Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 46 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Author recognition, impact factor, relevance, and the meaning of publishing]]> <![CDATA[Involvement and interactions of different immune cells and their cytokines in human visceral leishmaniasis]]> Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a disseminated infection of the lymphoreticular system of the body, is marked by severe defect in immune system of the host. Successful cure of VL depends on the immune status of the host in combination with the effects of the antileishmanial drugs. The rationale approach towards eradication of this disease would be to potentiate the immune functioning of the host in addition to parasite killing. This review deals with different aspects of adaptive and innate immune responses and explores their role in protection or pathogenesis of VL. IL-10 has emerged as the principal cytokine responsible for disease pathogenesis, although evidences regarding its source during active VL remain inconclusive. On the other hand, IFNγ, under the influence of IL-12, is mostly correlated with healing of the disease. Chemokines are important in mounting cell-mediated immune response as they can prevent parasite invasion in association with cytokines. Different types of T cells like CD4, CD8 and NK T cells also contribute to the immunology of this disease. In spite of conflicting reports, the role of regulatory T cells in VL pathogenesis is important. Recently discovered Th17 subset and its different members have been reported to perform diverse functions in the course of VL and leishmaniasis as a whole. Innate immune responses, depending on the cell types, are essential in early parasite detection and subsequent development of an efficient NK cell response. Immunotherapy targeting IL-10 could be looked upon as an interesting option for the treatment of VL. <![CDATA[The characteristics, clinical manifestations and outcomes of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the elderly]]> IntroductionThe objetctive of this study was to evaluate the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in the elderly and identify the clinical characteristics, mortality and prognostic factors of the infection in these patients.MethodsThis was an observational, retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Only patients 60 years old or more that had laboratory confirmed infections were included. The socio-demographic and clinical variables and outcomes were evaluated to compare mortality rates in the presence or absence of these factors.ResultsWe included 93 patients in the study, 16.1% of whom died. The symptoms of cough and dyspnea, the use of the antiviral oseltamivir, influenza vaccine and comorbidities influenced the outcomes of cure or death. Chest radiography can aid in diagnosis.ConclusionsAlthough relatively few elderly people were infected, this population presented high lethality that can be justified by the sum of clinical, physical and immunological factors in this population. Treatment with oseltamivir and vaccination against seasonal influenza have significantly reduced rates of hospitalization and mortality. <![CDATA[Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: epidemiological analysis of cases in a tropical/semi-arid region of Brazil]]> IntroductionThe year 2009 marked the beginning of a pandemic caused by a new variant of influenza A (H1N1). After spreading through North America, the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1) 2009 spread rapidly throughout the world. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases of pandemic influenza in a tropical/semi-arid region of Brazil.MethodsA retrospective study analyzed all suspected cases of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 reported in the Ceará State through the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases during the pandemic period between 28 April, 2009 and November 25, 2010.ResultsA total of 616 suspected cases were notified, 58 (9.4%) in the containment phase and 558 (90.6%) in the mitigation phase. Most cases were of affected young people resident in the City of Fortaleza, the largest urban center in the State of Ceará. The most frequent symptoms presented by the cases with confirmed infection were fever, cough, myalgia, arthralgia, and nasal congestion. Mortality rate was 0.0009/1,000 inhabitants and lethality was 5.6%. Deaths were observed only in the mitigation phase. Mortality rates were similar for both sexes but were higher in the age group under 5 years.ConclusionsThe study suggests that the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in this tropical/semi-arid region had a lower magnitude when compared to states in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. <![CDATA[Autoantibody profile in individuals with chronic hepatitis C]]> IntroductionAutoantibodies are often produced during infection with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), but it remains controversial whether they influence the biochemical profile and histological features of this disease. Therefore, this current study sought to describe these autoantibodies and evaluate their impact on the clinical and histological presentation of hepatitis C.MethodsThis cross-sectional analytical study assessed patients with HCV (RNA+) from October 2011 to July 2012.ResultsThis study included 66 patients, with a mean age of 53.2±10.5 years. Of these patients, 60.6% were male, and 54.3% presented with genotype 1. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSA) were detected in 24% of the patients; of these, 7.6% were anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA+), 26.7% were anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA+) and 6.8% were liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM1+). With respect to the thyroid autoantibodies, 7.4% were anti-peroxidase (ATPO+) antibodies, and none were anti-thyroglobulin (ATG+) antibodies. Regarding celiac disease autoantibodies, 5.8% were endomysial antibodies (EMA+), and no transglutaminase (TTG+) antibodies were detected. Cryoglobulins were found in 2.1% of patients. When NOSA+ individuals were compared to patients without the presence of NOSAs, they exhibited higher median alkaline phosphatase (0.7 vs. 0.6 xULN; p=0.041), lower median platelet counts (141,500.0 vs. 180,500.0/mm3; p=0.036), lower mean prothrombin activity (72.6±11.5% vs. 82.2±16.0%; p=0.012) and an increased prevalence of significant fibrosis (E≥2) (45.5% vs. 18.2%; p=0.012). There was also a tendency for a greater proportion of NOSA+ cases to have marked periportal activity (APP≥3) (44.5% vs. 15.6%; p=0.087).ConclusionsIn addition to the high prevalence of autoantibodies associated with HCV infection, it was observed that NOSA positivity was associated with a more severe histological and biochemical profile of hepatitis C infection. <![CDATA[<em>In vitro</em> detection of hepatitis C virus in platelets from uninfected individuals exposed to the virus]]> IntroductionDespite hepatocytes being the target cells of hepatitis C virus (HCV), viral ribonucleic acid RNA has been detected in other cells, including platelets, which have been described as carriers of the virus in the circulation of infected patients. Platelets do not express cluster differentiation 81 CD81, the main receptor for the virus in hepatocytes, although this receptor protein has been found in megakaryocytes. Still, it is not clear if HCV interacts with platelets directly or if this interaction is a consequence of its association with megakaryocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of HCV with platelets from non-infected individuals, after in vitro exposure to the virus.MethodsPlatelets obtained from 50 blood donors not infected by HCV were incubated in vitro at 37°C for 48h with serum containing 100,000IU∕mL of genotype 1 HCV. After incubation, RNA extracted from the platelets was assayed for the presence of HCV by reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR.ResultsAfter incubation in the presence of virus, all samples of platelets showed HCV RNA.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that, in vitro, the virus interacts with platelets despite the absence of the receptor CD81, suggesting that other molecules could be involved in this association. <![CDATA[Human immunodeficiency virus/<em>Leishmania infantum</em> in the first foci of urban American visceral leishmaniasis: clinical presentation from 1994 to 2010]]> INTRODUCTION:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani, the agents of visceral leishmaniasis (or kala-azar), has become a fatal public health problem in the tropics where kala-azar is endemic.METHODS:The clinical presentation of patients with HIV and L. infantum coinfection is described using two unique databases that together produce the largest case series of patients with kala-azar infected with HIV in South America. First, a retrospective study paired the list of all patients with kala-azar from 1994 to 2004 with another of all patients with HIV/AIDS from the reference hospital for both diseases in the City of Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. Beginning in 2005 through to 2010 this information was prospectively collected at the moment of hospitalization.RESULTS:During the study, 256 admissions related to 224 patients with HIV/L. infantum coinfection were registered and most of them were males between 20-40 years of age. Most of the 224 patients were males between 20-40 years of age. HIV contraction was principally sexual. The most common symptoms and signs were pallor, fever, asthenia and hepatosplenomegaly. 16.8% of the cohort died. The primary risk factors associated to death were kidney or respiratory failure, somnolence, hemorrhagic manifestations and a syndrome of systemic inflammation. The diagnosis of HIV and kala-azar was made simultaneously in 124 patients.CONCLUSIONS:The urban association between HIV and kala-azar coinfection in South America is worrisome due to difficulty in establishing the diagnosis and higher mortality among the coinfected then those with either disease independently. HIV/L. infantum coinfection exhibits some singular characteristics and due to its higher mortality it requires immediate assistance to patients and greater research on appropriate combination therapy. <![CDATA[Human adenovirus detection among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients presenting acute respiratory infection]]> INTRODUCTION: Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play an important role in the etiology of severe acute lower respiratory infection, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The aim of the present study was detect the HAdV through different methods: direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-nested) from patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) up to 7 days of symptoms onset.METHODS:Samples (n=643) were collected from different risk groups during from 2001 to 2010: 139 adults attended in an Emergency Room Patients (ERP); 205 health care workers (HCW); 69 from Renal Transplant Outpatients (RTO); 230 patients in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) program.RESULTS:Among all patients (n=643) adenovirus was detected on 13.2% by DFA and/or PCR: 6/139 (4.3%) adults from ERP, 7/205 (3.4%) from HCW samples, 4/69 (5.8%) from RTO and 68/230 (29.5%) from HSCT patients. Nested PCR showed higher detection (10%) compared to DFA test (3.8%) (p &lt; 0.001). HSCT patients presented significantly higher prevalence of HAdV infection.CONCLUSIONS:Adenovirus detection through nested-PCR assay was higher. However the inclusion of molecular method in laboratorial routine diagnostic should be evaluated considering the reality of each specific health service. <![CDATA[Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil]]> IntroductionThe yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8%) number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás.MethodsThirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%), were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus.ResultsWe found a high (97.6%) frequency of protective titers (&gt;1:10) of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age.ConclusionsThis study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas. <![CDATA[Larval control of <em>Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus) darlingi</em>using granular formulation of <em>Bacillus sphaericus</em> in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest]]> INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period.METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r) CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae) surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6) treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p&lt; 0.0001, n=51) while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p&lt;0.001).CONCLUSIONS:VectoLex(r) CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of <em>Aedes</em> (<em>Stegomyia</em>) <em>aegypti</em> (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to temephos]]> INTRODUCTION:The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypticollected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba.METHODS:Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector.RESULTS:All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR) greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50) was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity.CONCLUSIONS:Aedes aegyptiis widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos. <![CDATA[<em>cagE</em> as a biomarker of the pathogenicity of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>]]> IntroductionHelicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastro-duodenal diseases. Genes related to pathogenicity have been described for H. pylori and some of them appear to be associated with more severe clinical outcomes of the infection. The present study investigates the role of cagE as a pathogenicity biomarker of H. pylori compare it to cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2 genes and correlate with endoscopic diagnoses.MethodsWere collected biopsy samples of 144 dyspeptic patients at the Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After collection, the samples were sent for histological examination, DNA extraction and detection of all putative pathogenicity genes by PCR.ResultsOf the 144 patients undergoing endoscopy, 57 (39.6%) presented H. pylori by histological examination and PCR by detection of the ureA gene. Based on the endoscopic diagnoses, 45.6% (26/57) of the patients had erosive gastritis, while 54.4% (31/57) had enanthematous gastritis. The genes cagA, cagE, vacAs1/m1, vacAs1/m2 and iceA1 were related to erosive gastritis, while the genes vacAs2/m2, iceA2 and babA2 were associated to enanthematous gastritis. We found a statistically significant association between the presence of cagE and the endoscopic diagnosis. However, we detect no statistically significant association between the endoscopic diagnosis and the presence of cagA, vacA, iceA and babA2, although a biological association has been suggested.ConclusionsThus, cagE could be a risk biomarker for gastric lesions and may contribute to a better evaluation of the H. pylori pathogenic potential and to the prognosis of infection evolution in the gastric mucosa. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources]]> IntroductionThe objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources.Methodsthe trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters.ResultsOf the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5%) was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education.ConclusionsThe recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs. <![CDATA[Epidemiological profile of <em>Trypanosoma cruzi</em>-infected mothers and live birth conditions in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil]]> INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers and the live birth conditions of neonates.METHODS:A serological survey with IgG-specific tests was conducted using dried blood samples from newborn infants in the State of Minas Gerais. T. cruzi infection was confirmed in mothers through positive serology in two different tests, and infected mothers were required to have their infants serologically tested after the age of 6 months. The birth conditions of the neonates were obtained from the System of Information on Live Births database.RESULTS:The study included 407 children born to T. cruzi-infected mothers and 407 children born to uninfected mothers. The average age of seropositive mothers was 32 years (CI95% 31.3-32.6), which was greater than the average age of seronegative mothers - 25 years (CI95% 24.8-25.2). The mothers' level of education was higher among uninfected mothers (41% had 8 or more years of education, versus 22% between the infected mothers). Vaginal delivery was more frequent among infected mothers. There was no evidence of inter-group differences with respect to the child's sex, gestational age, birth weight or Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity and respiration (APGAR) scores at 1 and 5 minutes.Conclusions:The level of education and the greater number of previous pregnancies and cases of vaginal delivery reflect the lower socioeconomical conditions of the infected mothers. In the absence of vertical transmission, neonates had similar health status irrespective of the infection status of their mothers. <![CDATA[Prevalence and risk factors for <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> infection among pregnant and postpartum women attended at public healthcare facilities in the City of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> IntroductionTo determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant and postpartum women attended within the public healthcare system in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, and to detect possible exposure factors associated with T. gondii infection in this population.MethodsIgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies were investigated in 276 pregnant and 124 postpartum women by using the indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) and immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) techniques. The participants were selected by convenience sampling. All these 400 patients filled out a free and informed consent statement, answered an epidemiological questionnaire and were informed about the disease.ResultsAmong the 400 samples analyzed, 234 (58.5%) were reactive to IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies, according to the IFAT and/or ELISA assay. One pregnant woman was found to be reactive to IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies, with an intermediate IgG avidity test. Risk factor analysis showed that seropositivity was significantly associated (p&lt;0.05) with age, contact with cats and presence of rodents at home. Through a logistic regression model, these associations were confirmed for age and contact with cats, while education at least of the high school level was found to be a protective factor.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in the City of Niterói was high and the risk factors for infection detected after multivariate analysis were: age over 30 years, contact with cats and education levels lower than university graduate level. <![CDATA[Acute schistosomiasis diagnosis: a new tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a group of travelers recently infected in a new focus of <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em>]]> IntroductionThe diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni on early stages of infection is important to prevent late morbidity. A simple, cheap, sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection based on the detection of specific IgG for schistosomula tegument antigens (ELISA-SmTeg) was developed by our group.MethodsWe describe here an acute outbreak involving a travel group of 80 individuals from a non-endemic area of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These individuals were in contact with a freshwater pool where Biomphalaria glabrata was found. Results obtained from our new methodology were compared to IgG antibody titers against soluble worm antigenic preparation (SWAP) by ELISA and, also to parasitological examination, nuclear magnetic resonance and clinical findings.ResultsELISA-SmTeg was capable of detecting 64 positive cases among the 80 individuals participating at the survey with a positivity ratio of 80% and a higher sensitivity than ELISA-SWAP that was only sensitive for 56% of positive cases. Besides, a significant correlation was found for the severity of the infection and the specific IgG titers against SmTeg.ConclusionsOur data showed that ELISA-SmTeg might serve as the initial diagnostic tool for acute stages of the infection in community-based helminth control programs or for the surveillance of individuals from non-endemic areas. <![CDATA[Survey of Bancroftian filariasis infection in humans and <em>Culex</em> mosquitoes in the western Brazilian Amazon region: implications for transmission and control]]> IntroductionThe aim of this work was to identify possible lymphatic filariasis foci in the western Brazilian Amazonian that could be established from the reports of Rachou in the 1950s. The study was conducted in three cities of the western Brazilian Amazon region - Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim (State of Rondônia) and Humaitá (State of Amazonas).MethodsFor human infection evaluation thick blood smear stained with Giemsa was used to analyze samples collected from 10pm to 1am. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine mosquito vectors for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Humans were randomly sampled from night schools students and from inhabitants in neighborhoods lacking sanitation. Mosquitoes were collected from residences only.ResultsA total 2,709 night students enrolled in the Program for Education of Young Adults (EJA), and 935 people registered in the residences near the schools were examined, being 641 from Porto Velho, 214 from Guajará-Mirim and 80 from Humaitá. No individual examined was positive for the presence of microfilariae in the blood stream. A total of 7,860 female Culex quinquefasciatus specimens examined were negative by PCR.ConclusionsThis survey including human and mosquito examinations indicates that the western Amazon region of Brazil is not a focus of Bancroftian filariasis infection or transmission. Therefore, there is no need to be included in the Brazilian lymphatic filariasis control program. <![CDATA[Identification of dengue viruses in naturally infected <em>Aedes aegypti</em> females captured with BioGents (BG)-Sentinel traps in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil]]> IntroductionIn Manaus, the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever were registered in 1998. Since then, dengue cases were diagnosed by the isolation of viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4.MethodsOne hundred eighty-seven mosquitoes were collected with BioGents (BG)-Sentinel traps in 15 urban residential areas in the Northern Zone of Manaus and processed by molecular tests.ResultsInfections with dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 and a case of co-infection with dengue viruses 2 and 3 were identified.ConclusionsThese findings corroborate the detection of dengue in clinical samples and reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance by the Health authorities. <![CDATA[Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009]]> IntroductionYellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes.MethodsDescriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009.ResultsForty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners.ConclusionsThe presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its capital demonstrates the dispersion of these vectors and underscores the need for better and continuous epidemiological and entomological control. <![CDATA[Rotavirus G2P[4] and G2P[4]+[6] infections during norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak: summer season 2010, Brazil]]> IntroductionThis study aimed to monitor the seasonality of rotavirus infection, and gain insight into the variability of Brazilian strains.MethodsA total of 28 stool samples were analyzed from 698 revised cases of gastroenteritis during a norovirus outbreak in the summer of 2010 in Guarujá, Brazil. Diagnosis was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing.ResultsRotavirus infection was detected in 17.9% (5/28) of samples; 4 samples were G2P[4] genotype, and one G2P[4]+P[6] genotype. G2 and P[4] sequences showed a genetic relationship to strains from India and Russia, respectively.ConclusionsThe seasonal pattern of rotavirus may be a consequence of human activity apart from climate factors. <![CDATA[Survey of sandfly vectors of leishmaniasis in Marambaia Island, municipality of Mangaratiba, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> IntroductionThe influx and efflux of military personnel in the possible endemic areas of leishmaniasis provided the impetus for research on the sandflies on Marambaia Island.MethodsSandflies were collected with light traps installed in the 3 ecotypes of 3 areas chosen for their particular landscape aspects.ResultsIn 2009, were collected 32,006 specimens of sandflies belonging to 13 species. The species that showed highest density were Nyssomyia intermedia and Migoneimyia migonei.ConclusionsN. intermedia and M. migonei are the principal vectors of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil; thus, extension studies related to the eco-epidemiology of these species of Marambaia Island are essential. <![CDATA[Non-biting flying insects as carriers of pathogenic bacteria in a Brazilian hospital]]> IntroductionInsects have been described as mechanical vectors of nosocomial infections.MethodsNon-biting flying insects were collected inside a pediatric ward and neonatal-intensive care unit (ICU) of a Brazilian tertiary hospital.ResultsMost (86.4%) of them were found to carry one or more species of bacteria on their external surfaces. The bacteria isolated were Gram-positive bacilli (68.2%) or cocci (40.9%), and Gram-negative bacilli (18.2%).ConclusionsInsects collected inside a hospital were carrying pathogenic bacteria; therefore, one must consider the possibility they may act as mechanical vectors of infections, in especially for debilitated or immune-compromised patients in the hospital environments where the insects were collected. <![CDATA[Haemoglobin and red cell counts in leptospirosis patients infected with different serovars]]> IntroductionThe aim of the study was to compare haemoglobin and red cell counts between patients known to be infected with a range of leptospiral serovars.MethodsThe study retrospectively compared the haemoglobin and red cell count results from the first blood samples taken from 207 patients at presentation to a Queensland Health hospital.ResultsSignificant differences were observed in haemoglobin and red cell counts in those infected with Leptospira interrogans serovars Szwajizak and Canicola when compared with most of the other serovars.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that haemoglobin and red cell counts may be useful in differentiating leptospiral serovars in leptospirosis patients. <![CDATA[Occurrence of strongyloidiasis among patients with HTLV-1/2 seen at the outpatient clinic of the <em>Núcleo de Medicina Tropical</em>, Belém, State of Pará, Brazil]]> IntroductionThis study investigated the occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation and coinfection with HTLV-1/2 in Belém, Brazil.MethodsS. stercoralis was investigated in stool samples obtained from individuals infected with HTLV-1/2 and their uninfected relatives.ResultsThe frequency of S. stercoralis was 9% (9/100), including six patients infected with HTLV-1 (14.3%), two patients infected with HTLV-2 (11.1%), and one uninfected relative. Two cases of hyperinfestation by S. stercoralis were characterized as HTLV-1.ConclusionsThese results support the need for the routine investigation of S. stercoralis in patients with HTLV-1, in an attempt to prevent the development of severe forms of strongyloidiasis. <![CDATA[Susceptibility to amphotericin B of <em>Candida</em> spp. strains isolated in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil]]> IntroductionAmphotericin B (AMB) is an antifungal agent used extensively in clinical medicine, yet resistance remains low. This study aims to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp. against AMB.MethodsFor broth microdilution susceptibility testing, 77 strains of Candida spp. were selected (32 C. albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, and 12 C. parapsilosis). The strains were considered susceptible when they exhibited MIC≤1.0µg/ml.ResultsNone of the strains showed an MIC greater than 0.25µg/ml.ConclusionsFurther works are necessary, with a higher number of strains, to assess the validity of the results used in this study. <![CDATA[Atrial flutter complicating severe leptospirosis: a case report]]> Cardiac disturbances are relatively common and electrocardiographic abnormalities may be found in more than 70% of patients with leptospirosis. We report the case of a 68 year-old male with severe leptospirosis who developed atrial flutter. Effective treatment was done with amiodarone. The patient became clinical stable, with complete recovery. Rigorous clinical observation and continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring may facilitate the identification of rhythm disorders, and thus prevent a probable fatal outcome, in severe cases of leptospirosis. <![CDATA[Bone tuberculosis: a case report on child]]> The authors report a case of a 12-year-old child with a complaint of pain and deformity in the lower thoracic region that had lasted for two years. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics associated with images of apparent damage in the T9-T10 and T11-T12 vertebrae taken by radiography of the thoracic spine and nuclear magnetic resonance in addition to the positivity of the molecular test based on the polymerase chain reaction, led to tuberculous spondylitis being diagnosed and specific therapy was started. Culture of vertebral biopsy was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis after thirty days. <![CDATA[Anal polyp caused by <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em>]]> We describe a schistosomal polyp in the anus of a 24-year-old patient, born in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, and living in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais. From 8 to 13 years of age, he swam in the rivers that bathe Viçosa. The histopathological examination has shown a lesion, lined by a keratinized squamous epithelium, ulcerated, with granulomas, centered or not by Schistosoma mansoni egg, laid, in loco, by the female present in the vascular lumen of a vein of the hemorrhoidal plexus. There was also a diffuse, nonspecific inflammation in the dermis. The patient was treated with praziquantel. Four months after the treatment, sigmoidoscopy showed a normal rectal mucosa, and negative oogram and stool tests. Ultrasound of abdomen was normal. <![CDATA[Bilateral posterior circulation stroke secondary to a crotalid envenomation: case report]]> Snake bite envenoming is a disease with potential serious neurological complications. We report a case of an adolescent who was bitten by a rattlesnake and developed bilateral posterior circulation stroke. The rattlesnake was later identified as being Crotalus durissus terrificus. Stroke was probably due to toxic vasculitis or toxin-induced vascular spasm and endothelial damage. <![CDATA[Pseudo-tumoral spinal cord schistosomiasis]]> Snake bite envenoming is a disease with potential serious neurological complications. We report a case of an adolescent who was bitten by a rattlesnake and developed bilateral posterior circulation stroke. The rattlesnake was later identified as being Crotalus durissus terrificus. Stroke was probably due to toxic vasculitis or toxin-induced vascular spasm and endothelial damage. <![CDATA[The potential role of vitamins in the management of Chagas disease]]> Snake bite envenoming is a disease with potential serious neurological complications. We report a case of an adolescent who was bitten by a rattlesnake and developed bilateral posterior circulation stroke. The rattlesnake was later identified as being Crotalus durissus terrificus. Stroke was probably due to toxic vasculitis or toxin-induced vascular spasm and endothelial damage. <![CDATA[João Carlos da Costa (*1935 †2012)]]> Snake bite envenoming is a disease with potential serious neurological complications. We report a case of an adolescent who was bitten by a rattlesnake and developed bilateral posterior circulation stroke. The rattlesnake was later identified as being Crotalus durissus terrificus. Stroke was probably due to toxic vasculitis or toxin-induced vascular spasm and endothelial damage.