Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Ceres]]> vol. 66 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Intercropping of collard green and radish ‘Cometo’: spatial arrangement and growing efficiency]]> ABSTRACT Intercropping is a method of growing plants that assists in rational use of natural resources. Based on this concept, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response of collard green and radish ‘Cometo’ crops in monoculture and in intercropping under different spatial arrangements through physical production indicators (technical coefficients). The study was conducted in plant beds in a randomized block design (RBD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments involved growing the two crops separately and intercropped under different spatial arrangements: (1:2) one row of radish ‘Cometo’ between two rows of collard green; (2:2) two rows of radish ‘Cometo’ between two rows of collard green; and (3:2) three rows of radish ‘Cometo’ between two rows of collard green. The spatial arrangements adopted did not affect the growth and development of radish ‘Cometo’ and of collard green, and all the arrangements used exhibited high land use efficiency, especially the 3:2 arrangement, which provided the greatest land use efficiency, at 1.69. <![CDATA[Maturation of early-ripening mandarin as affected by scion and rootstock cultivars in western Santa Catarina, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT In Santa Catarina, Brazil, ‘Satsuma Okitsu’ and the ‘common mandarin' (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) are the widely known mandarin varieties harvested earlier than 'Ponkan'. This study analyzed and compared the maturation evolution of early maturing mandarins in two rootstocks. The experiment had as treatments combinations of the scion cultivars SCS458 Osvino, Clemenules, Satsuma Okitsu and Mexirica do Rio IAC and the rootstocks ‘Swingle’ and ‘IAC 387 Carrizo’. Fruit were sampled during ripening to evaluate soluble solids (SS), total acidity (TA), ratio (SS/TA), juice content and skin color (CIE Lab parameters and color index - CI). Treatments were compared by analysis of variance and linear and nonlinear modeling. Scions significantly affected the evaluated variables, but no rootstock effect was found. ‘SCS458 Osvino’ showed earlier ratio and, mainly, CI, but its juice content was low in part of the period. ‘Satsuma Okitsu’ and ‘Clemenules’ presented, early, higher CI and ratio ​​than ‘Mexirica do Rio IAC’. In conclusion, the cultivars SCS458 Osvino, Satsuma Okitsu and Clemenules are more precocious in maturation compared to ‘Mexirica do Rio IAC’, and the first is the most precocious in peel maturation. <![CDATA[Sowing date and fungicide application in the agronomic performance of oleaginous brassica for the biodiesel production]]> ABSTRACT This work aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of crambe and juncea canola, sowed in the summer and winter season intervals with and without fungicide application. The cultivars used were FMS Brilhante and Terola 25A85 for crambe and juncea canola, respectively. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots, in which the plots were sowing dates 15th May (E1), 1st June (E2) and 15th June 2014 (E3), and the split plots with and without treatment of the aerial part with fungicide (trifloxystrobin 150 g L-1 + prothioconazole 175 g L-1). The evaluated variables were plant height, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The sowing dates had had influence only on plant height for crambe, while juncea canola had a significant effect on plant height, seed yield and oil yield. The fungicide application gave higher seed yield for crambe and for juncea canola, higher thousand seed weight, seed yield and oil yield. With the production technologies adopted for the growth of these two brassicas, it is necessary to obtain higher yields of seeds and oil, to enable the commercial exploration in the interval between the summer and winter off-season in the Northern region of ParanĂ¡ state, Brazil. <![CDATA[Morphological characterization of <em>Coelogyne</em> spp for germplasm conservation of orchids]]> ABSTRACT Orchid is one of the ornamental plant that has a high aesthetic value. Efforts to increase the quality of orchids can be done by genetic improvement through crossing. The first step to success in orchid crossing requires information on morphological characters of the prospective parents. This study aims to determine the similarity of six species of natural Coelogyne spp based on qualitative morphological characters. Morphological characterization of 6 orchids was carried out based on 30 characters including stem, leaf, flower, pseudobulb, and rooting type. Cluster analysis was carried out with the NTSYSpc program version 2.02i with the UPGMA SimQual function method. The results showed that there were morphological diversities among the six Coelogyne spp on the character of the stem, pseudobulb, leaves, flowers and type of roots. Based on the dendrogram on 73% similarity, three major groups were obtained. The first group consisted of Coelogyne pandurata and Coelogyne rumphii, the second group was C. massangeana, C. mayeriana and C asperata, the third group was C. celebensis. Based on the morphological similarity of 87% there are two pairs of parents that have most successful chance to be crossed, C. pandurata with C. rumphii and C. mayeriana with C. asperata. <![CDATA[Selection gain and interrelations between agronomic traits in wheat F<sub>5</sub> genotypes]]> ABSTRACT This work aimed to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters, the selection gain, and the cause and effect relationships among traits in order to identify important traits for direct and indirect selection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines. Three strategies were used to obtain selection gains: direct and indirect selection, an index based on “ranks,” and the Smith and Hazel index. In the 2017 crop season in Brazil, 420 wheat lines from the F5 generation were conducted in families with intercalary controls. High heritability of spike weight, number of kernels, and total kernel weight resulted in the best direct selection gains. The selection of plants with a high number of tillers resulted in grain yield improvement. The use of selection indexes is important in advanced wheat lines; they promote genetic gains distributed among agronomic traits. <![CDATA[Efficacy and selectivity of alternative herbicides to glyphosate on maize]]> ABSTRACT The aim was to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, mesotrione and tembotrione, applied alone and associated, in post-emergence of maize. Were carried out two experiments, one in the field in a randomized complete block design with four replications and eleven treatments, the second in greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with four replications and ten treatments. The treatments were composed of isolated and associated herbicides. Treatments were applied V4 stage of plants. For first experiment, crop injury and control evaluations were performed, as well as variables related to agronomic performance (plant height, ear insertion height, prolificacy index, yield and mass of 1,000 grains) and mass of weeds. For second experiment, evaluations of crop injury, height, diameter and dry mass of plants were performed. The lower yield for experiment one was verified in the treatment where only mesotrione was applied, which was attributed to the lower control of monocotyledons weeds. Crop injury were observed at 21 DAA in both experiments, but not exceeding 7.5%. All treatments were considered selective to maize. The herbicides atrazine, nicosulfuron, mesotrione and tembotrione, at associations, were effective in the weed control, except the association atrazine + mesotrione. <![CDATA[Spatial and temporal distribution of South American fruit fly in vineyards]]> ABSTRACT The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) is one of the major insect pests of economic importance in vineyards of Southern Brazil. Understanding species behavior and knowing the moments when their population peaks occur can help producers and technicians to define management strategies. This work was carried out the spatial and temporal distribution of the A. fraterculus in two commercial vineyards of variety ‘Moscato Branco’ for two crop seasons. To evaluate the A. fraterculus distribution, we used the mass trapping system with handmade traps (transparent plastic bottles of polyethylene terephthalate - PET), baited with hydrolyzed protein CeraTrap™. The evaluations were performed every two weeks, counting the total number of adults found per trap in each vineyard. From the number of insects caught per trap, data analysis was performed using geostatistics, through semivariograms. The spatio-temporal fruit fly distribution was evaluated by thematic maps, using the inverse square distance interpolation. The semivariograms showed that most of the reviews were ‘pure nugget’ effect, indicating the absence of spatial data dependence. The spatio-temporal distribution maps allow us to assert that A. fraterculus shows invasive behavior in the vineyard, with its entry from the edges to the center, associated with the fruit ripening. <![CDATA[<strong>Tank mixture of pesticides and foliar fertilizers for <em>Triozoida limbata</em> control in guava trees (<em>Psidium guajava</em> L.)</strong>]]> ABSTRACT Although tank mixture of pesticides and foliar fertilizers is common practice in agriculture, further clarification and scientific evidence is needed to support regulation. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of tank mixing an organosilicon adjuvant and manganese foliar fertilizer on the insecticide imidacloprid effectiveness against Triozoida limbata in guava trees. The experimental plot consisted of four consecutive trees in the same row subdivided into 4 quadrants. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with split plots, with four replications. Treatments were as follows: T1 - Imidacloprid (Imid.); T2 - Imid. + Polyether-polymethyl siloxane copolymer (Sil.); T3 - Imid. + MnSO4; T4 - Imid. + Sil. + MnSO4; and T5 - Control (no application). Physical-chemical characteristics, spray deposition on the leaves and losses to the soil, guava psyllid percentage of infestation and nymph’s number were evaluated. The addition of foliar fertilizer into the mixture decreased the pH and the surface tension and increased the electric conductivity and the viscosity of the insecticide solutions. The silicon adjuvant decreased the surface tension and increased the viscosity and the pH. The tank mixture of organosilicon adjuvant and manganese foliar fertilizer has no influence on the efficacy of the insecticide. <![CDATA[Composition and mineralization of organic compost derived from composting of fruit and vegetable waste]]> ABSTRACT Fruit and vegetable waste can be used for the production of organic compost, which when mineralized can increase the availability of nitrogen. The objectives of this study were: (a) to produce compost from different ratios of fruit and vegetable waste, rice husk and poultry manure that meets the legislation on organic fertilizers and (b) to assess the mineralization of N in substrates prepared with different ratios of compost. In experiment 1, the following treatments were prepared using (fruit and vegetable residue: rice husk: poultry waste) (v:v): Treatment 1 (2:1:0), T2 (1:1:1), T3 (1.5:1:0) and T4 (1.2:1:0). All the treatments were subjected to composting for 95 days, were subjected to analysis of nutrients, organic carbon, C/N, CEC/C, pH and moisture content. The composts were compared in regards to the parameters required by legislation. In experiment 2, the treatments consisted of eight blends of agricultural peat, carbonized rice husk and organic compost pre-selected from experiment 1. The NO3 --N and NH+ 4-N contents were analyzed in the substrate at time zero and at 7, 14, 28, 56, 112 days after incubation. Compost (C2) met the parameters required by legislation and the use of 40% in the substrate composition promoted the mineralization of N. <![CDATA[Soil physical properties and soybean productivity in succession to cover crops]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to assess soybean productivity in succession to cover crops grown during the winter, in addition to assessing physical properties macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), total porosity (Pt), soil density (Sd) and aggregate stability by means of the following variables: aggregate stability index, geometric mean diameter and weighted mean diameter after soybean crop cultivation. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Quatro Pontes, PR, using a randomized-block design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of soybean crop grown on top of different cover plants’ haystack: black oat, black oat + forage turnip, forage turnip, black oat + forage pea, forage pea and control. Significant differences were observed for soil macroporosity and density. At the depth of 0.10 m, the highest Ma was observed in the area with oat and oat + turnip haystack. At other depths, all cover crops were superior to control. Treatments with cover crops were efficient in reducing soil PR. As for soil aggregation, the treatment with pea was superior to control for weighted mean diameter. The treatments with soybean sown after intercropping obtained greater mass, as well as higher productivity.