Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0037-868220140004&lang=es vol. 47 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Selfishness among healthcare workers and nosocomial infections: a causal relationship?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400407&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Streptococcal acute pharyngitis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400409&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine. <![CDATA[A Saint Louis encephalitis and Rocio virus serosurvey in Brazilian horses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400414&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Arboviruses are an important public health problem in Brazil, in especially flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and the Rocio virus (ROCV), are especially problematic. These viruses are transmitted to humans or other vertebrates through arthropod bites and may cause diseases with clinical manifestations that range from asymptomatic infection, viral hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis. Methods A serological survey of horses from various regions of Brazil using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant SLEV domain III peptides and ROCV E protein as antigens. Results Overall, 415 (55.1%) of the 753 horses that were screened were seropositive for flavivirus and, among them, monotypic reactions were observed to SLEV in 93 (12.3%) and to ROCV in 46 (6.1%). These results suggested that these viruses, or other closely related viruses, are infecting horses in Brazil. However, none of the studied horses presented central nervous system infection symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that SLEV and ROCV previously circulated among horses in northeast, west-central and southeast Brazil. <![CDATA[Changes in the prevalence, incidence and residual risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus in Southern Brazilian blood donors since the implementation of NAT screening]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400418&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Previous studies have shown high residual risk of transfusing a blood donation contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazil and motivated the development of a Brazilian platform for simultaneous detection of both viruses by nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) denominated HIV/HCV Bio-Manguinhos/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ). The objective of this study was to verify seroprevalence, incidence and residual risk for both viruses before and after the implementation of NAT. Methods Over 700,000 blood samples from all blood banks in the southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina were analyzed during the period between January 2007 and July 2013. Results Compared with the period preceding the NAT screening, HIV prevalence increased from 1.38 to 1.58 per 1,000 donors, HIV incidence rate increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donor-years, and HIV residual risk dropped almost 2.5 times during the NAT period. For HCV, seroprevalence increased from 1.22 to 1.35 per 1,000 donors, incidence dropped from 0.12 to 0.06 per 1,000 donor-years, and residual risk decreased more than 3 times after the NAT implementation. Conclusions NAT reduced the duration of the immunologic window for HIV and HCV, thus corresponding to approximately 2.5- and 3-fold respective residual risk reductions. <![CDATA[Deltamethrin pyrethroid susceptibility characterization of <em>Triatoma sordida</em> Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400426&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Triatoma sordida is the most captured Triatomine species in the Brazilian artificial environment. In 2008, the discovery of three Triatomine populations with altered susceptibilities to deltamethrin highlighted the importance of investigating the genetic potential for resistance in triatomines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of peridomestic T. sordida populations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A susceptibility reference lineage derived from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil was used. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 of the susceptibility reference lineage. Results Susceptibility profile characterization of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios (RR50s) ranging from 0.42 to 3.94. The percentage mortality in response to the diagnostic dose varied from 70% to 100%. A comparison of the results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays demonstrated a lack of correspondence for some populations. Conclusions We demonstrated that only T. sordida populations that present a RR50&gt;1.0 have altered susceptibility, and the execution of simultaneous field and laboratory tests is required to understand the actual effect of vector control. A possible cause of the observed resistance ratios might be the continuous use of pyrethroids in Brazil since the 1980s. <![CDATA[Effect of feeding frequency on the reproductive efficiency of two species of <em>Triatoma</em> with different epidemiological importance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400430&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction In Triatominae, reproductive efficiency is an important factor influencing population dynamics, and a useful parameter in measuring a species' epidemiological significance as a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909). The reproductive efficiency of triatomines is affected by food availability; hence, we measured and compared the effects of feeding frequency on the reproductive parameters of Triatoma patagonica (Del Ponte, 1929) and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1934), and the effects of starvation on T. patagonica. Methods Couples from both species were fed weekly, or every 3 weeks; in addition, females in couples of T. patagonica were not fed. Each couple was observed weekly and reproductive efficiency was assessed on the following parameters: fecundity (eggs/female), fertility (eggs hatched/eggs laid), initiation and end of oviposition, initiation of mating, number of matings/week, and number of reproductive weeks. Relative meal size index (RMS), blood consumption index (CI), and E values (eggs/mg blood) were also calculated. Results Changes in feeding frequency affected the reproductive parameters of T. patagonica only, with a decrease in fecundity and number of reproductive weeks for those fed every 3 weeks, or not fed. The reproductive period, RMS index, and CI were lower for T. patagonica than T. infestans. However, despite the lower fecundity of T. patagonica, this species required less blood to produce eggs, with an E values of 2 compared to 2.94 for T. infestans. Conclusions Our results suggest that the differences in fecundity observed between species reflect the availability of food in their natural ecotopes. <![CDATA[The occurrence and dissemination of methicillin and vancomycin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus</em> in samples from patients and health professionals of a university hospital in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400437&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have been responsible for many nosocomial outbreaks. Within hospitals, colonized employees often act as reservoirs for the spread of this organism. This study collected clinical samples of 91 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), hemodialysis/nephrology service and surgical clinic, and biological samples from the nasal cavities of 120 professionals working in those environments, of a University Hospital in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main objective of this study was to determine the occurrence and dissemination of methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Methods The isolates obtained were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin and vancomycin and detection of the mecA gene. In addition, the isolates were evaluated for the presence of clones by ribotyping-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results MRSA occurrence, as detected by the presence of the mecA gene, was more prevalent among nursing technicians; 48.1% (13/27) and 40.7% (11/27) of the isolates were from health professionals of the surgical clinic. In patients, the most frequent occurrence of mecA-positive isolates was among the samples from catheter tips (33.3%; 3/9), obtained mostly from the hemodialysis/nephrology service. Eight vancomycin-resistant strains were found among the MRSA isolates through vancomycin screening. Based on the amplification patterns, 17 ribotypes were identified, with some distributed between patients and professionals. Conclusions Despite the great diversity of clones, which makes it difficult to trace the source of the infection, knowledge of the molecular and phenotypic profiles of Staphylococcus samples can contribute towards guiding therapeutic approaches in the treatment and control of nosocomial infections. <![CDATA[Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a nucleic acid amplification test for the diagnosis of <em>Clostridium difficile</em>-associated diarrhea at a university hospital in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400447&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Despite the known importance of Clostridium difficile as a nosocomial pathogen, few studies regarding Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Brazil have been conducted. To date, the diagnostic tests that are available on the Brazilian market for the diagnosis of CDI have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of four commercial methods for the diagnosis of CDI in patients from a university hospital in Brazil. Methods Three enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and one nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were evaluated against a cytotoxicity assay (CTA) and toxigenic culture (TC). Stool samples from 92 patients with suspected CDI were used in this study. Results Twenty-five (27.2%) of 92 samples were positive according to the CTA, and 23 (25%) were positive according to the TC. All EIAs and the NAAT test demonstrated sensitivities between 59 and 68% and specificities greater than 91%. Conclusions All four methods exhibited low sensitivities for the diagnosis of CDI, which could lead to a large number of false-negative results, an increased risk of cross-infection to other patients, and overtreatment with empirical antibiotics. <![CDATA[Colistin and anti-Gram-positive bacterial agents against <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400451&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Acinetobacter baumannii has attained an alarming level of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Clinicians are now considering the use of older agents or unorthodox combinations of licensed drugs against multidrug-resistant strains to bridge the current treatment gap. We investigated the in vitro activities of combination treatments that included colistin with vancomycin, norvancomycin or linezolid against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods The fractional inhibitory concentration index and time-kill assays were used to explore the combined effects of colistin with vancomycin, norvancomycin or linezolid against 40 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the interactions in response to the combination of colistin and vancomycin. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vancomycin and norvancomycin for half of the isolates decreased below the susceptibility break point, and the MIC of linezolid for one isolate was decreased to the blood and epithelial lining fluid concentration using the current dosing regimen. When vancomycin or norvancomycin was combined with subinhibitory doses of colistin, the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii test samples were eradicated. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that subinhibitory doses of colistin were able to disrupt the outer membrane, facilitating a disruption of the cell wall and leading to cell lysis. Conclusions Subinhibitory doses of colistin significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of vancomycin, norvancomycin, and linezolid against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. <![CDATA[Surgical site infections in women and their association with clinical conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400457&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) can affect body tissues, cavities, or organs manipulated in surgery and constitute 14% to 16% of all infections. This study aimed to determine the incidence of SSIs in women following their discharge from a gynecology outpatient clinic, to survey different types of SSIs among women, and to verify the association of SSIs with comorbidities and clinical conditions. Methods Data were collected via analytical observation with a cross-sectional design, and the study was conducted in 1,026 women who underwent gynecological surgery in a teaching hospital in the municipality of Teresina, in the northeast Brazilian State of Piauí, from June 2011 to March 2013. Results The incidence of SSIs after discharge was 5.8% among the women in the outpatient clinic. The most prevalent surgery among the patients was hysterectomy, while the most prevalent type of SSI was superficial incisional. Comorbidities in women with SSIs included cancer, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Conclusions Surveillance of SSIs during the post-discharge period is critical for infection prevention and control. It is worth reflecting on the planning of surgical procedures for patients who have risk factors for the development of SSIs. <![CDATA[Evaluation of parasitological examination, kDNA polymerase chain reaction and rK39-based immunochromatography for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in seropositive dogs from the screening-culling program in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400462&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Dogs play a primary role in the zoonotic cycle of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore, the accurate diagnosis of infected dogs, primarily asymptomatic dogs, is crucial to the efficiency of VL control programs. Methods We investigated the agreement of four diagnostic tests for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL): parasite detection, either after myeloculture or by direct microscopic examination of tissue imprints; kinetoplast-deoxyribonucleic acid-polymerase chain reaction (kDNA-PCR); and an immunochromatographic test (ICT). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), both of which were adopted as part of the screening-culling program in Brazil, were used as reference tests. Our sample set consisted of 44 seropositive dogs, 25 of which were clinically asymptomatic and 19 were symptomatic for CVL according to ELISA-IFAT. Results The highest and lowest test co-positivities were observed for ICT (77.3%) and myeloculture (58.1%), respectively. When analyzed together, the overall percentage of co-positive tests was significantly higher for the symptomatic group compared to the asymptomatic group. However, only ICT was significantly different based on the results of a separate analysis per test for each group of dogs. The majority (93.8%) of animals exhibited at least one positive test result, with an average of 2.66 positive tests per dog. Half of the symptomatic dogs tested positive for all four tests administered. Conclusions The variability between test results reinforces the need for more efficient and reliable methods to accurately diagnose canine VL, particularly in asymptomatic animals. <![CDATA[Epidemiological factors associated with seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400469&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii dissemination among pregnant women is relevant because the parasite can be spread from mother to infant. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from Gurupi, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from February 2012 to June 2013. Methods The study population included 487 pregnant women. Sociodemographic, dietary and cultural data were collected using a standardized and validated form. Peripheral blood was collected for serologic testing using the ELISA test (IgM/IgG antibodies). The data were analyzed by comparing seropositivity with risk factors using crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results The prevalence rate for IgG and IgM antibodies was 68.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with toxoplasmosis risk included the following: education level ≤ 8 years (OR: 6.612; CI: 1.450-30.144), age ≥ 30 years (OR: 5.273; CI: 1.166-23.844), working outside the home (OR: 1.604; CI: 1.015-2.536), and family income of two minimum wages or lower (OR: 2.700; CI: 1.891-8.182). Regarding dietary habits, there was a significant association of seropositivity with meat intake (OR: 1.78; CI: 1.149-4.080), cutting vegetables without washing the cutting board beforehand (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.165-3.614), frequent intake of vegetables (OR: 2.051; CI: 1.368-3.006) and in natura milk intake (OR: 2.422; CI: 1.014-5.785). Conclusions The high prevalence rates of toxoplasmosis in Gurupi are related to age, raw meat and in natura milk intake, as well as education level, working outside the home, and poor hygienic habits during meal preparation. <![CDATA[Epidemiological and environmental aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in children under 15 years of age between 2007 and 2012 in the City of Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400476&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) stands out as a zoonosis observed on four continents and also in urban expansion zones in several regions of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study of VL cases in children under 15 years of age in the period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were gathered from medical reports; meteorological data were obtained at the Meteorological Measurement Department of UFT. Environmental variables were divided into two periods, rainy and dry. Results The study revealed no difference by gender (p=0.67) among the 821 patients. However, the most affected age group was between one and five years of age (58.6%; p&lt;0.01); the highest prevalence of the disease (99.03%; p&lt;0.01) occurred in urban zones; and the most affected ethnic group (85.5%; p&lt;0.01) was mixed race. The highest incidence coefficients in this population occurred in 2007 and 2008 (578.39/100,000 inhabitants; 18.5/100,000 inhabitants, respectively), whereas the highest lethality coefficients occurred in 2008 and 2011 (0.85/100 deaths). There was no significant correlation between average rainfall and the number of VL cases. The correlation between temperature and number of VL cases was negative (r = -0.4039; p&lt;0.01). Conclusions In Araguaína, visceral leishmaniasis in children under 15 years is an urban-based endemic disease distributed across all districts of the city wherein temperature as an environmental factor, a higher prevalence in mixed race children between one and five years of age, and a high incidence coefficient all strongly contribute to child mortality. <![CDATA[Incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400483&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, during the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods Ecological, temporal, and descriptive methods were employed using data obtained from the Information System on Disease Notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação). Results One hundred sixteen reported cases of tuberculous meningitis occurred from 2001 to 2010, corresponding to 1.2% (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants) of all meningitis cases reported in SC. There was a predominance of new cases in males, corresponding to 56.9% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; males vs. females; p=0.374), in patients aged 20-39 years, corresponding to 52.6% of new cases (0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 20-39 years versus others; p&lt;0.001), and in urban areas, corresponding to 91.4% of new cases (0.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants; urban vs. rural; p=0.003). In 48.3% of cases, the outcome was death. Conclusions The incidence rate of tuberculous meningitis in SC has increased within the last decade, with the most affected population comprising young adult white males with an average education. Thus, tuberculous meningitis remains a serious disease, emphasizing the need for disease prevention with vaccination campaigns against tuberculosis, the development of faster and more accurate diagnostic methods, and the use of current epidemiological knowledge regarding the disease to facilitate the establishment of early treatment. <![CDATA[Factors associated with neural alterations and physical disabilities in patients with leprosy in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400490&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors that are associated with neural alterations and physical disabilities in leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 155 leprosy patients who participated in a program that aimed to eliminate leprosy from São Luis, State of Maranhão. Results Patients who were 31-45 years of age, were older than 60 years of age or had a partner were more likely to have a disability. Patients with partners were 1.14 times more likely (p = 0.025) to have disabilities of the hands. The frequency of disabilities in the feet among the patients with different clinical forms of leprosy was statistically significant. Conclusions The identification of risk factors that are associated with neural alterations and physical disabilities in leprosy patients is important for diagnosing the disease because this approach enables physicians to plan and prioritize actions for the treatment and monitoring of patients. <![CDATA[A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400498&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity. <![CDATA[Absence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological diseases in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400507&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infection is heterogeneous across different populations. We tested the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients. Methods A total of 1,091 patients from a tropical dermatology clinic were tested for HTLV-1/2. In parallel, 6865 first-time blood donors from the same geographic area were screened for HTLV-1/2; HTLV-1/2 positive blood donors underwent dermatological examinations. Results The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in first-time blood donors was 0.14%. No co-occurrence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological conditions was observed. Conclusions Our results challenge the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients. <![CDATA[<em>Stomoxys calcitrans</em> as possible vector of <em>Trypanosoma evansi</em> among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400510&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels. <![CDATA[Description of a newly discovered <em>Triatoma infestans</em> (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Foci in Ibipeba, State of Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400513&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Chagas disease transmitted by the Triatoma infestans was eradicated from Brazil in 2006. However, reports of triatomine foci threaten the control of Chagas disease. The goal of this study was to determine T. infestans foci in the City of Ibipeba, State of Bahia. Methods Triatominae specimens were collected in Ibipeba and entomologic indicators were calculated using indices of domiciliary infestation, density, and colonization. Results T. infestans foci was discovery in Ibipeba, State of Bahia. Approximately 95% of the specimens were discovered inside dwellings, of which 34% were T. infestans. This species was also discovered forming a colony in tree bark in the peridomicile. Conclusions Triatoma infestans foci in peridomestic ecotopes in Ibipeba, BA, indicate increased the risk of transmission Chagas disease. <![CDATA[Effectiveness of miltefosine-pentoxifylline compared to miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in C57Bl/6 mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400517&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction The treatment of leishmaniasis ischallenging, given the difficulties in drug administration and resistance. Therefore, we chose to test the efficacy of miltefosine combined with pentoxifylline. Methods Twenty-seven isogenic C57Bl/6 mice were infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, and equally divided into three groups: miltefosine (200mg/kg/day), miltefosine (200mg/kg/day) with pentoxifylline (8mg/kg/day), and untreated. Response to treatment was evaluated using paw diameter and parasitological criteria. Results The number of viable Leishmania reduced significantly within the miltefosine-pentoxifylline group (p &lt; 0.05). Conclusions There is hope that a viable treatment exists for Leishmania infection. <![CDATA[High visceral leishmaniasis mortality rate in Barra Mansa, a new area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400521&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Nine cases of visceral leishmaniasis occurred recently in Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro, with a high mortality rate. Methods We reviewed the medical records of the patients. Results Eight were male; 7 were adults. Patients who died progressed to death quickly and presented with aggravating factors: systemic steroid therapy before diagnosis, bleeding, severe liver involvement, infection, and/or refusal to receive transfusion. Conclusions We warn clinicians to be aware of the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in new areas and to keep in mind the possibility of atypical clinical pictures and aggravating factors, so timely diagnosis can be made and prompt and adequate treatment can be initiated. <![CDATA[Ventriculoperitoneal shunts for treating increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis with or without ventriculomegaly]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400524&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Introduction Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycosis, especially in patients that are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, and frequently involves the central nervous system. Methods We assessed the potential of ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) in preventing mortality due to uncontrollable intracranial hypertension (ICH) in 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cryptococcal meningitis. Results After 2 weeks of antifungal therapy consisting of amphotericin B deoxycholate with or without fluconazole, patients with persistent ICH underwent VPS, despite having persistent Cryptococcus neoformans infection. In 12 patients, the uncontrollable ICH was resolved by VPS. Conclusions Patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis who have ICH must be considered for VPS even with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures. <![CDATA[The use of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of HTLV-1-associated overactive bladder refractory to conventional therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400528&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Urinary symptoms occur in 19% of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected patients who do not fulfill criteria for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and in almost 100% of HAM/TSP patients. Few studies have evaluated therapies for overactive bladder (OAB) caused by HTLV-1 infection. This case report describes the effect of onabotulinum toxin A on the urinary manifestations of three patients with HAM/TSP and OAB symptoms. The patients were intravesically administered 200 units of Botox®. Their incontinence episodes improved, and their OAB symptoms scores (OABSS) reduced significantly. These data indicate that Botox® should be a treatment option for OAB associated with HTLV-1 infection. <![CDATA[Invasive aspergillosis in a user of inhaled cocaine: rhinosinusitis with bone and cartilage destruction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400533&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome. <![CDATA[Diagnosis and excision of a primary hydatid cyst localized in the soft tissue]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400537&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome. <![CDATA[Defense of taxonomy, a Sisyphus task?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400538&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome. <![CDATA[Authors reply: defense of taxonomy, a Sisyphus task?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400539&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome. <![CDATA[NEWS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822014000400540&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome.