Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0036-466520170050&lang=en vol. 59 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000200&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged ≥ 60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Methods: previously vaccinated healthy persons aged ≥ 18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Results: 46 persons aged ≥ 60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Conclusions: the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear. <![CDATA[Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p &lt; 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy. <![CDATA[Attraction factors for <strong><em>Paederus fuscipes</em></strong> ' dispersal, a vector of <strong><em>Paederus</em></strong> dermatitis towards human residential premises]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000202&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Paederus fuscipes, a vector of Paederus dermatitis in most tropical and subtropical countries of the world have a high prevalence in human dwellings due to their positively phototaxic behaviour which has caused a tremendous impact on human health. In this paper, P. fuscipes dispersal flights were studied for two seasons of the rice cultivation phases in residential premises built close to rice field areas (≈32-60 m and 164 m) in mainland Penang, Malaysia. We examined the effects of different light illuminance, building floor level and their association with rice stages as a focal cause of P. fuscipes dispersion from the rice fields towards human dwellings. The present study showed a significant interaction between different light illuminances and rice cultivation phases in attracting P. fuscipes to disperse and invade human dwellings. The highest number of P. fuscipes was captured near the bright light. P. fuscipes flights increased in line with each floor level, and the highest captures took place at higher building floor levels (levels 2 and 3) compared to lower building floor levels (ground floor and level 1) of a three storey apartment in both rice seasons. This finding not only conveys a better understanding on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern, but also draws public attention on the occurrence of dermatitis linearis caused by the Paederus beetles. <![CDATA[Clinical and laboratory features of HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis from the Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Clinical and laboratory parameters including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin were investigated in human-T-lymphotropic-virus-type-I associated-myelopathy/tropical-spastic-paraparesis-HAM/TSP and in HTLV-I carriers. HAM/TSP (n = 11, 2 males/9 females, median age = 48 years), recently diagnosed HTLV-I carriers (n = 21, 15 females/6 males, median age = 44 years), healthy individuals (n = 20, 10 males/10 females, median age = 34.6 years) from the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Amazonas State) were investigated. Neopterin was measured (IBL ELISA Neopterin, Germany) in serum samples of all the participants, in CSF of 9 HAM/TSP patients as well as in 6 carriers. In HAM/TSP patients, CSF cell counts, protein and glucose were measured, the Osame’s motor-disability-score/OMDS was determined, and brain/spinal cord magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) was performed. HAM/TSP patients had normal CSF glucose, leukocyte counts; and normal protein levels predominated. Brain-MRI showed white-matter lesions in 7 out of 11 HAM/TSP patients. OMDS varied from 2-8: 9 were able to walk, 2 were wheel-chair-users. The median serum neopterin concentration in HAM/TSP patients was 6.6 nmol/ L; min. 2.8- max. 12.5 nmol/ L); was lower in carriers (4.3 nmol/L; min. 2.7- max. 7.2 nmol/ L) as well as in healthy participants (4.7 nmol/ L; min. 2.7- max. 8.0 nmol/ L) (p &lt; 0.05). CSF neopterin concentrations in HAM/TSP patients were higher than in serum samples, and higher compared to carriers (p &lt; 0.05). Carriers had similar serum-CSF neopterin concentrations compared to healthy participants. Variable clinical and laboratory profiles were seen in HAM/TSP patients, however our results support the neopterin measurement as a potential biomarker of disease activity. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> efficacy of latex and purified papain from <em>Carica papaya</em> against <em>Strongyloides venezuelensis</em> eggs and larvae]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000204&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. <![CDATA[Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazolidine derivatives as candidates to schistosomicidal agents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Introduction: Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, which threatens at least 258 million people worldwide and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Schistosoma mansoni activity in vitro of novel imidazolidine derivatives. Material and methods: We synthesized two novel imidazolidine derivatives: (LPSF/PTS10) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-5-thioxoimidazolidin-2-one and (LPSF/PTS23) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-benzyl)-5-thioxo-4-(2,4,6-trimethoxy-benzylidene)-imidazolidin-2-one. The structures of two compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. During the biological assays, parameters such as motility, oviposition, mortality and analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy were performed. Results: LPSF/PTS10 and LPSF/PTS23 were considered to be active in the separation of coupled pairs, mortality and to decrease the motor activity. In addition, LPSF/PTS23 induced ultrastructural alterations in worms, after 24 h of contact, causing extensive erosion over the entire body of the worms. Conclusion: The imidazolidine derivatives containing the trimetoxy and benzylidene halogens showed promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity. <![CDATA[Genetic variability of populations of <em>Nyssomyia neivai</em> in the <em>Northern State of Paraná</em>, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000206&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. <![CDATA[Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000207&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism. <![CDATA[The epidemiology of cryptococcosis and the characterization of <em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em> isolated in a Brazilian University Hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000208&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C. neoformans isolated from 2004 to 2013. We evaluated 41 patients, 85% of whom were diagnosed with AIDS. The fungus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients (51%); 19.5% had fungemia and in 24% the agent was isolated from the CSF and blood, concurrently. Meningoencephalitis was the most frequent (75%) manifestation of infection. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality of the disease was 58.5%. Most isolates (97.5%) presented the VNI genotype (serotype A, var. grubii) and one isolate was genotyped as C. gattii (VGI); all the isolates were determined as mating type MATa and showed susceptibility to the tested antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine). Although AIDS detection rates remain stable, opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis remain as major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients. <![CDATA[Phenotypic and genotypic detection of <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>Candida dubliniensis</em> strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000209&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species. <![CDATA[Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail <strong><em>Achatina fulica</em></strong> Bowdich, 1822]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000210&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. <![CDATA[Short and long term evaluation of the efficiency of PermaNet<sup>®</sup> 2.0 bed net against environmental factors and washing using bioassay tests]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000211&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years. In the first phase of this study, the insecticidal effect of the conventionally-treated nets significantly decreased due to repeated washings (P &lt; 0.001); however, it was not significant regarding PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets (P = 0.92 in continuous exposure and P = 0.12 in mortality tests). In the long-term phase of this study, the time required for knockdown of PermaNet® 2.0 increased over the first 2 years and then decreased. In addition, the mortality rate decreased over the first 2 years and then increased. In conclusion, it seems that the technique used by the manufacturer for impregnation of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets has an acceptable efficiency in comparison with conventional techniques. <![CDATA[Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding lymphatic filariasis: study on systematic noncompliance with mass drug administration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000212&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting lymphatic filariasis, in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioenvironmental demographics, perceptions of lymphatic filariasis and MDA, and reasons for systematic noncompliance with treatment. A rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) was performed during the survey to screen for filariasis. It was found that the survey subjects knew about filariasis and MDA. Filariasis was identified as a disease (86.2%) and 74.4% associated it with the presence of swelling in the legs. About 80% knew about MDA, and the main source of information was healthcare workers (68.3%). For men the main reasons for systematic noncompliance with MDA were that “the individual had not received the medication” (p=0.03) and for women “the individual either feared experiencing adverse reactions”. According to the ICT, the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis was 2%. The most important causes of systematic noncompliance were not receiving the drug and fear of side-effects. For successful implementation of MDA programs, good planning, educational campaigns promoting the benefits of MDA, adoption of measures to minimize the impact of adverse effects and improvement of drug distribution logistics are needed. <![CDATA[Hemostatic disorders induced by skin contact with <em>Lonomia obliqua</em> (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) caterpillars]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000213&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Patients envenomed by Lonomia sp caterpillars initially experience a mild burning pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin and mucosal hemorrhages. Some patients can rapidly progress to a severe coagulopathy that presents as visceral or intracerebral hemorrhaging. We studied the hemostatic alterations that occurred in 14 patients who were envenomed by Lonomia obliqua in Southern Brazil and presented at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo (Passo Fundo, RS), Brazil during the summers of 1993 and 1994 when Lonomia antivenom was not yet available for treatment. The patients were classified into to 4 clinical groups: 0 (two patients), I (eight patients), II (two patients), and III (two patients). The patients were admitted to the hospital between 4 hours and five days after contact with the caterpillars. In this study, the coagulation parameters of the patients were followed up for up to 172 hours after the accidents. The patients received no treatment with the exceptions of two patients who received blood transfusions and antifibrinolytic treatment. The observed abnormalities related to blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were similar regardless of the severity of the bleeding symptoms. These findings suggest that alterations in hemostatic parameters without thrombocytopenia are not predictors of the seriousness of such accidents. Thus, consumptive disorder and reactive fibrinolysis are not proportional to mild coagulopathy. Furthermore, these patients recovered. The hemostatic parameters of most of the patients normalized between 96 and 120 h after the accident. <![CDATA[Complications of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: review of published case reports]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000300&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), a form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), affects immunocompetent or mildly immunocompromised persons with underlying pulmonary disease. These conditions are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often require long-term antifungal treatment. The long-term prognosis for patients with CNPA and the potential complications of CNPA have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to review published papers that report cases of CNPA complications and to highlight risk factors for development of CNPA. The complications in conjunction associated with CNPA are as follows: pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheobronchial aspergillosis, ankylosing spondylarthritis, pulmonary silicosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, superinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and and pneumothorax. The diagnosis of CNPA is still a challenge. Culture and histologic examinations of bronchoscopically identified tracheobronchial mucus plugs and necrotic material should be performed in all immunocompromised individuals, even when the radiographic findings are unchanged. Early detection of intraluminal growth of Aspergillus and prompt antifungal therapy may facilitate the management of these patients and prevent development of complications. <![CDATA[Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000400&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL) or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML. <![CDATA[First reported case of fulminant TB with progression of infection from lungs to the genitourinary region]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000401&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Although tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it continues to be one of the leading infections associated with death in the world. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) occurs in approximately 10% of the total cases, presenting with lymph nodes, pleura, bone and genitourinary tract as the most common locations. Genitourinary tuberculosis, the second most common EPTB, is very difficult to diagnose unless there is a high index of suspicion. Isolated TB orchitis or prostatitis without clinical evidence of renal involvement is a rare entity among genitourinary tuberculosis. We presented the first reported case of TB prostatitis and orchitis associated with pulmonary TB and the presence of an acute massive caseous pneumonia in an immunocompetent man. Despite the anti-TB therapy, the patient presented a rapid progression of disease and deterioration of general conditions taking to death, which occurred four days after TB treatment had started. Disseminated TB is a relatively uncommon cause of acute massive caseous pneumonia; however, there should always be suspicion of the disease, since it is a potentially treatable cause. This rare case supports the assertion that TB should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of genitourinary tumors irrespective of evidence of active TB elsewhere in the body. <![CDATA[An unusual abdominal wall mass in a child]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000402&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Abdominal tumors are one of the most common types of pediatric cancer. Therefore, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. Here, we present the case of a child whose initial hypothesis of diagnosis contemplated this possibility. Later, it was demonstrated that the abdominal mass found was secondary to a common parasitosis. A 2-year old, moderately malnourished and pale white boy was referred with a history of a rapidly growing, well-limited, middle abdominal mass. The mass was 10 by 3 cm, hard and poorly movable, apparently involving both abdominal rectus muscles. A complete resection was performed, revealing an abdominal wall abscess, with intense eosinophilic proliferation, secondary to a local and intense reaction to innumerous Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Extra luminal infestations with Ascaris, that usually form peritoneal granulomas have been previously described. However, neither external trauma nor fistula, that could explain the superficial presence of the eggs, was found. This description reinforces the relevance of infectious diseases within the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, particularly in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infestations. <![CDATA[<strong><em>Leptomonas seymouri</em></strong> and <strong><em>Crithidia fasciculata</em></strong> exoantigens can discriminate human cases of visceral leishmaniasis from American tegumentary leishmaniasis ones]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000500&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Exoantigens (exo) from Leptomonas seymouri and Crithidia fasciculata were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing 100% reactivity with sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, and no reactivity with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) ones. Our results have indicated that these exoantigens can be applied in the discrimination of VL and ATL cases. <![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1)PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São <em>Paulo State</em> , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season. <![CDATA[A novel case of human visceral leishmaniasis from the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro: autochthonous or imported from Spain ?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000600&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season. <![CDATA[Perspectives on the Zika outbreak: herd immunity, antibody-dependent enhancement and vaccine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000601&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season. <![CDATA[<em>Guillain-Barré</em> syndrome and dengue-like disease in 2015: temporal relationship in <em>Piauí</em> state and implications on Zika virus surveillance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000602&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season. <![CDATA[What to expect from the 2017 yellow fever outbreak in Brazil?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000603&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.