagation <em>in vitro</em></strong>]]> ABSTRACT Physalis angulata L. is a plant with great fruit production potential, mainly in family farms, due to its versatility and valuable products such as jellies and juice concentrates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of two cytokines - i.e., plant growth regulators 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) -, in association, or not, with auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid - 2.4-D), on P. angulata multiplication in vitro. The experiment followed a completely randomized design, with eighteen treatments and five repetitions, based on factorial arrangement 2 x 5 x 2. Cytokinin sources were used at concentrations: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mg L-1; in the presence (0.05 mg L-1) or absence of 2.4-D. Explants comprised nodal segments (approximately 1 cm) deriving from Physalis seed germination in vitro. Results indicate that the growth regulator KIN, at 5 mg L-1 concentration and in the absence of auxin 2.4-D, has potential to enable longer shoot length and larger number of internodes. However, the culture medium (MS) without plant growth regulators recorded higher biomass (fresh and dry weight) and increased root rate.