Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 47 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Where there is no overlap, there is a gap]]> <![CDATA[Emerging alphaviruses in the Americas: Chikungunya and Mayaro]]> Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae). MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses. <![CDATA[Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study]]> Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health. <![CDATA[Vitamin A, vitamin E, iron and zinc status in a cohort of HIV-infected mothers and their uninfected infants]]> Introduction We hypothesized that nutritional deficiency would be common in a cohort of postpartum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women and their infants. Methods Weight and height, as well as blood concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, ferritin, hemoglobin, and zinc, were measured in mothers after delivery and in their infants at birth and at 6-12 weeks and six months of age. Retinol and α-tocopherol levels were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The maternal body mass index during pregnancy was adjusted for gestational age (adjBMI). Results Among the 97 women 19.6% were underweight. Laboratory abnormalities were most frequently observed for the hemoglobin (46.4%), zinc (41.1%), retinol (12.5%) and ferritin (6.5%) levels. Five percent of the women had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations &lt; 31g/dL. The most common deficiency in the infants was α-tocopherol (81%) at birth; however, only 18.5% of infants had deficient levels at six months of age. Large percentages of infants had zinc (36.8%) and retinol (29.5%) deficiencies at birth; however, these percentages decreased to 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively, by six months of age. No associations between infant micronutrient deficiencies and either the maternal adjBMI category or maternal micronutrient deficiencies were found. Conclusions Micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV-infected women and their infants. Micronutrient deficiencies were less prevalent in the infants at six months of age. Neither underweight women nor their infants at birth were at increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. <![CDATA[Hepatitis B virus genotypes and mutations in the basal core promoter and pre-core/core in chronically infected patients in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study of HBV genotypes and mutations in chronic carriers]]> Introduction In Brazil, little data exist regarding the distribution of genotypes in relation to basal core promoter (BCP) and precore/core mutations among chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers from different regions of the country. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and the frequency of mutations at the BCP and precore/core region among the prevalent genotypes in chronic carriers from southern Brazil. Methods Nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) products amplified from the S-polymerase gene, BCP and precore/core region from 54 samples were sequenced and analyzed. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the S-polymerase gene sequences showed that 66.7% (36/54) of the patients were infected with genotype D (D1, D2, D3), 25.9% (14/54) with genotype A (A1, A2), 5.6% (3/54) with subgenotype C2, and 2% (1/54) with genotype E. A comparison of virological characteristics showed significant differences between genotypes A, C and D. The comparison between HBeAg status and the G1896A stop codon mutation in patients with genotype D revealed a relationship between HBV G1896A precore mutants and genotype D and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Genotype D had a higher prevalence of the G1896A mutation and the presence of a thymine at position 1858. Genotype A was associated with a higher prevalence of the G1862T mutation and the presence of a cytosine at position 1858. Conclusions HBV genotype D (D3) is predominant in HBV chronic carriers from southern Brazil. The presence of mutations in the BCP and precore/core region was correlated with the HBV genotype and HBeAg negative status. <![CDATA[Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo]]> Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT) in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7%) was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences. <![CDATA[Potential for entomopathogenic fungi to control <em>Triatoma dimidiata</em> (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Chagas disease in Mexico]]> Introduction The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control disease vectors has become relevant because traditional chemical control methods have caused damage to the environment and led to the development of resistance among vectors. Thus, this study assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in Triatoma dimidiata. Methods Preparations of 108 conidia/ml of Gliocladium virens, Talaromyces flavus, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied topically on T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. Controls were treated with the 0.0001% Tween-80 vehicle. Mortality was evaluated and recorded daily for 30 days. The concentration required to kill 50% of T. dimidiata (LC50) was then calculated for the most pathogenic isolate. Results Pathogenicity in adults was similar among B. bassiana, G. virens and T. flavus (p&gt;0.05) and differed from that in triatomine nymphs (p=0.009). The most entomopathogenic strains in adult triatomines were B. bassiana and G. virens, which both caused 100% mortality. In nymphs, the most entomopathogenic strain was B. bassiana, followed by G. virens. The native strain with the highest pathogenicity was G. virens, for which the LC50 for T. dimidiata nymphs was 1.98 x108 conidia/ml at 13 days after inoculation. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana and G. virens showed entomopathogenic potential in T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. However, the native G. virens strain presents a higher probability of success in the field, and G. virens should thus be considered a potential candidate for the biological control of triatomine Chagas disease vectors. <![CDATA[Ecoepidemiology and biology of <em>Eratyrus mucronatus</em> Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon]]> Introduction Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 is a wild triatomine vector of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909. However, little is known regarding the biology and ecoepidemiology of this triatomine in the Brazilian Amazon. The present study describes the biology of E. mucronatus grown under laboratory conditions and the epidemiological aspects of its natural breeding sites. Methods Five colonies were monitored in the field for 3 years. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken in the mornings and afternoons at the natural breeding sites, and the behavior and distribution of the nymphs and adults were observed in the wild colony. We also monitored the life cycle under controlled laboratory conditions. Results Some factors that were considered decisive for the establishment of these colonies were present at all of the colonies studied in the field. These factors included an active termite nest, a vertebrate for repast, and dry and shaded substrates with temperatures of 24-28°C and with humidity of 80-90%. A generation was developed in 274 days under these microclimatic conditions in the laboratory. Conclusions The climatic variables described in the field indicate that these environmental parameters have a limiting effect on the dispersal and colonization of E. mucronatus to new environments. In addition, the long period of development to adulthood demonstrates that only one generation can develop per year even under the more favorable laboratory conditions. <![CDATA[Species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) present in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC), State of Minas Gerais]]> Introduction Biological collections are depositories of information on different species and contribute to the knowledge, protection, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Methods A list of triatomine species currently included in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC) was prepared from the database made available by the Reference Center on Environmental Information. Results COLVEC curatorship houses 4,778 specimens of triatomines, of which 811 come from other American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) and 3,967 are autochthonous from Brazil. Altogether, 56 species of Chagas disease vectors are represented in the COLVEC: two species of the Tribe Cavernicolini Usinger, 1944; fifteen species of the tribe Rhodniini Pinto, 1926, of which 12 are of the genus Rhodnius and 3 are of the genus Psamolestes; and 39 species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, represented by the genus Dipetalogaster, two species of the genus Eratyrus, two of the genus Meccus, seven of the genus Panstrongylus and 27 of the genus Triatoma. Conclusions This list provides important data on the diversity of triatomines currently included in COLVEC, including the expanded area of Panstrongylus lutzi occurrence in the municipalities Pirapora and Januária, State of Minas Gerais. The maintenance and expansion of the collection ensures the preservation of biodiversity and further studies. <![CDATA[Histological and endoscopic features of the stomachs of patients with Chagas disease in the era of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>]]> Introduction Most studies that have evaluated the stomachs of patients with Chagas disease were performed before the discovery of Helicobacter pylori and used no control groups. This study compared the gastric features of chagasic and non-chagasic patients and assessed whether gastritis could be associated with Chagas disease. Methods Gastric biopsy samples were taken from patients who underwent endoscopy for histological analysis according to the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori infection was assessed by histology, 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), serology and the 13C-urea breath test. Patients were considered H. pylori-negative when all of these diagnostic tests were negative. Clinical and socio-demographic data were obtained by reviewing medical records and using a questionnaire. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection (70.3% versus 71.7%) and chronic gastritis (92.2% versus 85%) was similar in the chagasic and non-chagasic groups, respectively; such as peptic ulcer, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Gastritis was associated with H. pylori infection independent of Chagas disease in a log-binomial regression model. However, the chagasic H. pylori-negative patients showed a significantly higher grade of mononuclear (in the corpus) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) (in the antrum) cell infiltration. Additionally, the patients with the digestive form of Chagas disease showed a significantly lower prevalence of corpus atrophy than those with other clinical forms. Conclusions The prevalence of H. pylori infection and of gastric histological and endoscopic features was similar among the chagasic and non-chagasic patients. Additionally, this is the first controlled study to demonstrate that H. pylori is the major cause of gastritis in patients with Chagas disease. <![CDATA[Geographical distribution of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em> in triatomine vectors in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil]]> Introduction This work presents the initial findings of a molecular epidemiological investigation of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine insects in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Methods A total of 511 triatomines from different regions of the state were examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the intestinal contents of the insects using phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers 121/122 targeting DNA kinetoplast (kDNA) was then performed to identify T. cruzi, and positive samples were subjected to PCR using the primer pair TcSC5D-F/R followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the restriction enzymes SphI and HpaI (1 U/reaction), cloning and sequencing. Results One hundred samples were positive for T. cruzi, and three discrete typing units (DTUs) were identified (TcI, TcII, and TcBat). Triatoma sordida had the highest T. cruzi occurrence (83.3%), and DTUs were found in three samples: 58.3% of the samples were TcI, 33.3% were TcII and 8.3% were TcBat. There was a clear geographical distribution of the DTUs throughout the state, with TcI, TcII and TcBat located in the center, TcI located in the east, and TcII located in the west. Conclusions This study showed the occurrence of overlapping DTUs in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The distributions of the DTUs were different, with TcI, TcII and TcBat in the center of the state, TcI predominantly in the east, and TcII in the west. Further studies may reveal a more defined mosaic distribution of DTUs in MS. <![CDATA[Poor response to azithromycin in cutaneous leishmaniasis leading to a premature interruption of a multicentric phase III clinical trial in Brazil]]> Introduction Parenteral antimony-based compounds are still the standard of care for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment in many countries, despite their high toxicity. Previous studies showed that oral azithromycin could be an option for CL treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin (AZ) for CL treatment compared with injectable meglumine antimoniate (MA). Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm, non-inferiority clinical trial. Treatment-naïve patients with localized CL were treated with MA (15mg/kg/day up to 1,215mg) or AZ (500mg/day) during 20 consecutive days. The primary efficacy end point was a CL cure 90 days after treatment completion. The analysis was performed with intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. After an anticipated interim analysis, the study was interrupted due to the high failure rate in the azithromycin group. Results Twenty-four volunteers were included in each group. The MA group had a higher cure rate than the AZ group with the ITT and PP analyses, which were 54.2% versus 20.8% [relative risk (RR) 1.97; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) 1.13-3.42] and 72.2% versus 23.8% (RR 3.03; 95%CI 1.34-6.87), respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions Azithromycin is ineffective for CL treatment and does not seem to have a role in the therapeutic arsenal for CL. <![CDATA[The changing distribution of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, 2003-2004 and 2008-2009]]> Introduction More than half of the malaria cases reported in the Americas are from the Brazilian Amazon region. While malaria is considered endemic in this region, its geographical distribution is extremely heterogeneous. Therefore, it is important to investigate the distribution of malaria and to determine regions whereby action might be necessary. Methods Changes in malaria indicators in all municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon between 2003-2004 and 2008-2009 were studied. The malaria indicators included the absolute number of malaria cases and deaths, the bi-annual parasite incidence (BPI), BPI ratios and differences, a Lorenz curve and Gini coefficients. Results During the study period, mortality from malaria remained low (0.02% deaths/case), the percent of municipalities that became malaria-free increased from 15.6% to 31.7%, and the Gini coefficient increased from 82% to 87%. In 2003, 10% of the municipalities with the highest BPI accumulated 67% of all malaria cases, compared with 2009, when 10% of the municipalities (with the highest BPI) had 80% of the malaria cases. Conclusions This study described an overall decrease in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region. As expected, an increased heterogeneity of malaria indicators was found, which reinforces the notion that a single strategy may not bring about uniformly good outcomes. The geographic clustering of municipalities identified as problem areas might help to define better intervention methods. <![CDATA[Association between allergic responses and <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> infection in residents in a low-endemic setting in Brazil]]> Introduction Schistosomiasis is endemic in 76 countries and territories. Several studies have found an inverse correlation between parasitic disease and the development of allergies. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether infection with Schistosoma mansoni in subjects with a low parasite load is protective against allergy. The final sample consisted of 39 S. mansoni-positive and 52 S. mansoni-negative residents of a small community in northeastern Brazil. Methods All subjects were submitted to the Kato-Katz test, anti-S. mansoni IgG measurement, the prick test for aeroallergens, eosinophil counts and serum IgE measurement. Results Subjects who reacted to one or more antigens in the prick test were considered allergic. Only 7 S. mansoni-positive subjects (17.9%) reacted to one or more antigens, whereas 20 S. mansoni-negative subjects (38.5%) tested positive for allergy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, in areas of low endemicity, infection with S. mansoni significantly reduces the risk of the development of allergy in subjects with a low parasite load. <![CDATA[Immature <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes colonize <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco]]> Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%), Aedes albopictus (0.03%), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8%) were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex. <![CDATA[Could hantavirus circulation superpose areas of highly endemic vaccinia virus outbreaks? A retrospective seroepidemiological study in State of Minas Gerais]]> Introduction Hantavirus infections have been described in several regions in Brazil through seroepidemiological studies. Usually, populations are associated with rural and wild environment mainly due to close contact to species of Sigmodontinae rodents, considered hantavirus reservoirs. Methods A retrospective serosurvey was conducted to access the hantavirus seroprevalence in people living in regions affected by bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Results Sera from 53 patients were analyzed and none of them presented anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. Conclusions This study presents an opportunity to analyze seronegativity despite close and recurrent contact with known hantavirus reservoirs. Aspects of hantavirus and bovine vaccinia emergence are also discussed. <![CDATA[Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices]]> Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment. <![CDATA[Outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro]]> Introduction In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to various regions. This study reports canine cases of VL in Barra Mansa, where human VL cases were recently reported. Methods Using the human index case, a canine survey was performed by dual-path platform immunochromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seropositive animals were euthanized. Cultures were collected to detect Leishmania parasites. Results Serological tests detected 141 canine VL cases, and Leishmania chagasi were isolated from 82.2% animals. Conclusions Leishmania chagasi is in circulation in Barra Mansa. This study broadens information on the parasite's distribution in the State of Rio de Janeiro. <![CDATA[Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in Jaciara, State of Mato Grosso]]> Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease. Jaciara, State of Mato Grosso has the most cases. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in urban and rural areas. Methods This cross-sectional study of domestic dogs used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test. Results The prevalence was 54.7% among 345 analyzed samples. Short coat, age of 1-6 years, and living less than 100m from vegetation posed the highest infection risks. Conclusions Certain dog behaviors and characteristics, and their correlation with environmental conditions, were relevant in the high prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in Jaciara. <![CDATA[Coinfection by <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> and <em>Leishmania</em> spp. in domestic cats (<em>Felis catus</em>) in State of Mato Grosso do Sul]]> Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4%) of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis. <![CDATA[Leprosy and pregnancy: detection coefficient and proposal for a new index]]> Introduction Our study presents a method to generate a novel detection coefficient for the association between leprosy and pregnancy (DCLP). Methods The DCLP was calculated for women from the State of Pará (2007-2009), Brazil. Data were ordered, divided into five equal parts (corresponding to the P20, P40, P60, and P80 percentiles), and classified as low, medium, high, very high, or hyperendemic. Results Using the new index, we established the DCLP parameters for low (&lt;0.36), medium (0.36-0.69), high (0.70-1.09), very high (1.10-1.50), and hyperendemic (&gt;1.50). Conclusions The new DCLP is more appropriate than the overall detection coefficient (DC), which does not take into account the particularities of the interaction between a disease and a specific physiological state. <![CDATA[Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil]]> Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites. <![CDATA[Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV and sporotrichosis coinfection: report of two cases and review of the literature]]> We report 2 cases of patients with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) associated with cutaneous disseminated sporotrichosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The patients received specific treatment for sporotrichosis. However, after 4 and 5 weeks from the beginning of antiretroviral therapy, both patients experienced clinical exacerbation of skin lesions despite increased T CD4+ cells (T cells cluster of differentiation 4 positive) count and decreased viral load. Despite this exacerbation, subsequent mycological examination after systemic corticosteroid administration did not reveal fungal growth. Accordingly, they were diagnosed with IRIS. However, the sudden withdrawal of the corticosteroids resulted in the recurrence of IRIS symptoms. No serious adverse effects could be attributed to prednisone. We recommend corticosteroid treatment for mild-to-moderate cases of IRIS in sporotrichosis and HIV coinfection with close follow-up. <![CDATA[Myocarditis associated with <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> malaria: a case report]]> Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis. <![CDATA[Diagnosis and management of acute puerperal bartholinitis caused by <em>Escherichia coli</em>]]> Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis. <![CDATA[Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, extended spectrum beta lactamases, and multi-drug resistance is a problem similar to global warming]]> Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis. <![CDATA[Authors' reply: Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and extended spectrum β-lactamases, and multi-drug resistance are problems similar to global warming]]> Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis. <![CDATA[Eduardo Olavo da Rocha e Silva (✶1926 †2014)]]> Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis.