Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0037-868220140001&lang=en vol. 47 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Cancer and parasitic infections: similarities and opportunities for the development of new control tools]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Diagnosing schistosomiasis: where are we?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included. Publications were categorized according to the methodology applied (parasitological, immunological, or molecular) and stage of development (in house development, limited field, or large scale field testing). The initial research generated 4,535 publications, of which only 643 met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority (537) of the publications focused on immunological techniques; 81 focused on parasitological diagnosis, and 25 focused on molecular diagnostic methods. Regarding the stage of development, 307 papers referred to in-house development, 202 referred to limited field tests, and 134 referred to large scale field testing. The data obtained show that promising new diagnostic tools, especially for Schistosoma antigen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, which are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, are being developed. In combination with international funding initiatives these tools may result in a significant step forward in successful disease elimination and surveillance, which is to make efficient tests accessible and its large use self-sustainable for control programs in endemic countries. <![CDATA[Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) in blood donors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA) were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany), the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA) and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA) genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102) were positive, 57.8% (59/102) were negative and 3.9% (4/102) were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102) of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43), negative in 9.3% (4/43) and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43) of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23), 3 (17.4%, 4/23) and 2 (4.3%, 1/23). All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL). Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14) were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10) of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10) were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA. <![CDATA[Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: The collection of recyclable waste materials is a widespread activity among the urban poor. Today, this occupation attracts an increasingly large number of individuals. Despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is associated with unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a population of recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil. Methods: Recyclable waste collectors from all 15 recycling cooperatives in Goiânia City were invited to participate in the study. The participants (n = 431) were interviewed and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HBsAg- and anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and genotyped. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive) was 12.8%. An age over 40 years and illicit drug use were associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected in 2/3 HBsAg-positive samples and in 1/52 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative samples (an occult HBV infection rate of 1.9%), in which the genotypes/subgenotypes A/A1, D/D3 and F/F2 were identified. Only 12.3% of the recyclable waste collectors had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination. Conclusions: These findings highlight the vulnerability of recyclable waste collectors to HBV infection and reinforce the importance of public health policies that address the health and safety of this socially vulnerable population. <![CDATA[Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients), PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients), PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM) and the timed up and go test (TUG) were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP. <![CDATA[Prevalence and factors associated with lipodystrophy in AIDS patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: The published literature shows an increased occurrence of adverse events, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome, that are associated with the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with lipodystrophy in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 2012 and February 2013. The sample consisted of patients with AIDS who attended the Outpatient Treatment Center for Infectious Diseases at Nereu Ramos Hospital, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We collected information on demographics, lifestyle, HIV infection, and clinical aspects of the disease. Self-reported signs of lipodystrophy and body measurements were used for lipodystrophy diagnosis. Results: We studied 74 patients (mean age 44.3±9.2 years; 60.8% men). Among the patients, 45.9% were smokers, 31.1% consumed alcoholic beverages, and 55.4% were sedentary. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%, and sedentary subjects had a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy compared with physically active individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%. Physical activity was considered an independent protective factor against the onset of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. <![CDATA[HIV/AIDS-related visceral leishmaniasis: a clinical and epidemiological description of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study aimed to describe the main features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), both related to and independent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in patients who were registered in Tocantins, Brazil. Methods: Data from 1,779 new patients with VL, 33 of whom were also infected with HIV, were reviewed. Results: The incidence of VL/HIV coinfection increased from 0.32/100,000 inhabitants in 2007 to 1.08/100,000 inhabitants in 2010. VL occurred predominantly in children aged 10 years or younger, while VL/HIV was more common in patients aged between 18 and 50 years. There were more male patients in the VL/HIV group than in the VL group. Relapse rates were also considerably higher in the VL/HIV (9.1%) group than in the VL group (1.5%). Despite a similar clinical presentation, VL/HIV patients exhibited a higher proportion (24.2%) of concomitant infectious diseases and jaundice. Pentavalent antimonials were used for the initial treatment of VL and VL/HIV infections. However, amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B were also widely used in the treatment of VL/HIV coinfection. The mortality rate was higher in the VL/HIV coinfection group (19.4%) than in the VL group (5.4%). Furthermore, the mortality rate due to other causes was significantly higher in the VL/HIV group (12.9%) than in the VL group (0.7%). Conclusions: The study showed that the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes among the VL and VL/HIV patients in this state are similar to those from other endemic regions, indicating that both infections are emerging with increasing frequency in Brazil. <![CDATA[Risk factors associated with hantavirosis fatality: a regional analysis from a case-control study in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: In Brazil, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a high lethality rate that varies by region. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with fatal hantavirosis. Methods: This study was a case-control study that included all laboratory confirmed cases of hantavirosis. The cases were stratified by the different Brazilian regions using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. “Cases” were patients who progressed to death, whereas “controls” were patients who were cured. The odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted OR were calculated. Results: Overall, 158 cases and 281 controls were included in this study. In the Midwest region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with flank pain, and the time between the beginning of symptoms and death was shorter than the time between the beginning of symptoms and a cure. In the Southeast region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with thrombocytopenia or reside in rural areas compared to those who progressed to a cure. Additionally, the cases sought medical assistance, notification and investigation more quickly than the controls. In the Southern region, the cases that died were 70% less likely to be male compared to the controls. Conclusions: HCPS manifests with nonspecific symptoms, and there are few published studies related to the condition, so determining a patient's therapeutic strategy is difficult. This study presents findings from different Brazilian regions and highlights the need for further investigations to improve comprehension about regional risk factors associated with hantavirosis and to reduce morbimortality. <![CDATA[Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil and a comparison of microscopy with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of infections with <italic>Entamoeba</italic> sp.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100052&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Epidemiological studies on amebiasis have been reassessed since Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar were first recognized as distinct species. Because the morphological similarity of these species renders microscopic diagnosis unreliable, additional tools are required to discriminate between Entamoeba species. The objectives of our study were to compare microscopy with ELISA kit (IVD®) results, to diagnose E. histolytica infection, and to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in a sample of students from southeastern Brazil. Methods: In this study, diagnosis was based on microscopy due to its capacity for revealing potential cysts/trophozoites and on two commercial kits for antigen detection in stool samples. Results: For 1,403 samples collected from students aged 6 to 14 years who were living in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, microscopy underestimated the number of individuals infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.7% prevalence) compared with the ELISA kit (IVD®)-based diagnoses (15.7% for E. histolytica/E. dispar). A comparison of the ELISA (IVD®) and light microscopy results returned a 20% sensitivity, 97% specificity, low positive predictive value, and high negative predictive value for microscopy. An ELISA kit (TechLab®) that was specific for E. histolytica detected a 3.1% (43/1403) prevalence for E. histolytica infection. Conclusions: The ELISA kit (IVD®) can be used as an alternative screening tool. The high prevalence of E. histolytica infection detected in this study warrants the implementation of actions directed toward health promotion and preventive measures. <![CDATA[Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100057&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity) can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major), suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major) were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[Paracoccidioidomycosis in a western Brazilian Amazon State: Clinical-epidemiologic profile and spatial distribution of the disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100063&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PCM is considered one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Methods: This is a clinical, epidemiological, retrospective, quantitative study of PCM cases in patients attending the National Health Service in the State of Rondônia in 1997-2012. The examined variables included sex, age group, year of diagnosis, education level, profession, place of residence, diagnostic test, prior treatment, medication used, comorbidities and case progress. Results: During the study period, 2,163 PCM cases were registered in Rondônia, and the mean annual incidence was 9.4/100,000 people. The municipalities with the highest rates were located in the southeastern region of Rondônia, and the towns of Pimenteiras do Oeste and Espigão do Oeste had the highest rates in the state, which were 39.1/100,000 and 37.4/100,000 people, respectively. Among all cases, 90.2% and 9.8% were observed in men and women, respectively, and most cases (58.2%) were observed in patients aged between 40 and 59 years. Itraconazole was used to treat 91.6% (1,771) of cases, followed by sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim (4.4% [85] of cases). One hundred thirty-one (6%) patients died. Conclusions: The State of Rondônia has a high incidence of PCM, and the municipalities in the southeastern region of the state were found to have the highest incidence rates of this disease. Our findings suggest that Rondônia is the state in the northern region with the highest mortality rate for PCM. <![CDATA[Diversity and dynamics of airborne fungi in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100069&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study aimed to identify airborne fungi in São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil, to determine the prevalent genera and to correlate these genera with the area and season. Methods: In total, 1,510 colony-forming units (CFUs) of airborne fungi were isolated from the north, south, east and west sides and from the center of the city from January to December 2007. The samples were collected on Petri dishes that were exposed to the fungi by the gravitational method. Results: Twenty genera of fungi were isolated; the most common were Aspergillus (33.5%), Penicillium (18.8%), Cladosporium (14.2%), Curvularia (10.6%) and Fusarium (7.6%). The CFUs of the fungi were statistically significant (p &lt; 0.0001). Fungal biological diversity was present all year, without any large seasonal variations but with slight increases in May, August and September. Conclusions: The fungal genera identified in this study were correlated with natural systems and could be useful when evaluating the impact of environmental changes on the region. <![CDATA[Eco-epidemiologic study of emerging fungi related to the work of babaçu coconut breakers in the State of Maranhão, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100074&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: There are more than 300,000 extractors using the babaçu coconut as a source of income in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins and Piauí, and this activity is associated with fungal infections. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of emergent fungi in the conjunctiva, nails and surface and subcutaneous injuries of female coconut breakers in Esperantinópolis, Maranhão. Additionally, soil samples and palm structures were collected. Methods: The obtained samples were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar and chloramphenicol. The etiological agent was confirmed by a direct mycological exam and growth in culture. Results: In total, 150 domiciles were visited, and samples were collected from 80 patients. From the ground, the most frequently isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger (53. 8%). the most frequently detected fungus in babaçu coconut was Aspergillus niger (66.7%). Conjunctival fungal growth occurred in 76.3% of the women. The ocular fungal microbiota consisted of filamentous fungi (80.6%), and yeasts were present in 19.4% of cases. Onychomycosis was diagnosed in 44% (11/25) of the women. Conclusions: The identification of the genera Neosartorya, Rhizopus and Curvularia in onychomycoses shows that emergent filamentous fungi can be isolated. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Scedosporium sp. were the predominant genera found in the babaçu coconut. From ocular conjunctiva, Candida spp. were the most prevalent species isolated, and Fusarium sp. was present only in one woman. The nearly permanent exposure of coconut breakers to the external environment and to the soil is most likely the reason for the existence of a mycotic flora and fungal infections, varying according to the individual's practices and occupation. <![CDATA[Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100079&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. This paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species), which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1%) from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study. <![CDATA[Acute kidney injury in a tropical country: a cohort study of 253 patients in an infectious diseases intensive care unit]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and potentially fatal complication in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of AKI associated with infectious diseases and the factors associated with mortality. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with AKI who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary infectious diseases hospital from January 2003 to January 2012. The major underlying diseases and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 253 cases were included. The mean age was 46±16 years, and 72% of the patients were male. The main diseases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (30%), tuberculosis (12%), leptospirosis (11%) and dengue (4%). Dialysis was performed in 70 cases (27.6%). The patients were classified as risk (4.4%), injury (63.6%) or failure (32%). The time between AKI diagnosis and dialysis was 3.6±4.7 days. Oliguria was observed in 112 cases (45.7%). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (57±20, p-value=0.01) and dengue (68±11, p-value=0.01). Death occurred in 159 cases (62.8%). Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (76.6%, p-value=0.02). A multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for death: oliguria, metabolic acidosis, sepsis, hypovolemia, the need for vasoactive drugs, the need for mechanical ventilation and the APACHE II score. Conclusions: AKI is a common complication in infectious diseases, with high mortality. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS, most likely due to the severity of immunosuppression and opportunistic diseases. <![CDATA[Association between histological findings, aminotransferase levels and viral genotype in chronic hepatitis C infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100090&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: The genomic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) influences liver disorders. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes and to investigate the influence of these genotypes on disease progression. Methods: Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected from HCV-seropositive patients for serological analysis, biochemical marker measurements, HCV genotyping and histopathological evaluation. Results: Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was detected in 107 patients (90.6% with genotype 1 and 9.4% with genotype 3). Patients infected with genotype 1 exhibited higher mean necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. Conclusions: HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent and was associated with greater liver dysfunction. <![CDATA[Late diagnosis and HIV infection in children attending a service of specialized care for pediatric AIDS in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100093&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study describes the frequency of late diagnosis and HIV among children attending a pediatric AIDS clinic. Methods: Cross-sectional study in children exposed to HIV from 2005-2008. A questionnaire was given that included questions on demographics and clinical information. Results: Two-hundred twenty-one (97.8%) children were exposed to HIV during pregnancy/childbirth. A total of 193 (87.3%) children had late enrolment in the service and late access to HIV serology. The frequency of HIV was 21.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.9%-26.7%). Protective factors were earlier diagnosis [odds ratio (OR)=0.17 (0.08-0.37)] and receiving complete prophylaxis [OR=0.29 (0.09-0.97)]; being born by vaginal delivery was a risk factor [OR=4.45 (1.47-13.47)]. Conclusions: There was a high frequency of late diagnosis in this patient cohort. Earlier diagnosis is an important measure for controlling HIV among children. <![CDATA[First inventory of the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100097&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study aimed to inventory the phlebotomine sandfly fauna present in the urban area of Juiz de Fora, with an emphasis on the genus Lutzomyia. Methods: Capture was performed from March to September 2012, using HP light traps placed at peridomestic sites, in a municipal kennel and a forest biome. Results: A total of 133 specimens were captured, representing eight species of the genus Lutzomyia. Lutzomyia pascalei was the most prevalent species. Conclusions: This research provides an inventory and description of the spatial locations of the phlebotomine sandfly fauna of Juiz de Fora. <![CDATA[Frequency of amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitoses in a settlement in Ilhéus City, State of Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study evaluated the frequency of intestinal parasites, emphasizing the identification and differentiation of Entamoeba spp. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), coproantigen tests and morphometric analysis were performed for Entamoeba spp. differentiation. Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasites was 65%. Entamoeba histolytica was detected by the coproantigen test, and the PCR showed that Entamoeba dispar predominated in the population. In contrast, morphometric analysis was important for identifying Entamoeba hartmanni. Conclusions: It is possible to identify the causative agent of amoebiasis and to differentiate this agent from other species by combining techniques. <![CDATA[Serological cross-reactivity of <italic>Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum</italic> and <italic>Babesia canis</italic> to <italic>Leishmania infantum chagasi</italic> tests in dogs]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42.1%) tested positive using one of the three serological methods: 10/57 (17.5%) for ELISA, 11/57 (19.3%) for IFAT and 3/57 (5.3%) for Kalazar Detect™. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the presence of other infectious agents may lead to cross-reactivity on leishmaniasis serological tests. <![CDATA[Detection of antibodies against <italic>Leishmania infantum</italic> in cats (<italic>Felis catus</italic>) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: Little information is available concerning infection by Leishmania infantum in cats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a serological study in domestic cats. Methods: Serum samples (n=153) obtained from animals living in the Cities of Recife and Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were tested by ELISA/S7® (Biogene). Results: Anti-L. infantum antibodies were detected in 3.9% (6/153) of the cats. All seroreagent animals were from Petrolina. Conclusions: These results serve as an important alert, and future studies are needed to better understand the possible role of cats in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in this area. <![CDATA[In vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline against Plasmodium falciparum culture-adapted reference strains and clinical isolates from the Brazilian Amazon]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100110&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: We evaluated the in vitro antimalarial activity of tigecycline as an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. Methods: A chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference strain, a chloroquine-resistant reference strain, and three clinical isolates were tested for in vitro susceptibility to tigecycline. A histidine-rich protein in vitro assay was used to evaluate antimalarial activity. Results: The geometric-mean 50% effective concentration (EC50%) of tigecycline was 535.5 nM (confidence interval (CI): 344.3-726.8). No significant correlation was found between the EC50% of tigecycline and that of any other tested antimalarial drug. Conclusions: Tigecycline may represent an alternative drug for the treatment of patients with severe malaria. <![CDATA[<italic>Mansonella ozzardi</italic> (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300). Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions. <![CDATA[Ludwig's angina after severe thrombocytopenic purpura associated with dengue fever]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100116&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Here, we report a case of Ludwig's angina, which required surgery because of toothache. The patient had dengue and severe thrombocytopenia as confirmed by clinical and laboratory diagnoses. However, dengue is not included among the predisposing factors for Ludwig's angina. <![CDATA[<italic>Mycobacterium fortuitum</italic>-related lymphadenitis associated with the varicella-zoster virus]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100119&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lymphadenitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an uncommon manifestation in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in a previously healthy 9-year-old patient who developed cervical lymphadenitis evolving to a suppurative ulcer associated with a varicella-zoster virus infection. We discuss the relationship between the varicella-zoster virus and the immune response of the host as an explanation for the unusual progression of the case. <![CDATA[Fever of undetermined origin in a patient with pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA syndrome)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100122&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lymphadenitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an uncommon manifestation in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in a previously healthy 9-year-old patient who developed cervical lymphadenitis evolving to a suppurative ulcer associated with a varicella-zoster virus infection. We discuss the relationship between the varicella-zoster virus and the immune response of the host as an explanation for the unusual progression of the case. <![CDATA[The present situation, challenges, and perspectives regarding the production and utilization of effective drugs against human Chagas disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000100123&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lymphadenitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an uncommon manifestation in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in a previously healthy 9-year-old patient who developed cervical lymphadenitis evolving to a suppurative ulcer associated with a varicella-zoster virus infection. We discuss the relationship between the varicella-zoster virus and the immune response of the host as an explanation for the unusual progression of the case.