Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 51 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Has the threat of Zika virus outbreaks come to an end?]]> <![CDATA[Zika virus: - a review of the main aspects of this type of arbovirosis]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to integrate findings related to Zika virus from the scientific literature. An integrative review of Medline was conducted, and data search was performed using the Health Sciences Descriptor Zika virus and the following filters: full texts available; studies in humans; full articles; and publications in Portuguese, French, English, and Spanish. After application of the filters, followed by reading of the titles, abstracts, and full texts, 44 studies were included in the review, for which content analysis was performed. A large part of the literature comprised review articles (84%; N=37); the majority was in English (95%, N=42). In 2016, 84% (N=37) of our sample articles was published, while in 2017, 16% (N=7) was published. The main form of viral transmission was thorough the mosquito Aedes aegypti (N=30). In addition, sexual transmission (N=09), transmission through blood transfusion (N=16), vertical transmission (N=21) and transmission from occupational activities (N=03) occurred. It was possible to diagnose the disease by testing blood (N=22), urine (N=14), saliva (N=06), semen/sperm (N=03), cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, and other tissues (N=02). Symptomatology occurred in 1-5 people (N=10) between 3 and 7 days after a mosquito bite (N=09). Complications observed were Guillain Barré syndrome (N=27); neurological Zika syndrome (N=27); meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and myelitis (N=07); deaths and/or newborns (N=03). The review provides scientific evidence that contributes to the care, planning and implementation of public policies. <![CDATA[Prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase-encoding genes among carbapenem-resistant <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> strains isolated from burn patients in Iran]]> Abstract Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) has been considered a major cause of infection and mortality in burn patients, especially in developing countries such as Iran. One of the most common mechanisms of carbapenem resistance is production of metallo-β-lactamases [(MBLs), including Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase (IMP), São Paulo metalo-beta-lactamase (SPM), German imipenemase (GIM), New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), Dutch imipenemase (DIM), Adelaide imipenemase (AIM), Seoul imipenemase (SIM), KHM, Serratia metallo-β-lactamase (SMB), Tripoli metallo-β-lactamase (TMB), and Florence imipenemase (FIM)]. Limited information is available on the prevalence of CRPA and MBLs in Iranian burn units. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases, including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Database. Of 586 articles published from January 2000 to December 2016, 14 studies reporting the incidence of CRPA and MBLs as detected by molecular methods in burn patients were included in this review. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of CRPA, IMP, and VIM was 76.8% (95% CI 67.5-84.1), 13.1% (95% CI 4.7-31.5), and 21.4% (95% CI 14.6-30.1), respectively, in Iranian burn centers and remaining MBLs types have not yet been detected. There was a high prevalence of MBLs and CRPA in Iranian burn centers. Therefore, these measurements should be applied nationally and rigorous infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship will be the major pillars to control multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as CRPA. <![CDATA[Evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness and cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 treatment-naive patients]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Mortality among HIV patients is 3-15 times higher than that among the general population. Currently, most deaths are due to non-infectious diseases. Chronic inflammation and adverse events due to antiretroviral therapy play crucial roles in increasing cardiovascular risk (CVR). METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inflammatory biomarkers (D-dimer, ADAMTS13, GDF-15, sICAM-1, MPO, myoglobin, NGAL, SAA, sVCAM-1, and p-selectin) among naïve patients. RESULTS: Sixty-seven participants were included: median age, 32 years; males, 82.1%; non-white, 61.1%; higher education level, 62.7%; and exposed to HIV through sexual relationship (men who have sex with men), 68.7%. The median viral load and LTCD4+ value were 42,033 copies/mL and 426 cells/mm³. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was 16.4%; those of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were 3% and 70.1%, respectively. The CIMT was 494.08 (± 96.84mm). The mean vascular age was 33.2 ± 18.9 years, one year longer than the chronological age, without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS The majority of participants had a low CVR (94%). After reclassification, considering the CIMT percentiles, 13 (19.4%) patients had medium/ high CVR, while 54 (80.6%) patients had low CVR. The difference between the proportions of CVR when considering the CIMT and its corresponding percentile was statistically relevant. Body mass index was the only predictor of higher CVR (p = 0.03). No biomarker was found to predict CVR. People living with HIV have a high prevalence of dyslipidemia before ARV therapy. <![CDATA[Variation in temephos resistance in field populations of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) in the State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION The organophosphate temephos was first used in Brazil in the 1960s for the control of Aedes aegypti. Because of its extensive and longstanding use worldwide, selection for mosquito populations resistant to the chemical has been observed not only in different regions of Brazil but also in several parts of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the organophosphate temephos, a larvicide used in vector control activities in Sergipe/Northeast Brazil. METHODS This study included mosquito populations from seven municipalities of Sergipe and was carried out from October 2010 to August 2011. Qualitative bioassays of diagnostic dose and dose responses were performed. The resistance ratio was calculated based on lethal concentrations for mosquitoes of the susceptible Rockefeller strain. RESULTS: All populations were classified as resistant to temephos. The resistance ratio ranged from 22.2 to 297.9, the lowest being seen in Aracaju, a coastal area of the state, and the highest in Pinhão, a semi-arid region, 96.6km from Aracaju. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of temephos resistance were observed in the Ae. aegypti populations of Sergipe. The variation between regions indicates that there have been different regimes of insecticide use and also points to the potential of small cities to generate and spread insecticide resistance. <![CDATA[Larvicidal effect of <em>Clinopodium macrostemum</em> essential oil extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation against <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> (Diptera: Culicidae)]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method. <![CDATA[Field evaluation of sticky BR-OVT traps to collect culicids eggs and adult mosquitoes inside houses]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Culex quinquefasciatus is a mosquito of importance to public health, as it represents a real and/or potential risk for the transmission of pathogens to humans, such as some arthropod-borne viruses and nematodes that cause filariasis. In Brazil, three municipalities in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) that are endemic for lymphatic filariasis conducted control actions targeting this vector. With the goal of contributing novel C. quinquefasciatus collection strategies, a sticky trap capable of collecting eggs and imprisoning mosquitoes was investigated. METHODS: To evaluate the performance of the sticky BR-OVT trap, tests were carried out in the neighborhoods of Caixa d’Água and Passarinho (Olinda-PE-Brasil) between August 2011 and June 2012. Sixty traps were installed in the indoor areas of residences in the two districts. RESULTS: During the 11-month study, 0.52 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.52] Culex egg rafts, 2.16 (SD = 4.78) C. quinquefasciatus/trap/month, and 0.55 (SD = 1.28) Aedes/trap/month were caught. Female specimens predominated the traps (59% of C. quinquefasciatus and 96% of Aedes spp.). CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrated that the sticky BR-OVT trap is a useful tool for the collection of adult culicids of medical importance and offers an innovative way to collect C. quinquefasciatus eggs and adults in a single trap. <![CDATA[Occurrence of the <em>vanA</em> gene in <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> from nasopharyngeal secretion of Health-Care Workers, Recife, Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increasing reports of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus strains (VRS) haves caused concern worldwide, from the laboratory detection to patient management. This study aimed to identify the occurrence of VRS strains among healthcare professionals from a university hospital. METHODS: A total of 102 Staphylococcus sp. isolates from healthcare professionals, obtained in a previous study were evaluated according to standard techniques for VRS detection. RESULTS: After screening inoculation of plates containing 6µg/ml of vancomycin, 19 resistant isolates were identified. The susceptibility profile to other antimicrobials revealed 18 multidrug resistant isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test and broth microdilution. According to E-tests, of 19 isolates grown in BHI-V6, four isolates presented MIC ≥ 128 µg/ml, seven with MIC ranging from 4 to 8 µg/ml, and eight with MIC ≤ 2µg/ml. By broth microdilution, 14 isolates presented MIC ≤ 2 µg/ml and five with MIC ≥ 16µg/ml. The presence of the gene vanA was determined by PCR in the five resistant isolates, and this gene was detected in one of the strains. Furthermore, among the 19 strains, the gene mecA was found in 13 (39,4%) isolates, including the strain carrying the gene vanA. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we highlight the presence of one strain carrying both vanA and the mecA genes, as well as multidrug-resistant strains colonizing healthcare professionals, and their importance as potential vectors to spread strains carrying resistance genes in the hospital environment. <![CDATA[Systematic neonatal screening for congenital Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil: prevalence of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> infection in the Southern region of Sergipe]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, being one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Americas with an estimated six to seven million infected people worldwide. In Brazil, the improvement in vector control and blood donor screening has evidenced the important epidemiological role of congenital transmission of Chagas disease. METHODS: A serological survey for Chagas disease was performed in 3,952 newborns in the southern region of Sergipe using paper filter disks of dried blood samples. The newborns were screened using the Sergipe State Neonatal Screening Program between July 2015 and July 2016, and 3,749 and 750 blood samples were obtained for the IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay, respectively. In addition, mothers of the children who presented initial reagent serology were examined. RESULTS: Among 3,749 blood samples, samples of two children were positive for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; however, their confirmation test results were negative, suggesting passive transfer of the mother’s antibody. One puerpera was identified with Chagas disease, with a prevalence of 0.02%. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital Chagas disease was not observed in newborns in the Southern region of Sergipe. However, Chagas disease was observed in women of reproductive age. Therefore, effective measurements for monitoring and systematic evaluation should be conducted. The Neonatal Screening Program proved to be an effective public health strategy for the prevention and control of Chagas disease. <![CDATA[Mucosal leishmaniasis: the experience of a Brazilian referral center]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) are the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), despite their high toxicity and only moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to report therapeutic responses with different available options for ML. METHODS This study was based on a review of clinical records of 35 patients (24 men and 11 women) treated between 2009 and 2015. RESULTS The median age of patients was 63 years, and the median duration of the disease was 24 months. Seventeen patients received Sbv, while nine patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmB), and another nine patients were treated with fluconazole. Patients treated with AmB received a total median accumulated dose of 2550mg. The mean duration of azole use was 120 days, and the daily dose ranged from 450 to 900mg. At the three-month follow-up visit, the cure rate was 35%, 67%, and 22% for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups, respectively. At the six-month follow-up visit, the cure rates for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups were 71%, 78%, and 33%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is a scarcity of effective ML treatment alternatives, and based on our observations, fluconazole is not a valid treatment option. <![CDATA[A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and drug resistance among inmates in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: High endemic levels of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons result from overcrowding, limited access to healthcare, delayed diagnosis, sustained transmission owing to poor control measures, and multidrug resistance. This study evaluated locally implemented measures for early pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and evaluated resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: This transversal study employed data from the Mato Grosso do Sul State Tuberculosis Control Program obtained from 35 correctional facilities in 16 counties for 2 periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). RESULTS: Statewide prevalence (per 100,000) was 480.0 in 2007 and 972.9 in 2014. The following indicators showed improvement: alcohol-acid-fast bacillus testing (from 82.7% to 92.9%); cultures performed (55.0% to 81.8%); drug susceptibility testing of positive cultures (71.6% to 62.4%); and overall drug susceptibility testing coverage (36.6% to 47.4%). Primary and acquired resistance rates for 2007-2014 were 21.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Primary and acquired multidrug resistance rates were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates increased, and laboratory indicators improved as a result of capacity building and coordination of technical teams and other individuals providing healthcare to inmates. Resistance rates were high, thereby negatively affecting disease control. <![CDATA[Performance of the IS6110-TaqMan<sup>®</sup> assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis from different biological samples]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the performance of the IS6110-TaqMan® assay in different types of biological samples and tissues for laboratory diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: 143 biological samples and tissues from patients with suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis from the health services of Recife/Pernambuco/Brazil were evaluated with the IS6110-TaqMan® assay. RESULTS: The sensitivities of the IS6110-TaqMan® assay calculated for blood, urine, both blood and urine samples, tissue biopsies, extrapulmonary body fluid samples, and all samples from patients calculated together were 55.9%, 33.3%, 68.8%, 43.8%, 29.6%, and 73.7%, respectively, and the specificities were 80%, 100%, 78.6%, 100%, 100%, and 84.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The accuracy of qPCR was high in various clinical sample types. The analysis of more than one type of clinical sample collected from the same patient with extrapulmonary tuberculosis enhances the diagnostic power of the IS6110-TaqMan® assay when compared with the use of only one clinical sample. <![CDATA[Epidemiological study of snakebite cases in Brazilian Western Amazonia]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Brazil has the largest number of snakebite cases in South America, of which the large majority is concentrated in the Midwest and North. METHODS In this descriptive observational study, we assessed the epidemiological and clinical snakebite cases referred to the Centro de Medicina Tropical de Rondônia from September 2008 to September 2010. RESULTS We followed up 92 cases from admission until discharge, namely 81 (88%) men and 11 (12%) women, with a mean age of 37 years, and mainly from rural areas (91.3%). The snakebites occurred while performing work activities (63%) during the Amazon rainy season (78.3%). The vast majority of individuals presented from the Porto Velho microregion (84.7%). Approximately 95.6% of the snakebites were caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops, followed by two lachetics and two elapidics cases. Surgery was performed in 10 cases (9 fasciotomies in the lower limb and 1 amputation). No deaths were reported in this study, but 4 cases (4.3%) developed sequelae in the lower limb. CONCLUSIONS This study can contribute to a better understanding of envenomation in the state of Rondônia and thus can be useful for identifying real conditions that can increase the incidence of snakebites in this region. Moreover, the study results can serve as a basis for improving educational campaigns designed to prevent these types of snakebites, as well as for preserving snakes. <![CDATA[Neurologic manifestations in emerging arboviral diseases in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, 2015-2016]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Dengue has affected Rio de Janeiro City since the 1980s. The sequential Zika and chikungunya virus introductions during 2015 aggravated the health scenario, with 97,241 cases of arboviral diseases reported in 2015-2016, some with neurological disorders. METHODS Arbovirus-related neurologic cases were descriptively analyzed, including neurological syndromes and laboratory results. RESULTS In total, 112 cases with non-congenital neurologic manifestations (Guillain-Barré syndrome, 64.3%; meningoencephalitis, 24.1%; acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, 8%) were arbovirus-related; 43.7% were laboratory-confirmed, of which 57.1% were chikungunya-positive. CONCLUSIONS Emerging arbovirus infections brought opportunities to study atypical, severe manifestations. Surveillance responses optimized case identification and better clinical approaches. <![CDATA[Clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment. <![CDATA[Depression and anxiety disorders among patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1: a cross-sectional study with a comparison group]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have linked human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) to psychiatric disease. METHODS: Patients with HTLV-1 were compared to patients seen by family doctors using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Participants with (n=58) and without (n=340) HTLV were compared. Anxiety and depression were associated with greater age, being a woman, spastic paraparesis (depression: PR=4.50, 95% CI: 3.10-6.53; anxiety: PR=2.96, 95% CI: 2.08-4.21), and asymptomatic HTLV (depression: PR=4.34, 95% CI: 3.02-6.24; anxiety: PR=2.81, 95% CI: 2.06-3.85). CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with HTLV-1 experienced more anxiety and depression than uninfected patients. <![CDATA[Coexistence of virulence genes in methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> clinical isolates]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pathogenic versatility of Staphylococcus aureus is attributed to various virulence genes, including enterotoxins and hemolysins. METHODS: Here, the virulence genes in 177 nosocomial MRSA strains in Porto Alegre, Brazil were detected by PCR. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates were as follows: sea, 4.5%; pvl, 18.6%; tst, 27.7%; hla, 87.6%; and hld, 90.4%. No strain contained all tested genes. However, there was frequent coexistence of tst with pvl and hla with hld (40.7% and 26.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal transfer of virulence genes is very common in S. aureus, as suggested by the frequent coexistence of several virulence genes. <![CDATA[Serological and molecular detection of <em>Leptospira</em> spp in dogs]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to detect anti-Leptospira spp antibodies and Leptospira DNA in domestic dogs. METHODS: Blood and urine from 106 dogs were evaluated by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. RESULTS: Six (5.7%) and one (1%) animals were positive by MAT and PCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a low prevalence of infection by Leptospira spp. The absence of positive results for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup indicates the small relevance of these dogs as sources of human leptospirosis. <![CDATA[Detection of antibodies against <em>Leptospira</em> spp in free-living marsupials caught in the Eastern Amazon]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological surveys are important to assess the health status of wild animals. In this study, antibodies against Leptospira spp, causal agents of leptospirosis, were detected in free-living marsupials in the State of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Nineteen blood samples collected from marsupials in the municipalities of Peixe-Boi, Viseu, and Castanhal were subjected to microscopic agglutination tests. RESULTS: In total, 36.8% (7/19) of samples were positive, and two exhibited co-agglutination. The most frequent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae (60%; 3/5), Panama (20%; 1/5), and Nupezo (20%; 1/5). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Leptospira spp antibodies currently circulate in free-living marsupials in Northeastern Pará. <![CDATA[Socio-epidemiological characterization of human leptospirosis in the Federal District, Brazil, 2011-2015]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human leptospirosis (HL) in the Federal District (DF), Brazil, is endemic and requires studies to characterize the socio-epidemiological profile of the vulnerable population. METHODS: Seventy-nine autochthonous cases of HL between 2011-2015 were analyzed based on the databases of the Epidemiological and Environmental Health Surveillance Department, DF. RESULTS: The male population aged 31-45 years represented 86% of the leptospirosis cases; most belonged to the social classes D and E. CONCLUSIONS: In the DF, preventive measures should be concentrated on economically active male adults of social classes C, D, and E with the aim of promoting health. <![CDATA[Molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Acre State in the Amazonian Region of Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION This study proposes to identify the Leishmania species found in the skin lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients from Brasiléia municipality (Acre). METHODS Skin biopsy imprints or biopsy fragments were assayed via kDNA-PCR/RFLP and FRET-real-time PCR. RESULTS Of individuals with suspected CL, 18 were positive for Leishmania kDNA. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (61.1%) and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis (5.5%) were identified in the positive samples. CONCLUSIONS These results are congruent with the previous reports in Acre and Bolivia, revealing L. braziliensis as the most prevalent species. L. guyanensis identification also corroborates with the epidemiology of the disease in the Amazon Basin. <![CDATA[Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities of compounds from <em>Piper tuberculatum</em> Jacq fruits]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION This study assessed the activity of compounds from Piper tuberculatum against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania guyanensis. METHODS The effects of compounds from P. tuberculatum fruits on P. falciparum and L. guyanensis promastigote growth in vitro were determined. Hemolytic action and cytotoxicity in HepG2 and J774 cells were measured. RESULTS Three compounds showed strong antiplasmodial activity and one compound showed strong antileishmanial activity. Two compounds were non-toxic to HepG2 cells and all were toxic to J774 cells. The compounds showed no hemolytic activity. CONCLUSIONS The tested compounds from P. tuberculatum exhibited antiparasitic and cytotoxic effects. <![CDATA[Can <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> conidia cause false-positive results in the galactomannan enzyme immunoassay test?]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several factors can cause false-positive results in the galactomannan (GM) test; however, others remain unknown. Presently, the impact of airborne contamination by Aspergillus conidia during enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remains uninvestigated. METHODS: We studied 12 A. fumigatus isolates. Fungal conidia were serially diluted and tested for GM detection using the Platelia® Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RESULTS: The conidia concentration required for an EIA-positive result was 4.8 × 103 (median). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of environmental contamination on the Platelia® Aspergillus EIA assay. Only massive contamination can interfere with GM optical readings, suggesting that environmental contamination does not cause false-positive test results. <![CDATA[Encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus in a Brazilian child]]> Abstract We report a case of encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection and reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in the central nervous system of a Brazilian child. This case raises the possibility that reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus may be a mechanism of neurological impairment induced by acquired Zika virus infection. <![CDATA[Combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome), n-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime), and pentamidine isethionate in a refractory visceral leishmaniasis case]]> Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease that is potentially severe and endemic in Brazil. It clinically manifests as fever, weight loss, swelling, hepatosplenomegaly, paleness, and edema. In this study, we discuss a case of a 1-year-old child diagnosed with refractory visceral leishmaniasis after being treated with liposomal amphotericin B in two distinct occasions. Considering the persistent clinical features and weak response to conventional treatment, a combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome), n-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime), and pentamidine isethionate was initiated, and response to treatment was good. <![CDATA[Atrial fibrillation in acute Chagas disease acquired via oral transmission: a case report]]> Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF), a type of supraventricular arrhythmia increases the risk of thromboembolism. Chagas disease has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon region over approximately 20 years. Cardiac abnormalities are recorded in at least 50% of patients and among these, 3.3% develop AF. We describe a case of a 41-year-old man from Muaná, Pará State, who reported a 30-day history of a febrile illness. Acute Chagas disease was confirmed, and an electrocardiogram revealed AF. He was treated with antiparasitic and anti-arrhythmic drugs, beta blockers, and anticoagulants. Reversion to sinus rhythm was observed at his 9-month follow-up. <![CDATA[A rare case of gastric mucormycosis in an immunocompetent patient]]> Abstract We report the case of a 23-year-old immunocompetent patient who presented at the emergency department of a Brazilian hospital with epigastric pain and fever. After an investigation that included a computed tomography scan and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy, a diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. The patient exhibited favorable progress after surgery and antifungal therapy. Mucormycosis is a rare condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients, with a high mortality rate of up to 85%. Correct diagnosis and fast initiation of therapy are required to ensure improved patient prognosis. <![CDATA[Encephalitis and transverse myelitis in dengue and chikungunya coinfection]]> Abstract We report the case of a 23-year-old immunocompetent patient who presented at the emergency department of a Brazilian hospital with epigastric pain and fever. After an investigation that included a computed tomography scan and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy, a diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. The patient exhibited favorable progress after surgery and antifungal therapy. Mucormycosis is a rare condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients, with a high mortality rate of up to 85%. Correct diagnosis and fast initiation of therapy are required to ensure improved patient prognosis. <![CDATA[Neurosyphilis manifesting as trigeminal nerve dysfunction]]> Abstract We report the case of a 23-year-old immunocompetent patient who presented at the emergency department of a Brazilian hospital with epigastric pain and fever. After an investigation that included a computed tomography scan and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy, a diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. The patient exhibited favorable progress after surgery and antifungal therapy. Mucormycosis is a rare condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients, with a high mortality rate of up to 85%. Correct diagnosis and fast initiation of therapy are required to ensure improved patient prognosis. <![CDATA[Professor Ruth Sonntag Nussenzweig (1928-2018) First steps towards a successful anti-sporozoite vaccine against malaria]]> Abstract We report the case of a 23-year-old immunocompetent patient who presented at the emergency department of a Brazilian hospital with epigastric pain and fever. After an investigation that included a computed tomography scan and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy, a diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. The patient exhibited favorable progress after surgery and antifungal therapy. Mucormycosis is a rare condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients, with a high mortality rate of up to 85%. Correct diagnosis and fast initiation of therapy are required to ensure improved patient prognosis. <![CDATA[Erratum: Para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a patient in Brazil: a case report]]> Abstract We report the case of a 23-year-old immunocompetent patient who presented at the emergency department of a Brazilian hospital with epigastric pain and fever. After an investigation that included a computed tomography scan and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy, a diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. The patient exhibited favorable progress after surgery and antifungal therapy. Mucormycosis is a rare condition that usually affects immunocompromised patients, with a high mortality rate of up to 85%. Correct diagnosis and fast initiation of therapy are required to ensure improved patient prognosis.