Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0036-466520170050&lang=pt vol. 59 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000200&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged ≥ 60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Methods: previously vaccinated healthy persons aged ≥ 18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Results: 46 persons aged ≥ 60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. Conclusions: the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear. <![CDATA[Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000201&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p &lt; 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy. <![CDATA[Attraction factors for <strong><em>Paederus fuscipes</em></strong> ' dispersal, a vector of <strong><em>Paederus</em></strong> dermatitis towards human residential premises]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000202&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Paederus fuscipes, a vector of Paederus dermatitis in most tropical and subtropical countries of the world have a high prevalence in human dwellings due to their positively phototaxic behaviour which has caused a tremendous impact on human health. In this paper, P. fuscipes dispersal flights were studied for two seasons of the rice cultivation phases in residential premises built close to rice field areas (≈32-60 m and 164 m) in mainland Penang, Malaysia. We examined the effects of different light illuminance, building floor level and their association with rice stages as a focal cause of P. fuscipes dispersion from the rice fields towards human dwellings. The present study showed a significant interaction between different light illuminances and rice cultivation phases in attracting P. fuscipes to disperse and invade human dwellings. The highest number of P. fuscipes was captured near the bright light. P. fuscipes flights increased in line with each floor level, and the highest captures took place at higher building floor levels (levels 2 and 3) compared to lower building floor levels (ground floor and level 1) of a three storey apartment in both rice seasons. This finding not only conveys a better understanding on P. fuscipes dispersal pattern, but also draws public attention on the occurrence of dermatitis linearis caused by the Paederus beetles. <![CDATA[Clinical and laboratory features of HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis from the Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000203&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Clinical and laboratory parameters including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin were investigated in human-T-lymphotropic-virus-type-I associated-myelopathy/tropical-spastic-paraparesis-HAM/TSP and in HTLV-I carriers. HAM/TSP (n = 11, 2 males/9 females, median age = 48 years), recently diagnosed HTLV-I carriers (n = 21, 15 females/6 males, median age = 44 years), healthy individuals (n = 20, 10 males/10 females, median age = 34.6 years) from the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Amazonas State) were investigated. Neopterin was measured (IBL ELISA Neopterin, Germany) in serum samples of all the participants, in CSF of 9 HAM/TSP patients as well as in 6 carriers. In HAM/TSP patients, CSF cell counts, protein and glucose were measured, the Osame’s motor-disability-score/OMDS was determined, and brain/spinal cord magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) was performed. HAM/TSP patients had normal CSF glucose, leukocyte counts; and normal protein levels predominated. Brain-MRI showed white-matter lesions in 7 out of 11 HAM/TSP patients. OMDS varied from 2-8: 9 were able to walk, 2 were wheel-chair-users. The median serum neopterin concentration in HAM/TSP patients was 6.6 nmol/ L; min. 2.8- max. 12.5 nmol/ L); was lower in carriers (4.3 nmol/L; min. 2.7- max. 7.2 nmol/ L) as well as in healthy participants (4.7 nmol/ L; min. 2.7- max. 8.0 nmol/ L) (p &lt; 0.05). CSF neopterin concentrations in HAM/TSP patients were higher than in serum samples, and higher compared to carriers (p &lt; 0.05). Carriers had similar serum-CSF neopterin concentrations compared to healthy participants. Variable clinical and laboratory profiles were seen in HAM/TSP patients, however our results support the neopterin measurement as a potential biomarker of disease activity. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> efficacy of latex and purified papain from <em>Carica papaya</em> against <em>Strongyloides venezuelensis</em> eggs and larvae]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000204&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. <![CDATA[Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazolidine derivatives as candidates to schistosomicidal agents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000205&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Introduction: Schistosomiasis is an infectious parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, which threatens at least 258 million people worldwide and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Schistosoma mansoni activity in vitro of novel imidazolidine derivatives. Material and methods: We synthesized two novel imidazolidine derivatives: (LPSF/PTS10) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-4-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-5-thioxoimidazolidin-2-one and (LPSF/PTS23) (Z)-1-(2-chloro-6-fluoro-benzyl)-5-thioxo-4-(2,4,6-trimethoxy-benzylidene)-imidazolidin-2-one. The structures of two compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. During the biological assays, parameters such as motility, oviposition, mortality and analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy were performed. Results: LPSF/PTS10 and LPSF/PTS23 were considered to be active in the separation of coupled pairs, mortality and to decrease the motor activity. In addition, LPSF/PTS23 induced ultrastructural alterations in worms, after 24 h of contact, causing extensive erosion over the entire body of the worms. Conclusion: The imidazolidine derivatives containing the trimetoxy and benzylidene halogens showed promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity. <![CDATA[Genetic variability of populations of <em>Nyssomyia neivai</em> in the <em>Northern State of Paraná</em>, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000206&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. <![CDATA[Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in an endemic area of forest extractivist culture in western Brazilian Amazonia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000207&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism. <![CDATA[The epidemiology of cryptococcosis and the characterization of <em>Cryptococcus neoformans</em> isolated in a Brazilian University Hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000208&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C. neoformans isolated from 2004 to 2013. We evaluated 41 patients, 85% of whom were diagnosed with AIDS. The fungus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients (51%); 19.5% had fungemia and in 24% the agent was isolated from the CSF and blood, concurrently. Meningoencephalitis was the most frequent (75%) manifestation of infection. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality of the disease was 58.5%. Most isolates (97.5%) presented the VNI genotype (serotype A, var. grubii) and one isolate was genotyped as C. gattii (VGI); all the isolates were determined as mating type MATa and showed susceptibility to the tested antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine). Although AIDS detection rates remain stable, opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis remain as major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients. <![CDATA[Phenotypic and genotypic detection of <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>Candida dubliniensis</em> strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000209&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species. <![CDATA[Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail <strong><em>Achatina fulica</em></strong> Bowdich, 1822]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000210&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. <![CDATA[Short and long term evaluation of the efficiency of PermaNet<sup>®</sup> 2.0 bed net against environmental factors and washing using bioassay tests]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000211&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the resistance of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets against repeated washing and environmental factors by using bioassay tests. After 5, 15 and 21 washings with detergents and by using bioassay tests, the resistance of 40 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets was compared with that of 40 bed nets conventionally treated with one K-O tablet. To examine the long-term resistance, 31 PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets were also distributed among villagers, and were re-collected to perform bioassay tests after 1, 2 and 5 years. In the first phase of this study, the insecticidal effect of the conventionally-treated nets significantly decreased due to repeated washings (P &lt; 0.001); however, it was not significant regarding PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets (P = 0.92 in continuous exposure and P = 0.12 in mortality tests). In the long-term phase of this study, the time required for knockdown of PermaNet® 2.0 increased over the first 2 years and then decreased. In addition, the mortality rate decreased over the first 2 years and then increased. In conclusion, it seems that the technique used by the manufacturer for impregnation of PermaNet® 2.0 bed nets has an acceptable efficiency in comparison with conventional techniques. <![CDATA[Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding lymphatic filariasis: study on systematic noncompliance with mass drug administration]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000212&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting lymphatic filariasis, in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioenvironmental demographics, perceptions of lymphatic filariasis and MDA, and reasons for systematic noncompliance with treatment. A rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) was performed during the survey to screen for filariasis. It was found that the survey subjects knew about filariasis and MDA. Filariasis was identified as a disease (86.2%) and 74.4% associated it with the presence of swelling in the legs. About 80% knew about MDA, and the main source of information was healthcare workers (68.3%). For men the main reasons for systematic noncompliance with MDA were that “the individual had not received the medication” (p=0.03) and for women “the individual either feared experiencing adverse reactions”. According to the ICT, the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis was 2%. The most important causes of systematic noncompliance were not receiving the drug and fear of side-effects. For successful implementation of MDA programs, good planning, educational campaigns promoting the benefits of MDA, adoption of measures to minimize the impact of adverse effects and improvement of drug distribution logistics are needed. <![CDATA[Hemostatic disorders induced by skin contact with <em>Lonomia obliqua</em> (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) caterpillars]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000213&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Patients envenomed by Lonomia sp caterpillars initially experience a mild burning pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin and mucosal hemorrhages. Some patients can rapidly progress to a severe coagulopathy that presents as visceral or intracerebral hemorrhaging. We studied the hemostatic alterations that occurred in 14 patients who were envenomed by Lonomia obliqua in Southern Brazil and presented at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo (Passo Fundo, RS), Brazil during the summers of 1993 and 1994 when Lonomia antivenom was not yet available for treatment. The patients were classified into to 4 clinical groups: 0 (two patients), I (eight patients), II (two patients), and III (two patients). The patients were admitted to the hospital between 4 hours and five days after contact with the caterpillars. In this study, the coagulation parameters of the patients were followed up for up to 172 hours after the accidents. The patients received no treatment with the exceptions of two patients who received blood transfusions and antifibrinolytic treatment. The observed abnormalities related to blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were similar regardless of the severity of the bleeding symptoms. These findings suggest that alterations in hemostatic parameters without thrombocytopenia are not predictors of the seriousness of such accidents. Thus, consumptive disorder and reactive fibrinolysis are not proportional to mild coagulopathy. Furthermore, these patients recovered. The hemostatic parameters of most of the patients normalized between 96 and 120 h after the accident. <![CDATA[Entomological survey in the state of <em>Piauí</em>, Northeastern Brazil, reveals intradomiciliary colonization of <em>Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000214&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This survey aimed to assess the presence of triatomine vectors of Chagas disease within the rural communities of São João do Piauí, Northeast Brazil. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary collection strategies were implemented wherein 279 specimens of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma, both nymph and adult were found in 15 (50%) of the studied homes. Of the intradomiciliary insects, 73 (67.6%) were identified as nymph instars (1st instar [N1]= 6, N2= 14, N3= 28, N4= 7 and N5= 18). In the studied communities, a continuous interaction between triatomine bugs and humans could be shown. It is therefore urgent that suitable strategies for the control of the triatomine vector are implemented in this area. <![CDATA[Association of outcomes with comprehension, adherence and behavioral characteristics of tuberculosis patients using fixed-dose combination therapy in Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000215&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the association of outcomes with comprehension, adherence and behavioral characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients using fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy in the city of Contagem, MG, Brazil. This study used standardized questionnaires to collect data. Outcomes included cure in 77.2% (64/ 83), noncompliance with treatment in 20.4% (17/ 83), and absence of organ failure or death cases. The rate of adherence to treatment was high (71.1% - 59/ 83), while the level of comprehension of the treatment was insufficient for the majority of patients (72.3% - 60/ 83). When a greater number of medicines was used, the chance of noncompliance with treatment increased exponentially (p = 0.00 - OR 1.72). Light-skinned black patients, alcoholics and those who live with HIV/ AIDS showed a significant association with noncompliance with treatment (p=0.039 - OR 3.38, p=0.002 - OR 4.68, and p=0.001 - OR 9.68, respectively). Comprehension also presented a significant association with noncompliance with treatment (p=0.01 and OR 5.76 and CI 1.49-22.29). The probability of noncompliance with treatment in the first few months was greater than in the subsequent months. This study demonstrates that if the TB patients had a better understanding of the treatment, the outcome would have been more favorable as regards a proper cure. <![CDATA[Oral Candida spp carriage and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000216&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis. <![CDATA[Immune development in HIV-exposed uninfected children born to HIV-infected women]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000217&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls. By contrast, plasma MIP-1β levels were lower in HEU than in controls (p=0.009) at 12 months, and IL-4 levels were higher in HEU than controls (p=0.04) at 6-12 years. Immune activation was higher in HEU at 12 months and at 6-12 years than controls based on frequencies of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (p=0.05) and of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells (p=0.006). Resting memory and activated mature B cells increased from birth to 6-12 years in both groups. The development of the immune system in vertically HEU individuals is comparable to the general population in most parameters, but subtle or transient differences exist. Their role in influencing clinical incidences in HEU is unknown. <![CDATA[Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000218&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Background Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women’s care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child’s life. Methods This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary – prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. Results The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women’s guidance. Conclusion The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention. <![CDATA[Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis: a cross-sectional clinical, epidemiological and laboratory study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000219&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Background Atypical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis include sporotrichoid leishmaniasis (SL), which is clinically described as a primary ulcer combined with lymphangitis and nodules and/or ulcerated lesions along its pathway. Aims To assess the differences between patients with sporotrichoid leishmaniasis and typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods From January 2004 to December 2010, 23 cases of SL (4.7%) were detected among 494 CL patients diagnosed at a reference center for the disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. These 23 cases were compared with the remaining 471 patients presenting CL. Results SL predominated in female patients (60.9%, p = 0.024), with older age (p = 0.032) and with lesions in upper limbs (52.2%, p = 0.028). CL affected more men (64.5%), at younger age, and with a higher number of lesions exclusively in lower limbs (34.8%). Conclusions Differences in clinical and epidemiological presentation were found between SL patients as compared to CL ones, in a region with a known predominance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The results are similar to the features of most of the sporotrichosis patients as described in literature, making the differential diagnosis between ATL and sporotrichosis more important in overlapping areas for both diseases, like in Rio de Janeiro State. <![CDATA[Efficiency of noninvasive sampling methods (swab) together with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for diagnosing American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000220&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Traditional diagnostic methods used to detect American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis, such as histopathology using biopsy samples, culture techniques, and direct search for parasites, have low sensitivity and require invasive collection procedures. This study evaluates the efficiency of noninvasive sampling methods (swab) along with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for diagnosing American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis using skin and mucous samples from 25 patients who had tested positive for leishmaniasis. The outcome of the tests performance on swab samples was compatible with PCR results on biopsy samples. The findings have also shown that PCR-kDNA test is more efficient than PCR-HSP70 and qPCR tests (sensitivity of 92.3%, 40.7%, and 41%, respectively). Given the high sensitivity of the tests and the fact that the sampling method using swabs affords greater patient comfort and safety, it could be said that this method is a promising alternative to conventional biopsy-based methods for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[The performance of serological tests for <em>Leishmania infantum</em> infection screening in dogs depends on the prevalence of the disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000221&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum. This protozoan causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an uncontrolled urban zoonosis in Brazil. Serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood were performed to identify infected dogs in scenarios of higher and lower prevalence of the disease (Teresina and Vitória). One-hundred infected and 57 non-infected animals from Teresina and 100 non-infected animals from Vitória were studied. Animal selection was not dependent on previous serology. The sensitivity (Teresina) and specificity (Teresina and Vitória) were as follows: indirect antibody fluorescence (IFAT) cut-off of 1:40 (IFAT 1:40): 96%, 18%, and 76%; IFAT 1:80: 90%, 33%, and 93%; direct agglutination test (DAT): 96%, 33%, and 98%; fast agglutination screening test (FAST): 93%, 68%, and 100%; immunochromatographic assay with a recombinant rK39 antigen (rK39): 88%, 74%, and 98%; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): 91%, 79%, and 98%; rapid dual-path platform test (TR DPP®): 98%, 60%, and 98%; and blood PCR: 29%, 93%, and 97%, respectively. In the high transmission area, none of the tests adequately discriminated L. infantum-infected from non-infected dogs. However, in the high transmission city, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of FAST, DAT, ICrK39, ELISA and TR DPP® was high. <![CDATA[Complications of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: review of published case reports]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000300&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), a form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), affects immunocompetent or mildly immunocompromised persons with underlying pulmonary disease. These conditions are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often require long-term antifungal treatment. The long-term prognosis for patients with CNPA and the potential complications of CNPA have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to review published papers that report cases of CNPA complications and to highlight risk factors for development of CNPA. The complications in conjunction associated with CNPA are as follows: pseudomembranous necrotizing tracheobronchial aspergillosis, ankylosing spondylarthritis, pulmonary silicosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, superinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and and pneumothorax. The diagnosis of CNPA is still a challenge. Culture and histologic examinations of bronchoscopically identified tracheobronchial mucus plugs and necrotic material should be performed in all immunocompromised individuals, even when the radiographic findings are unchanged. Early detection of intraluminal growth of Aspergillus and prompt antifungal therapy may facilitate the management of these patients and prevent development of complications. <![CDATA[Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings – a review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000301&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach. <![CDATA[Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000302&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk. <![CDATA[Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000400&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL) or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML. <![CDATA[First reported case of fulminant TB with progression of infection from lungs to the genitourinary region]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000401&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Although tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it continues to be one of the leading infections associated with death in the world. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) occurs in approximately 10% of the total cases, presenting with lymph nodes, pleura, bone and genitourinary tract as the most common locations. Genitourinary tuberculosis, the second most common EPTB, is very difficult to diagnose unless there is a high index of suspicion. Isolated TB orchitis or prostatitis without clinical evidence of renal involvement is a rare entity among genitourinary tuberculosis. We presented the first reported case of TB prostatitis and orchitis associated with pulmonary TB and the presence of an acute massive caseous pneumonia in an immunocompetent man. Despite the anti-TB therapy, the patient presented a rapid progression of disease and deterioration of general conditions taking to death, which occurred four days after TB treatment had started. Disseminated TB is a relatively uncommon cause of acute massive caseous pneumonia; however, there should always be suspicion of the disease, since it is a potentially treatable cause. This rare case supports the assertion that TB should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of genitourinary tumors irrespective of evidence of active TB elsewhere in the body. <![CDATA[An unusual abdominal wall mass in a child]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000402&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Abdominal tumors are one of the most common types of pediatric cancer. Therefore, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. Here, we present the case of a child whose initial hypothesis of diagnosis contemplated this possibility. Later, it was demonstrated that the abdominal mass found was secondary to a common parasitosis. A 2-year old, moderately malnourished and pale white boy was referred with a history of a rapidly growing, well-limited, middle abdominal mass. The mass was 10 by 3 cm, hard and poorly movable, apparently involving both abdominal rectus muscles. A complete resection was performed, revealing an abdominal wall abscess, with intense eosinophilic proliferation, secondary to a local and intense reaction to innumerous Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Extra luminal infestations with Ascaris, that usually form peritoneal granulomas have been previously described. However, neither external trauma nor fistula, that could explain the superficial presence of the eggs, was found. This description reinforces the relevance of infectious diseases within the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, particularly in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infestations. <![CDATA[Fatal Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGI infection in an HIV-positive patient in Barranquilla, Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000403&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture. <![CDATA[Myiasis associated with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast: case study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000404&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Most breast cancers originate in the ductal epithelium and are referred to as invasive ductal carcinoma. In this study we report on the clinical procedures adopted to diagnose myiasis in association with infiltrating metastatic breast carcinoma in a female patient. A 41 years old woman came to the Federal Hospital of Andaraí complaining of intense itching, warmth, redness and hardening of the breast, which had acquired the aspect of an orange peel. A lesion in the left breast was cavitated, dimpled, had fetid odor, and had fibrotic and infected air nodules filled with exudate and Dipteran larvae. The tissue was cleaned and 33 larvae were extracted. The patient was hospitalized and received Ivermectin. Eighteen of the larvae extracted from the patient were placed in 70% alcohol, and twelve were placed in a container with sterile wood shavings under controlled conditions until they metamorphosed into adults. The taxonomic identification of the flies revealed that the culprit was Cochliomyia hominivorax. A histopathological exam conducted three months earlier had revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Two months after the myiasis treatment, the breast tissue had healed. The patient had waited ten days from the onset of the myiasis to seek treatment, and that delay interfered negatively in the prognosis of both the neoplasm and the myiasis. This study is relevant to public health in view of the strong social impact of myiasis. <![CDATA[Sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions in chronic adult paracoccidioidomycosis: report of two cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000405&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study reports two cases of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions. The patients began the treatment in 2013 at Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The first case (mild form) was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg /kg per day, orally) for three months and, then, with half the dose for nine months; the second (moderate form), with itraconazole (200 mg per day, orally) for 12 months. We point out the rareness of the sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions and the differential diagnoses for other granulomatous diseases. <![CDATA[Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000406&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The authors report a case of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, in a 55 years old patient with 1,119 lesions distributed throughout the body. The patient resides in Sabáudia municipality, North of Paraná State, Southern Brazil, where there was no previous report of this form of leishmaniasis. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate was successful, although the diagnosis was made only five months later. <![CDATA[<strong><em>Leptomonas seymouri</em></strong> and <strong><em>Crithidia fasciculata</em></strong> exoantigens can discriminate human cases of visceral leishmaniasis from American tegumentary leishmaniasis ones]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000500&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Exoantigens (exo) from Leptomonas seymouri and Crithidia fasciculata were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showing 100% reactivity with sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, and no reactivity with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) ones. Our results have indicated that these exoantigens can be applied in the discrimination of VL and ATL cases. <![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1)PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São <em>Paulo State</em> , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000501&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season. <![CDATA[Presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae in the water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000502&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. <![CDATA[A novel case of human visceral leishmaniasis from the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro: autochthonous or imported from Spain ?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000600&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. <![CDATA[Perspectives on the Zika outbreak: herd immunity, antibody-dependent enhancement and vaccine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000601&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. <![CDATA[<em>Guillain-Barré</em> syndrome and dengue-like disease in 2015: temporal relationship in <em>Piauí</em> state and implications on Zika virus surveillance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000602&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. <![CDATA[What to expect from the 2017 yellow fever outbreak in Brazil?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000603&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. <![CDATA[Bacteremia caused by <em>Elizabethkingia meningoseptica</em> in a mechanically ventilated patient successfully treated with imipenem-cilastatin and ciprofloxacin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46652017005000604&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population.