Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0037-868220170005&lang=es vol. 50 num. 5 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Large outbreaks of Chikungunya virus in Brazil reveal uncommon clinical features and fatalities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500583&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Alert: Severe cases and deaths associated with Chikungunya in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500585&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Since the detection of the Chikungunya virus in America in 2013, two million cases of the disease have been notified worldwide. Severe cases and deaths related to Chikungunya have been reported in India and Reunion Island, estimated at 1 death per 1,000 inhabitants. Joint involvement in the acute and chronic phase is the main clinical manifestation associated with Chikungunya. The severity of the infection may be directly attributable to viral action or indirectly, owing to decompensation of preexisting comorbidities. In Brazil, the virus was identified in 2014, and recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of deaths caused by the Chikungunya virus infection, especially in Pernambuco. However, the numbers of fatalities are probably underreported, since for many cases, the diagnosis of Chikungunya infection may not be considered, for deaths by indirect causes. An increase in the mortality rate within months of epidemic occurrence, compared to previous years has also been reported and may be associated with Chikungunya virus infection. An in-depth investigation of reported mortality in Brazil is necessary, to measure the actual impact of the deaths, thereby, allowing the identification of possible causes. This will alert professionals about the risks, and hence, enable creation of protocols that target reducing mortality. <![CDATA[Nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> among Iranian healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500590&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016). Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat V2.2) software. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among HCWs were 22.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-26.6] and 32.8% (95% CI: 26.0-40.4) respectively. The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among Iranian HCWs has been attributed to poor compliance to hand hygiene, injudicious use of antibiotics, and ineffective infection control and prevention measures. The rational use of antibiotics plus strict infection control are the main pillars for controlling multidrug resistant microorganisms such as MRSA in the hospital setting. These measurements should be applied nationally. <![CDATA[Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV/AIDS without the use of antiretroviral therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500598&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: The main metabolic disorders in the population were low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 62.6% of the study population, whereas metabolic syndrome (MS) was prevalent in 11.5% of patients assessed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 10.8% assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Regarding cardiovascular risk, 89.7% of the population presented a low coronary risk according to the Framingham Risk Score. A greater proportion of patients diagnosed with MS presented low cardiovascular risk (80% assessed by IDF criteria and 77.8% assessed by NCEP-ATPIII criteria). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders in this population may be due to HIV infection or lifestyle (smoking, sedentary lifestyle and inadequate diet). The introduction of ART can enhance dyslipidemia, increasing cardiovascular risk, especially among those who have classic risks of cardiovascular disease. <![CDATA[Treatment adherence in patients living with HIV/AIDS assisted at a specialized facility in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500607&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the 1990s, Brazil adopted a public policy that allowed for universal, free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since then, treatment adherence has become a new challenge for administrators of sexually transmitted disease/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDS) policies. This study quantified adherence to ART and verified whether there is an association between sociodemographic variables and clinical/laboratory data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, exploratory study with a quantitative approach that was conducted over 8 months. The target population contained patients who were assisted at the ambulatory care facility specialized in STD/AIDS of a medium-size city located in Northwest São Paulo. In order to verify the level of adherence to ART, a validated CEAT-VIH (Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire) questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic aspects and clinical/laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. The results were analyzed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's coefficient. RESULTS Herein, 109 patients were interviewed, 56% of whom were male. The age of the population ranged 18-74 years (mean 45.67 years). Adherence to ART was classified as insufficient in 80.7% of cases. There was an association between ART adherence and presence of symptoms and/or opportunistic infection (p=0.008) and economic status (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to ART among HIV carriers cared for by the public health system is low. Patients who reported a favorable economic status and those without symptoms and/or opportunistic infection demonstrated greater treatment adherence than those who needed to take more than 3 pills a day. <![CDATA[Epidemiological profile of patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS in Northeast, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500613&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. METHODS: We conducted an observational and analytical study of patients with VL followed in a Reference Service in the State of Maranhão, Brazil from 2007-2013. RESULTS: In total 126 patients were enrolled, of which 61 (48.4%) were co-infected with HIV/AIDS. There were more males among those with HIV/AIDS (85.2%, P&gt;0.05) or with VL only (81.5%, P&gt;0.05). These findings significantly differed based on age group (P&lt;0.003); the majority of patients were aged 31-40 years (41.0%) and 21-30 years (32.3%) among those with and without HIV/AIDS co-infection, respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and splenomegaly significantly differed between the two groups (P=0.0014 and P=0.019, respectively). The myelogram parasitic examination was used most frequently among those with HIV/AIDS (91.8%), followed by those with VL only (69.2%). VL recurrences and mortality were significantly higher in the HIV/AIDS co-infected patients (P&lt;0.0001 and P=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with VL with or without HIV/AIDS co-infection were mostly adult men. Diarrhea was more frequent in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, whereas splenomegaly was more common in patients with VL only. In the group of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, there was a higher rate of VL recurrence and mortality. <![CDATA[Detection and genotyping of human adenovirus and sapovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992: first detection of GI.7 and GV.2 sapoviruses in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500621&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children from developing countries. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and sapovirus (SaV) are among the agents that cause AGE. The present study aimed to detect and genotype HAdV and SaV in 172 fecal samples from children with AGE, collected during a surveillance study carried out in a low-income community in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992. METHODS: HAdV was detected by nested PCR, using primers Hex1deg/Hex2deg and NeHex3deg/NeHex4deg. SaV was assayed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), nested PCR, and quantitative PCR. The nucleotide sequence was determined by direct cycle sequencing. RESULTS: Overall, 43% (74/172) of samples were positive for HAdV, of which 70.3% (52/74) were sequenced and classified as belonging to five different species, mostly A and F. For SaV, positivity was 5.2% (9/172) and genotypes GI.1, GI.7, GII.1, and GV.2 were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The present results reinforce the need for further studies to obtain epidemiological data about the circulation of these viruses in Brazil, especially in the Amazon Region, where data from the early 1990’s are scarce. Furthermore, the study describes for the first time the detection of SaV genotypes GI.7 and GV.2 in Brazil, showing that these types circulated in the region more than 25 years ago. <![CDATA[Sympatry influence in the interaction of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> with triatomine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500629&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species. <![CDATA[Changes in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil from 2001 to 2014]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500638&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease, with territorial expansion and regional differences in Brazil that require explanation. This study aimed to describe changes in the epidemiology of VL in Brazil from 2001 to 2014. METHODS The incidence rates, sociodemographic and clinical data, and case evolution were subgrouped from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2014 and presented descriptively. Spatial distribution of disease incidence rates and changes in the spatial and temporal pattern were examined. RESULTS: In total, 47,859 VL cases were reported in Brazil between 2001 and 2014, with predominance in the Northeast macroregion (55%), though the incidence rate in this region declined between the two study periods. The State of Tocantins had the highest crude rate (26.2/100,000 inhabitants), which was responsible for VL increasing in the North macroregion. VL predominated in the urban zone (70%), in children under 4 years (34%); however, an increase in the incidence of VL in adults older than 40 years was identified, with 12.3% and 31% in the first and second period, respectively. The mapping of crude rates and autochthonous canine cases showed territorial expansion. The temporal distribution of VL was consistent in Brazil in general, with no pattern observed, but regional differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VL is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the State of Tocantins, which had the highest rate, new outbreaks of VL have occurred in the South macroregion of Brazil with small decreases identified in the incidence rate in the Northeast. <![CDATA[<strong>The importance of audiometric monitoring in patients w</strong>ith multidrug-resistant tuberculosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500646&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: A total of 771 cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were reported in Brazil in 2014. Treatment of MDR-TB with aminoglycosides can produce serious side effects such as permanent and irreversible hearing loss, which occurs in 5-64% of cases, and severely compromise patient quality of life. The goal of this research was to evaluate auditory and vestibular side effects in patients treated for MDR-TB and to identify associations between these complaints and the type of aminoglycoside used. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 599 medical records from patients with MDR-TB who were treated at the Hélio Fraga/Fiocruz Reference Center between 2006 and 2010. Cases without auditory or vestibular complaints and patients who were not treated with aminoglycoside drugs were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Of 164 eligible cases, 55 (33.5%) reported an auditory or vestibular complaint and medication was subsequently suspended, although hearing damage was not confirmed in all cases. Audiometric testing confirmed hearing loss in 11 (21.7%) of 12 cases submitted for evaluation. Hearing loss related to ototoxicity was confirmed in 15 (62.5%) cases. Tinnitus was significantly associated with the use of amikacin and streptomycin. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluations of ototoxicity symptoms were not usually reported in the routine care of patients with MDR-TB. Complaints of tinnitus were associated with amikacin and streptomycin use. These results require confirmation in future studies. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the immunogenicity of <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> egg surface]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500652&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION Immunogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni egg surface was examined to determine whether intact eggshells have lower antigenicity than ruptured eggs. METHODS: Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with intact or ultrasonicated S. mansoni eggs isolated from infected human feces. Mice were separated into four groups of six animals each and immunizations were performed approximately every 20 days during a 60-day period. Groups 1-4 were administered with saline solution, sonicated eggs with Freund’s adjuvant, sonicated eggs without Freund’s adjuvant, and intact eggs, respectively. IgG humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA using Soluble Egg Antigen produced from eggs isolated from the livers of infected mice. RESULTS Sonicated eggs co-administered with adjuvant induced the highest humoral response at 58 days, which was 11.9-fold (95% CI 6.2-17.5) greater than the response induced by saline solution. Sonicated eggs without adjuvant induced a 4.3-fold stronger response (95% CI 2.4-6.2) than normal saline. Intact eggs induced humoral response that was nominally twice stronger (95% CI 0.8-3.2) than that induced by normal saline but the effect did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Soluble antigens are not abundant on the surface of S. mansoni eggs and/or are not secreted in sufficient quantities to induce a significant immune response to intact eggs. Assuming that isolation procedures had not damaged the eggs used for inoculation, our observations suggest that intact eggs either do not induce a significant immune response or, if they do, the mechanism involves insoluble antigens from the egg surface. <![CDATA[Detection of schistosomiasis in an area directly affected by the São Francisco River large-scale water transposition project in the Northeast of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500658&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: The development of the São Francisco River Integration Project [Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco (PISF)] in the State of Ceará, Brazil, has resulted in environmental and socioeconomic changes with potential risks to public health. We aimed to determine the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infections in schoolchildren (aged 7-14 years) and workers from the construction site in an area under the direct influence of the PISF in the municipality of Brejo Santo-CE, to aid in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using two S. mansoni-detection methods: detection of S. mansoni eggs by the Kato-Katz parasitological method in stool samples (assessed in triplicate for each sample) and S. mansoni circulating cathodic antigen by the point-of-care immunochromatographic rapid test (POC-CCA) in urine. RESULTS In general, the positivity rates for S. mansoni detection were 1.9% (2/106) among schoolchildren and 2.9% (4/138) among workers. No child had evidence of S. mansoni eggs in their stools; 1.9% tested positive by the POC-CCA method. Among workers, two (1.4%) tested positive by the Kato-Katz test and three (2.2%) by the POC-CCA test. If the POC-CCA test results that were scored as traces were considered negative, then the positivity rates dropped to 0.9% and 0.7% for schoolchildren and workers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The active transmission of schistosomiasis in a region covered by the PISF was recognized, reinforcing the necessity to consolidate surveillance and control actions, as well as structural sanitation measures to reverse the social determinants of the disease. <![CDATA[Influence of comorbidities on CD4+/CD8+ proportion in HIV-positive patients in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina: a retrospective study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500666&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective was to identify comorbidities related to HIV-positive patients in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive observational design study which analyzed data from 424 patients assisted by the sexually transmitted disease/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDS) Specialized Care Service (SCS). RESULTS: Of 424 medical records analyzed, 388 patients presented CD4+/CD8+ ratios lower than 1. The most prevalent comorbidities were smoking, depression, alcoholism, and herpes zoster infection, in males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The most relevant comorbidity in both genders was herpes zoster, an important marker of immunity in patients. The lowest mean was observed among patients with neurotoxoplasmosis. <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis and leishmaniasis-HIV coinfection: comparative study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500670&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to draw clinical and epidemiological comparisons between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and VL associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHOD: Retrospective study. RESULTS: Of 473 cases of VL, 5.5% were coinfected with HIV. The highest proportion of cases of both VL and VL/HIV were found among men. A higher proportion of VL cases was seen in children aged 0-10 years, whereas coinfection was more common in those aged 18-50 years. CONCLUSIONS: VL/HIV coinfected patients presented slightly differently to and had a higher mortality rate than those with VL only. <![CDATA[Hepatitis E seroprevalence and associated factors in rural settlers in Central Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500675&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for &gt;5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the absence of acute infection and a low prevalence of previous exposure to HEV. <![CDATA[Prevalence and antibiogram of methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from medical device-related infections; a retrospective study in Lahore, Pakistan]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500680&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp. (10%), Acinetobacter spp. (8%) and Candida species (7%). None of MRSA was resistant to vancomycin (MIC ≥16µg/mL). Resistance rates were 98% and 97% for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Escherichia coli and MRSA are major pathogens of medical device-related infections. <![CDATA[Evaluation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary-level reference hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500685&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: The rapid global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a threat to the health system. METHODS: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 70 CRE isolated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil between August and December 2015, and determined their resistance mechanisms. RESULTS: The most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (95.7%); it showed high-level resistance to carbapenems (&gt;98%), with sensitivity to colistin (91.4%) and amikacin (98.6%). The bla KPC gene was detected in 80% of the CRE isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of bacterial resistance contributes to an appropriate treatment, and the reduction of morbimortality and dissemination of resistance. <![CDATA[<em>Ex vivo</em> T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor phenotypes in patients with chronic Chagas disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500689&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elucidating the molecules involved in the inflammatory process of chronic Chagas disease may allow identification of treatment targets. METHODS: The ex vivo phenotypic expression of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5 on the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy of varying severity was evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Differential expression of CD4+CCR3+ and CD8+CCR4+ T-cells was observed in patients with mild cardiac involvement compared, respectively, with patients with severe cardiac and asymptomatic forms of Chagas disease. CONCLUSIONS: These receptors are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. <![CDATA[Spatial risk of tuberculosis mortality and social vulnerability in Northeast Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500693&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common infectious disease in the world. We aimed to analyze the spatial risk of tuberculosis mortality and to verify associations in high-risk areas with social vulnerability. METHODS: This was an ecological study. The scan statistic was used to detect areas at risk, and the Bivariate Moran Index was used to verify relationships between variables. RESULTS: High-risk areas of tuberculosis mortality were statistically significantly associated with domain 2 of the Social Vulnerability Index (I=0.010; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence regarding areas with high risk and that vulnerability is a determinant of TB mortality. <![CDATA[Migration pattern of <em>Toxocara canis</em> larvae in experimentally infected male and female <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500698&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common infectious disease in the world. We aimed to analyze the spatial risk of tuberculosis mortality and to verify associations in high-risk areas with social vulnerability. METHODS: This was an ecological study. The scan statistic was used to detect areas at risk, and the Bivariate Moran Index was used to verify relationships between variables. RESULTS: High-risk areas of tuberculosis mortality were statistically significantly associated with domain 2 of the Social Vulnerability Index (I=0.010; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence regarding areas with high risk and that vulnerability is a determinant of TB mortality. <![CDATA[Cardiac tamponade in a patient with severe dengue fever]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500701&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract A 26-year-old postpartum female presented with symptoms characteristic of dengue fever on the 16th day of puerperium. On the third day of the illness, the patient presented a clinical picture consistent with shock. Tests determined primary infection with dengue virus serotype 2. Cardiac tamponade was confirmed by echocardiography. This rare manifestation is described in a patient without any associated comorbidity. <![CDATA[Infective endocarditis due to <em>Bartonella bacilliformis</em> associated with systemic vasculitis: a case report]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500706&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella bacilliformis is rare. A 64-year-old woman, without previous heart disease, presented with 6 weeks of fever, myalgias, and arthralgias. A systolic murmur was heard on the tricuspid area upon examination, and an echocardiogram showed endocardial lesions in the right atrium. Bartonella bacilliformis was isolated in blood cultures, defining the diagnosis of infective endocarditis using Duke’s criteria. Subsequently, the patient developed clinical and laboratory features compatible with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. This case presents an uncommon complication of B. bacilliformis infection associated with the development of systemic vasculitis. <![CDATA[A fatal case of tuberculous meningitis in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a diagnostic challenge]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500709&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract The prognosis of tuberculous meningitis, a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, depends on the stage of treatment initiation. We report a fatal case of tuberculous meningitis. The patient had received successive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists and abatacept to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis, with negative results for polymerase chain reaction and acid-fast bacilli on smear, had normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine deaminase and glucose levels. Six weeks post-admission, the CSF culture demonstrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The altered immunological responses caused by anti-TNF treatment made the diagnosis challenging. Clinicians should bear this in mind and, if suspected, treatment should be initiated immediately. <![CDATA[Colonic basidiobolomycosis with liver involvement masquerading as gastrointestinal lymphoma: a case report and literature review]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500712&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal skin infection that rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. This study reported a 5-year-old boy with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis that had been misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal lymphoma. He was treated by surgical resection and a combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate with an acceptable response and no recurrence. <![CDATA[Brazilian guidelines for the clinical management of paracoccidioidomycosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500715&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. While the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ( P. brasiliensis ) complex has been known to be the causal agent of paracoccidiodomycosis, a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii ( P. lutzii ), has been reported in Rondônia, where the disease has reached epidemic levels, and in the Central West and Pará. Accurate diagnoses and availability of antigens that are reactive with the patients’ sera remain significant challenges. Therefore, the present guidelines aims to update the first Brazilian consensus on paracoccidioidomycosis by providing evidence-based recommendations for bedside patient management. This consensus summarizes etiological, ecoepidemiological, molecular epidemiological, and immunopathological data, with emphasis on clinical, microbiological, and serological diagnosis and management of clinical forms and sequelae, as well as in patients with comorbidities and immunosuppression. The consensus also includes discussion of outpatient treatments, severe disease forms, disease prevalence among special populations and resource-poor settings, a brief review of prevention and control measures, current challenges and recommendations. <![CDATA[Dengue fever with thrombocytopenia and gingival bleeding]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500741&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. While the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ( P. brasiliensis ) complex has been known to be the causal agent of paracoccidiodomycosis, a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii ( P. lutzii ), has been reported in Rondônia, where the disease has reached epidemic levels, and in the Central West and Pará. Accurate diagnoses and availability of antigens that are reactive with the patients’ sera remain significant challenges. Therefore, the present guidelines aims to update the first Brazilian consensus on paracoccidioidomycosis by providing evidence-based recommendations for bedside patient management. This consensus summarizes etiological, ecoepidemiological, molecular epidemiological, and immunopathological data, with emphasis on clinical, microbiological, and serological diagnosis and management of clinical forms and sequelae, as well as in patients with comorbidities and immunosuppression. The consensus also includes discussion of outpatient treatments, severe disease forms, disease prevalence among special populations and resource-poor settings, a brief review of prevention and control measures, current challenges and recommendations. <![CDATA[Infiltration in a child’s face due to borderline lepromatous leprosy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500743&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. While the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ( P. brasiliensis ) complex has been known to be the causal agent of paracoccidiodomycosis, a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii ( P. lutzii ), has been reported in Rondônia, where the disease has reached epidemic levels, and in the Central West and Pará. Accurate diagnoses and availability of antigens that are reactive with the patients’ sera remain significant challenges. Therefore, the present guidelines aims to update the first Brazilian consensus on paracoccidioidomycosis by providing evidence-based recommendations for bedside patient management. This consensus summarizes etiological, ecoepidemiological, molecular epidemiological, and immunopathological data, with emphasis on clinical, microbiological, and serological diagnosis and management of clinical forms and sequelae, as well as in patients with comorbidities and immunosuppression. The consensus also includes discussion of outpatient treatments, severe disease forms, disease prevalence among special populations and resource-poor settings, a brief review of prevention and control measures, current challenges and recommendations. <![CDATA[Erratum: Brazilian guidelines for the clinical management of paracoccidioidomycosis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822017000500744&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. While the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ( P. brasiliensis ) complex has been known to be the causal agent of paracoccidiodomycosis, a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii ( P. lutzii ), has been reported in Rondônia, where the disease has reached epidemic levels, and in the Central West and Pará. Accurate diagnoses and availability of antigens that are reactive with the patients’ sera remain significant challenges. Therefore, the present guidelines aims to update the first Brazilian consensus on paracoccidioidomycosis by providing evidence-based recommendations for bedside patient management. This consensus summarizes etiological, ecoepidemiological, molecular epidemiological, and immunopathological data, with emphasis on clinical, microbiological, and serological diagnosis and management of clinical forms and sequelae, as well as in patients with comorbidities and immunosuppression. The consensus also includes discussion of outpatient treatments, severe disease forms, disease prevalence among special populations and resource-poor settings, a brief review of prevention and control measures, current challenges and recommendations.