Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0037-868220150002&lang=en vol. 48 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Challenges for improving quality of life in Chagas disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200117&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Health-related quality of life in patients with Chagas disease: a review of the evidence]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200121&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Chagas disease (ChD), a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), remains a serious public health issue in Latin America and is an emerging disease in several non-endemic countries, where knowledge of the condition and experience with its clinical management are limited. Regionally, the disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is common in patients with ChD, especially in those with Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy, the most severe manifestation of the disease, which frequently leads to heart failure. The aim of this review was to conduct a literature search for studies that have evaluated the determining factors of HRQoL in ChD patients. We included cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, and experimental studies, as well as clinical trials that evaluated the HRQoL in ChD patients aged 18 to 60 years and are presenting an explicit description of statistical analysis. Using a combination of keywords based on Descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for searches in PubMed and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), 148 studies were found. After exclusions, 12 studies were selected for analysis. Three main findings were extracted from these studies: 1) cardiac involvement is associated with a worse HRQoL in ChD patients; 2) HRQoL is associated with the patients' functional capacity; and 3) simple and inexpensive therapeutic measures are effective for improving HRQoL in ChD patients. Hence, ChD patients' functional capacity, the effectiveness of non-surgical conservative treatment, and cardiac involvement are important determining factors for the HRQoL in ChD patients. <![CDATA[The effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and deaths presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea in Brazilian children: a quasi-experimental study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200129&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main etiologic agent of acute infectious diarrhea in children worldwide. Considering that a rotavirus vaccine (G1P8, strain RIX4414) was added to the Brazilian vaccination schedule in 2006, we aimed to study its effectiveness and safety regarding intestinal intussusception. METHODS: A quasi-experimental trial was performed in which the primary outcome was the number of hospitalizations that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea per 100,000 children at risk (0-4 years old). The secondary outcomes included mortality due to acute infectious diarrhea and the intestinal intussusception rates in children in the same age range. We analyzed three scenarios: Health Division XIII of the State of São Paulo (DRS XIII) from 2002 to 2008, the State of São Paulo, and Brazil from 2002 to 2012. RESULTS: The averages of the hospitalization rates for 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods were 1,413 and 959, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.67), 312 and 249, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.79), and 718 and 576, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.8). The mortality rate per 100,000 children in the pre- and post-vaccination periods was 2.0 and 1.3, respectively, for DRS XIII (RR=0.66), 5.5 and 2.5, respectively, for the State of São Paulo (RR=0.47), and 15.0 and 8.0, respectively, for Brazil (RR=0.53). The average annual rates of intussusception for 100,000 children in DRS XIII were 28.0 and 22.0 (RR=0.77) in the pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was demonstrated to be effective in preventing the hospitalizations and deaths of children that were presumably due to acute infectious diarrhea, without increasing the risk of intestinal intussusception. <![CDATA[<em>Toll-like receptor 3</em> gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200136&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the prevalence of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Samples collected from HCV (n = 74) and HBV (n = 35) carriers were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect the presence of the SNPs rs5743305 and rs3775291 in TLR3 and to measure the following biomarkers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and prothrombin time (PT). A healthy control group was investigated and consisted of 299 HCV- and HBV-seronegative individuals. RESULTS: No significant differences in allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were observed between the investigated groups, and no association was observed between the polymorphisms and histopathological results. Nevertheless, genotypes TA/AA (rs5743305) and GG (rs3775291) appear to be associated with higher levels of ALT (p&lt;0.01), AST (p&lt;0.05) and PT (p&lt;0.05). In addition, genotypes TT (rs5743305; p&lt;0.05) and GG (rs3775291; p&lt;0.05) were associated with higher GGT levels. CONCLUSIONS: This genetic analysis revealed the absence of an association between the polymorphisms investigated and susceptibility to HBV and HCV infection; however, these polymorphisms might be associated with a greater degree of biliary damage during the course of HCV infection. <![CDATA[Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (<em>Alouatta</em> spp., <em>Callithrix</em> spp., <em>Sapajus</em> spp.) in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200143&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected. <![CDATA[Opportunistic infections among individuals with HIV-1/AIDS in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era at a Quaternary Level Care <em>Teaching Hospital</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200149&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION : In this study, clinical-laboratory and epidemiological characteristics are described for a group of 700 individuals with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the ART (antiretroviral therapy) era at a teaching hospital that provides a quaternary level of care, with an emphasis on opportunistic infections (OIs), co-infections and immune profile. METHODS : A retrospective cross-sectional study of AIDS cases was conducted from 1998 to 2008 by reviewing medical records from the Base Hospital/FUNFARME (Fundação Faculdade Regional de Medicina), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The individuals were 14 to 75 years of age, and 458 were males. Heterosexuals accounted for 31.1% of all patients. Eighty-three percent were on ART, and 33.8% of those presented difficulties with treatment adherence. OIs were analyzed from medical records, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was the most prevalent, regardless of the LTCD4+ (TCD4+ Lymphocytes) levels. Individuals whose viral loads were ≥10,000 showed a 90% greater chance of neurotoxoplasmosis. For P. jiroveci pneumonia, neurotoxoplasmosis, esophageal candidiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis and neurocryptococcosis, the chances of infection were higher among patients with LTCD4+ levels below 200 cells/mm3. HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infections were significantly associated with death. CONCLUSIONS : OIs remain frequent in the ART era even in populations where the access to medical care is considered satisfactory. <![CDATA[Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of <em>Triatoma infestans</em> Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to deltamethrin pyrethroid]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200157&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte) and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso). Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph) determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance. <![CDATA[Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase types in a Brazilian tertiary hospital]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200162&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological data on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are scarce in Brazil despite the fact that these data are essential for empirical treatment and control measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different ESBLs by type and distribution in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated 1,827 enterobacterial isolates between August 2003 and March 2008 isolated from patients at a tertiary hospital. Samples were identified using a Vitek automated system and were confirmed by biochemical testing. The identified ESBL strains were characterized by phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing. Genetic similarities were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: It was 390 (21.3%) ESBL-producing strains, which expressed the ESBLs CTX-M (292), SHV (84), CTX and SHV (10), TEM (2), and PER (2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ESBL-expressing strains was high, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. CTX-M was the predominant type of ESBL observed, and its genetic variability indicates a polyclonal distribution. <![CDATA[<em>Chlamydia trachomatis</em> serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200170&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai) to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja) with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s. <![CDATA[Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200175&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA) and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD) patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5) years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2) years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48%) than in the control group (23.7%) during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease. <![CDATA[Spatiotemporal analysis of reported cases of acute Chagas disease in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2002 to 2013]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200181&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Control strategies to eliminate the transmission of Chagas disease by insect vectors have significantly decreased the number of reported acute cases in Brazil. However, data regarding the incidence and distribution of acute Chagas disease cases in the State of Pernambuco are unavailable in the literature. METHODS: A geographical information system was used to delineate the spatiotemporal distribution profile of the cases from 2002 to 2013 in 185 municipalities of Pernambuco based on the municipality where notification occurred. The results were presented in digital maps generated by the TerraView software (INPE). RESULTS: A total of 302 cases of acute disease were recorded in 37.8% of the municipalities, for a total of 0.13 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year. Out of the 302 cases, 99.3% were reported between 2002 and 2006. The most affected municipalities were Carnaubeira da Penha, Mirandiba and Terra Nova. The risk maps showed a significant decrease in the number of notifications and a concentration of cases in the Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a significant decrease in new cases of acute Chagas disease in Pernambuco starting in 2006 when Brazil received an international certification for the interruption of vectorial transmission by Triatoma infestans. However, control strategies should still be encouraged because other triatomine species can also transmit the parasite; moreover, other transmission modes must not be neglected. <![CDATA[Comparison of recombinant A2-ELISA with rKE16 dipstick and direct agglutination tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in Northwestern Iran]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200188&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Various methods are used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), such as microscopic examination, culture and inoculation of laboratory animals; however, serological assays are commonly used for the detection of antibodies in serum samples with a wide range of specificity and sensitivity. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to compare three serological methods, including rA2-ELISA, the recombinant KE16 (rKE16) dipstick test and the direct agglutination test (DAT), for the detection of antibodies against VL antigens. The assays utilized 350 statistically based random serum samples from domestic dogs with clinical symptoms as well as samples from asymptomatic and healthy dogs from rural and urban areas of the Meshkinshahr district, northwestern Iran. RESULTS: Samples were assessed, and the following positive rates were obtained: 11.5% by rKE16, 26.9% by DAT and 49.8% by ELISA. The sensitivity among symptomatic dogs was 32.4% with rKE16, 100% with DAT and 52.9% with ELISA. Conversely, rA2-ELISA was less specific for asymptomatic dogs, at 46.5%, compared with DAT, at 88.9%. CONCLUSIONS : This study recommends rA2-ELISA as a parallel assay combined with DAT to detect VL infection among dogs. Further evaluations should be performed to develop an inexpensive and reliable serologic test for the detection of Leishmania infantum among infected dogs. <![CDATA[The stigma and prejudice of leprosy: influence on the human condition]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200194&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: To analyze the knowledge, feelings and perceptions involving patients affected by leprosy, as a better understanding of these factors may be useful to decrease the stigma and prejudice associated with the condition. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 94 patients who underwent treatment for leprosy at the Health Units in the City of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. The study questionnaire included items to collect information on socio-demographic data, knowledge about the disease, stigma, prejudice, self-esteem and quality of life of leprosy patients. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the data based on the chi-square test with a 5% significance threshold. RESULTS: The results revealed that the study population consisted predominantly of males (55.3%) with an income between 1 and 3 times the minimum wage (67%). The survey respondents reported that the most significant difficulties related to the treatment were the side effects (44.7%) and the duration of the treatment (28.7%). A total of 72.3% of the subjects were knowledgeable about the disease, of whom 26.6% had the leprosy reaction. Stigma and prejudice were cited by 93.6% of the participants. Based on the responses, 40.4% of patients reported being depressed and sad, and 69.1% of the subjects encountered problems at work after being diagnosed. A total of 45.7% of the patients rated their quality of life between bad and very bad. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that leprosy causes suffering in patients beyond pain and discomfort and greatly influences social participation. <![CDATA[Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a tool for analysis of the effect of physical therapy on spasticity in HAM/TSP patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200202&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate spasticity in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients before and after physical therapy using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). METHODS: Nine subjects underwent physical therapy. Spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale. The obtained scores were converted into ICF body functions scores. RESULTS: The majority of subjects had a high degree of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles. According to the ICF codes, the spasticity decreased after 20 sessions of physical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The ICF was effective in evaluating spasticity in HAM/TSP patients. <![CDATA[The use of saliva as a practical and feasible alternative to urine in large-scale screening for congenital cytomegalovirus infection increasesinclusion and detection rates]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200206&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Although urine is considered the gold-standard material for the detection of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, it can be difficult to obtain in newborns. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of detection of congenital CMV infection in saliva and urine samples. METHODS: One thousand newborns were included in the study. Congenital cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Saliva samples were obtained from all the newborns, whereas urine collection was successful in only 333 cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the use of saliva alone or saliva and urine collected simultaneously for the detection of CMV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva samples can be used in large-scale neonatal screening for CMV infection. <![CDATA[A rapid and simple method to detect ESBL in <em>Enterobacter</em> <em>cloacae</em> based on MIC of cefepime]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200208&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify a rapid and simple phenotypic method for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) detection in Enterobacter cloacae. METHODS: A total of 79 consecutive, non-repeated samples of E. cloacae were evaluated. Four phenotypic methods were applied for ESBL detection, results were compared to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard reference method: 1) ceftazidime and cefotaxime disks with and without clavulanate, both with boronic acid added; 2) disk approximation using cefepime and amoxicillin/clavulanate; 3) ESBL screening by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 16µg/mL and 4) by MIC ≥ 2µg/mL for cefepime. RESULTS: Method 4 showed the best combination of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (94%). CONCLUSIONS: MIC ≥ 2µg/mL for cefepime would be very useful for the phenotypic detection of ESBL in samples of E. cloacae. <![CDATA[Production of metallo-β-lactamase among <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>strains isolated in the State of Sergipe, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200212&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Acquired production of metallo-β-lactamases is an important mechanism of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of metallo-β-lactamase and the genetic diversity among ceftazidime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Metallo-β-lactamase was investigated using the disk approximation test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genetic diversity was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: A total of 48 (51.6%) isolates were resistant to ceftazidime. Six (12.2%) of these were positive for metallo-β-lactamase production. Only two (4.1%) of the ceftazidime-resistant isolates carried the bla SPM-1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Production of metallo-β-lactamases was not the main mechanism of resistance to ceftazidime and carbapenems among P. aeruginosa strains in Sergipe, Brazil. <![CDATA[Congenital and maternal syphilis in the capital of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200216&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: ​This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of congenital and maternal syphilis in the Brazilian Federal District in 2010. ​ METHODS: ​A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on the basis of the cases recorded in the System of Notifiable Disease Information. RESULTS: ​The study population comprised 133 cases of congenital syphilis; of these, 116 (52.6%) mothers received prenatal care, and 70 (60.4%) were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy. Only 1 mother was adequately treated, and 100 (75.2%) of the pregnant women's partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis. ​ CONCLUSIONS: Although mothers attended prenatal care, not all were diagnosed during pregnancy or received adequate treatment for syphilis, as their partners did not undergo treatment for syphilis. <![CDATA[Occurrence of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> spp., <em>Giardia</em> spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200220&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, &amp; Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites. <![CDATA[An atypical <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> genotype in a rural Brazilian dog co-infected with <em>Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200224&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis are two worldwide zoonoses caused by the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp., respectively. This report describes the clinical and laboratorial findings of a co-infection with both parasites in a 4-year-old female dog suspected of ehrlichiosis that presented anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, tachyzoite-like structures to the lung imprints, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results positive for T. gondii (kidney, lung, and liver) and Leishmania spp. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania braziliensis was confirmed by sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) confirmed an atypical T. gondii genotype circulating in dogs that has been reported to cause human congenital toxoplasmosis. <![CDATA[Surgical treatment of type I neuritis in a teenage boy with borderline tuberculoid leprosy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200228&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Exacerbation of the immune response against Mycobacterium leprae can lead to neuritis, which is commonly treated via immunosuppression with corticosteroids. Early neurolysis may be performed concurrently, especially in young patients with a risk of functional sequelae. We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function. <![CDATA[Maculopapular rash and Koplik's spots in adult measles]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822015000200231&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Exacerbation of the immune response against Mycobacterium leprae can lead to neuritis, which is commonly treated via immunosuppression with corticosteroids. Early neurolysis may be performed concurrently, especially in young patients with a risk of functional sequelae. We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function.