Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical]]> vol. 50 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Implications of SNPs on toll-like receptor genes in malaria: what do we know?]]> <![CDATA[A meta-analysis of TLR4 and TLR9 SNPs implicated in severe malaria]]> Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response to malarial infection, and gene polymorphisms affecting TLR function may be partially responsible for inter-individual variation in disease manifestation. However, there are inconsistencies in the associations of common genetic variants of TLR4 (D299G) and TLR9 (T-1237C and T-1486C) with malaria outcome. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify relevant and independent Plasmodium falciparum-infected case-control studies, and meta-analysis including six studies for each SNP was performed to obtain more precise estimates of the pooled effects of these variants. The results showed significant associations of the -1486C allele with the risk of severe malaria in allele contrast (T vs. C, p = 0.004, OR = 1.26) and homozygous (TT vs. CC, p = 0.03, OR = 1.51) genetic models. There was no association between the D299G or T-1237C variants and uncomplicated or severe malaria using any of the genetic models tested. However, in stratified analysis, -1237C was associated with the risk of severe malaria in Indian adults (TT vs. TC, p = 0.06, OR = 2.13; TT vs. TC+CC, p &lt;0.00001, OR = 2.65), suggesting that our results must be considered preliminary. The robustness of -1486C as a risk factor warrants investigation into its functionality in malaria pathogenesis. Further, the lack of an association with the T-1237C variant was weak, and future studies examining more detailed individual data from different ethnic groups are essential for confirmation of its genetic contribution to malaria. <![CDATA[Circulating microRNA as a marker for predicting liver disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes an important risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The link between circulating microRNAs and HBV has been previously reported, although not as a marker of liver disease progression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to characterize miRNA expression profiles between CHB with and without cirrhosis or HCC. METHODS: A total of 12 subjects were recruited in this study. We employed an Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA 3.0 Array to provide universal miRNA coverage. We compared microRNA expression profiles between CHB with and without cirrhosis/HCC to discover possible prognostic markers associated with the progression of CHB. RESULTS: Our results indicated 8 differently expressed microRNAs, of which miRNA-935, miRNA-342, miRNA-339, miRNA-4508, miRNA-3615, and miRNA-3200 were up-regulated, whereas miRNA-182 and miRNA-4485 were down-regulated in patients with CHB who progressed to cirrhosis/HCC as compared to those without progression. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the differential expression of miRNA-935, miRNA-342, miRNA-339, miRNA-4508, miRNA-3615, miRNA-3200, miRNA-182, and miRNA-4485 between patients with HBV without cirrhosis/HCC and those who had progressed to these more severe conditions. These miRNAs may serve as novel and non-invasive prognostic markers for early detection of CHB-infected patients who are at risk of progression to cirrhosis and/or HCC. <![CDATA[Carbapenem-resistant <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> contamination in an intensive care unit]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major pathogen causing infections in intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presence of A. baumannii in an ICU environment and gloves from ICU workers and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates in comparison with those isolated from ICU patients at the same hospital. METHODS: ICU samples were collected from March to November 2010. Isolates biochemically characterized as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex were evaluated by PCR targeting the 16S rDNA and bla OXA-51 genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion method, and carbapenem-resistant isolates were also evaluated for the minimum inhibitory concentration of imipenem using broth microdilution. The presence of the bla OXA-23 gene was evaluated in isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. RESULTS: A. baumannii was detected in 9.5% (84) of the 886 samples collected from the ICU environment, including from furniture, medical devices, and gloves, with bed rails being the most contaminated location (23.8%; 20/84). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii was found in 98.8% (83/84) of non-clinical and 97.8% (45/46) of clinical isolates. Reduced susceptibility to carbapenems was detected in 83.3% (70/84) of non-clinical and 80.4% (37/46) of clinical isolates. All isolates resistant to carbapenems harbored bla OXA-23. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong similarity between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of non-clinical and clinical A. baumannii isolates. Such data highlight the ICU environment as a potential origin for the persistence of MDR A. baumannii, and hence the ICU may be a source of hospital-acquired infections caused by this microorganism. <![CDATA[Phenotypic methods for screening carbapenem-resistant <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> and assessment of their antimicrobial susceptibility profile]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we used phenotypic methods to screen carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs) and evaluated their antimicrobial sensitivity profile. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-eight CREs were isolated at a university hospital in south Brazil in a one-year period. Samples were assessed using disk diffusion tests with inhibitors of β-lactamases such as phenylboronic acid (AFB), cloxacillin (CLOXA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Strains with differences in zone diameters ≥ 5mm for disks supplemented or not were considered producers of carbapenemases. RESULTS: Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent CRE, which appeared in 80.3% cases (n = 143). Among clinical materials, the rectal swab was responsible for 43.4% of the isolations (n = 62), followed by urine (18.9%; n = 27). Among the CREs identified in this study, the growth of 56.7% (n = 101) isolates, which were putative producers of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), were inhibited by AFB, whereas 7.3% (n = 13) isolates were inhibited by both AFB and CLOXA and were considered as putative producers of plasmid-mediated AmpC; approximately 3.4% (n = 6) were inhibited by EDTA, which possibly produced metallo-β-lactamase. Lastly, 32.6% (n = 58) cases showed negative results for AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA sensitivity, and represented another class of β-lactamases and/or mechanism of resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic screening of CREs is important for clinical laboratories that monitor outbreaks of resistant microbes. Phenotypic tests that use carbapenemase inhibitors and enhancers such as AFB, CLOXA, and EDTA are necessary since they are good screening methods for the detection of carbapenemases. <![CDATA[Group B <em>Streptococcus</em> detection in pregnant women via culture and PCR methods]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population. METHODS: Vaginal introitus and perianal samples were collected from 204 pregnant women, between the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University of Caxias do Sul General Hospital between June 2008 and September 2009. All samples were cultured after enrichment in a selective medium and then assayed by culture and PCR methods. RESULTS: The culture and PCR methods yielded detection rates of vaginal/perianal GBS colonization of 22.5% and 26%, respectively (sensitivity 100%; specificity 95.6%; positive and negative predictive values 86.8% and 100%, respectively). A higher prevalence of GBS colonization was detected in the combined vaginal and perianal samples by both culture and PCR assay analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a faster and more efficient method for GBS screening, allowing for optimal identification of women who should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent newborn infection. <![CDATA[Evaluation of antioxidant therapy in experimental Chagas disease]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines may cause oxidative stress in Chagas disease. In this study, we evaluated the merit of vitamins C and E as antioxidant therapy to minimize the oxidative stress-induced damage in an experimental model of Chagas disease. METHODS: Ninety-six Swiss mice were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi QM2 and treated with vitamins C, E, or both (C/E) for 60 and 120 days, and their effects compared to placebo administration were evaluated in the acute and chronic disease phases. RESULTS: There was no difference in parasitemia among treatment groups. However, histological analysis showed more severe inflammation in the skeletal muscle in the vitamin supplementation groups at both the acute and chronic phases. Biochemical analyses during the acute phase showed increased ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the vitamin C and C/E groups. In the chronic phase, a decrease in GSH levels was observed in the vitamin E group and a decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was observed in the vitamin C/E group. Moreover, there was a decrease in TBARS in the cardiac tissues of the vitamin C and C/E groups compared to that of the placebo group, although this level was greater in the vitamin E group than in the vitamin C group. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant action of vitamins C and E reduced oxidative stress in both the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease, with a marked effect from joint administration, indicating their inherent synergism. <![CDATA[Evaluating respiratory musculature, quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with indeterminate chronic Chagas disease and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is progressive and incapacitating, especially when cardiopulmonary function is affected. For example, respiratory muscle weakness can cause dyspnea upon exertion and fatigue, which may be exacerbated when it is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The present study aimed to evaluate respiratory musculature, quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH. METHODS: All individuals completed a clinical evaluation, spirometry, a 6-min walking test, respiratory musculature testing using maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: We evaluated 107 patients who were assigned to a control group with only CD (G1, 8 patients), a group with CD and possible PH (G2, 93 patients), and a group with CD and echocardiography evidence of PH (G3, 6 patients). The three groups had similar values for PImax and PEmax. Compared to the G1 and G2 groups, the G3 group covered significantly less distance during the 6-min walking test and had a significantly shorter predicted distance (p &lt; 0.05 vs. the G1 group). All three groups had similar values for their spirometry results, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, and SF-36 questionnaire results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH did not experience significant impairment in the studied variables, with the exception of the 6-min walking test, which suggests a low exercise tolerance. <![CDATA[Concordance between IFNγ gene +874 A/T polymorphism and interferon-γ expression in a TB-endemic indigenous setting]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays a crucial role in resistance to mycobacterial diseases; accordingly, variants of the gene encoding this cytokine may be associated with elevated risk of contracting pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 135 Warao indigenous individuals with newly diagnosed sputum culture-positive TB. Of these, 24 were diagnosed with active tuberculosis (ATB). The study comprised 111 participants, who were grouped as follows: 1) 14 tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive Warao indigenous individuals and 4 that were QuantiFERON-TB?Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) test-positive, collectively comprising the latent TB infection group (LTBI), n = 18), and 2) healthy controls who were QFT-IT- and TST-negative, comprising the control group (CTRL, n = 93). Detection of the IFN γ gene (IFNG) +874A/T polymorphism was performed via PCR and quantification of IFNG expression via qPCR. RESULTS: Relative to indigenous and white Americans, ATB and CTRL groups had a higher frequency of the IFNG SNP (+874A): 23 (95.8%) and 108 (97.3%), respectively. Indigenous Warao individuals homozygous for the IFNG (+874) A allele exhibited 3.59-fold increased risk of developing TB (95% confidence interval, 2.60-4.96, p =0.0001). A decreased frequency of the AT genotype was observed in individuals with pulmonary TB (4.16%) and controls (0.90%). The frequency of the TT genotype was decreased among controls (1.80%); none of the patients with TB were found to have this genotype. The differences in IFNG expression between the groups, under unstimulated and stimulated conditions, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results demonstrate concordance between IFNG +874 A/A genotype and low expression of IFNG. <![CDATA[Analysis of clinical data and T helper 1/T helper 2 responses in patients with different clinical forms of leprosy]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are no laboratory tests or sensitive and specific molecular markers for the early diagnosis of leprosy. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with leprosy and investigate their immunological profile, comparing this with the type of lesion and the presence or absence of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar. METHODS: Statistical analyzes were performed by employing comparative tests (Pearson´s chi-square) to evaluate the variables in different clinical forms, considering significance at the 5% level. RESULTS: The study identified a predominance of lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) in patients aged between 34-53 years. Caucasians predominantly had borderline tuberculoid (BT) clinical forms (42%); a predominance of males with borderline lepromatous (19%) and lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) forms was observed; and the presence of BCG vaccination scars (27.5%) and lower limb nerves were more affected (38%) predominantly in the BT clinical form. Significant differences were identified, which included hypochromic lesions predominantly in the BT clinical form (24%); diffuse-type lesions predominantly in the tuberculoid (TT) clinical form (28%); ill-defined lesion border dominance in lepromatous leprosy (LL) clinical forms (30%); an irregular lesion limit predominantly in LL clinical forms (32%); and a predominant Th1 immune response in the BT clinical form (41.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the immunological profile in leprosy patients may contribute to the more detailed diagnosis and possibly better characterization of the prognosis for these individuals. <![CDATA[Presence of <em>Mycobacterium leprae</em> genotype 4 in environmental waters in Northeast Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. leprae was amplified by qPCR and a standard curve was created with the pIDTBlue 16SrRNAMlep plasmid. The Juazeiro do Norte water samples and the biopsies were genotyped (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] 1 to 4) and the SNP 4 genotypes were subtyped. RESULTS: Of the 149 water samples analyzed, 54.4% were positive for the M. leprae DNA. The M. leprae bacilli copy number ranged from 1.42 × 10 -1 to 1.44 × 10 + 2 . Most biopsies showed SNP type 4 (64%), while all samples from Juazeiro do Norte were SNP type 4, with subtype 4-N appearing at the highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that environmental waters containing M. leprae bacilli play an important role in disease transmission, justifying PGL-1 seropositivity in individuals living in areas where there is no reported case, and in leprosy cases individuals who report no previous contact with other case. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify disease transmission in this region and to explore the role of the environment. We also suggest that in this area surveillance for leprosy cases should be intensified. <![CDATA[Assessment of the sensory and physical limitations imposed by leprosy in a Brazilian Amazon Population]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Leprosy often results in sensory and physical limitations. This study aimed to evaluate these limitations using a quantitative approach in leprosy patients in Belém (Pará, Brazil). METHODS This epidemiological, cross-sectional study measured the sensory impairment of smell and taste through the use of a questionnaire and evaluated activity limitations of daily life imposed by leprosy through the Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) Scale. Data were collected from 84 patients and associations between the degree of disability and clinical and epidemiological characteristics were assessed. RESULTS The majority of patients were men (64.3%), married (52.4%), age 31-40 years old (26.2%), had primary education (50%), and were independent laborers (36.9%). The multibacillary operational classification (81%), borderline clinical form (57.1%), and 0 degrees of physical disability (41.7%) were predominant. SALSA scores ranged from 17 to 59 points, and being without limitations was predominant (53.6%). The risk awareness score ranged from 0 to 8, with a score of 0 (no awareness of risk) being the most common (56%). Evaluation of smell and taste sensory sensitivities revealed that 70.2% did not experience these sensory changes. Patients with leprosy reactions were 7 times more likely to develop activity limitations, and those who had physical disabilities were approximately four times more likely to develop a clinical picture of activity limitations. CONCLUSIONS Most patients showed no sensory changes, but patients with leprosy reactions were significantly more likely to develop activity limitations. Finally, further studies should be performed, assessing a higher number of patients to confirm the present results. <![CDATA[Operational research principles for a routine service process for monitoring the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treatment cascade: data from a cohort in Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bottlenecks still exist during human immunodeficiency virus care that may delay the achievement of better outcomes. METHODS: We established a monitoring system to trace patients throughout the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care process in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, to identify potential bottlenecks. RESULTS: Among 250 patients, 17.6% abandoned follow-up. Our monitoring system tracked 86.4% of patients through the medication logistics control system and 2.3% through the mortality information system. Two percent of patients were not located by our monitoring system. CONCLUSIONS: A pathway care process contributes to a better understanding of the barriers to the treatment cascade. <![CDATA[<em>Ascogregarina taiwanensis</em> infection in <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> in Santa Catarina, South Brazil]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION This study registers Ascogregarina spp. infection in field populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a subtropical region of Brazil. METHODS Mosquito larvae collected in tires placed in four municipalities of Santa Catarina were identified morphologically and assessed for Ascogregarina sp. infection using morphological and molecular methods. RESULTS Both mosquito species harbored Ascogregarina taiwanensis, whose genomic DNA was confirmed in both the Aedes species by PCR. DNA sequences were deposited in GenBank. Conclusion: Both Ae. albopictus e Ae. aegypti harbor Ascogregarina sp. <![CDATA[A duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of <em>Leptospira</em> strains]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to develop a duplex endpoint PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of Leptospira strains. METHODS: Primers were designed to target the rrs (LG1/LG2) and ligB (LP1/LP2) genes to confirm the presence of the Leptospira genus and the pathogenic species, respectively. RESULTS: The assay showed 100% specificity against 17 Leptospira strains with a limit of detection of 23.1pg/µl of leptospiral DNA and sensitivity of 103 leptospires/ml in both spiked urine and water. CONCLUSIONS: Our duplex endpoint PCR assay is suitable for rapid early detection of Leptospira with high sensitivity and specificity. <![CDATA[Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) isolated from clinical samples at a Brazilian tertiary care hospital in 2008 and 2013. METHODS: Collected data included patient’s name, age, sex, inpatient unit, laboratory record number, type of biological material, culture test result, and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains. RESULTS: Out of 19,112 culture tests analyzed, 926 (4.8%) were positive for NFGNB. Among these, 45.2% were metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing strains. CONCLUSION: Between 2008 and 2013, the number of MBL-producing NFGNB isolates increased by 21.5%, which was accompanied by a consequent reduction in susceptibility to antimicrobials. <![CDATA[Serosurvey of anti- <em>Leptospira</em> sp. and anti- <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> antibodies in capybaras and collared and white-lipped peccaries]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazilian native species are reemerging as increasingly free-ranging populations. METHODS: Sera from 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and 28 peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) were tested for anti-Leptospira and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using microscopic seroagglutination test. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of free-ranging and 10.0% of captive capybaras, along with 31.8% of collared peccaries, were seropositive for T. gondii. None was seropositive for Leptospira sp. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicated low risk of disease, particularly among capybaras and white-lipped peccaries; however, active surveillance programs are important for monitoring wildlife health and public health once they are in public parks around cities. <![CDATA[Leprosy in Southern Brazil: a twenty-year epidemiological profile]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated leprosy rates in Rio Grande do Sul, an area with a historically low prevalence. However, recent studies are lacking. METHODS: Data extracted from a National Database were analyzed for clinical features and compared to 1980s data. Tendency was assessed via stationarity analysis. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2011, 4,770 cases were reported (0.21/10,000 inhabitants; 95% CI = 0.19-0.24). Detection was slightly higher among males, 1.9% cases were among children and most multibacillary (74.7%) at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy is controlled in RS, but most cases are multibacillary. Early identification is important to avoid disabilities due to late diagnosis. <![CDATA[<em>Wuchereria bancrofti</em> infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon), were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4%) tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants. <![CDATA[Infrared thermography to diagnose and manage venomous animal bites and stings]]> Abstract INTRODUCTION Infrared imaging (IR) is a noninvasive technique that quantifies body surface temperature, producing a digital color image. IR has been used to study diseases in which skin temperature can reflect the presence of inflammation. METHODS This was an observational pilot study of eight patients envenomed by snakes, spiders, and scorpions. All patients were examined using a thermal camera. RESULTS In all cases, we obtained infrared images that corroborated clinical findings indicating localized effects of venom, specifically inflammation. CONCLUSIONS IR has potential for use as a research, diagnostic, and monitoring tool for localized effects of animal venoms. <![CDATA[Chikungunya virus infection with severe neurologic manifestations: report of four fatal cases]]> Abstract Here, we present four patients with confirmed Chikungunya virus infection showing atypical neurologic manifestations and death. This case series includes patients ranging in age from five to 92 years, with or without comorbidities. This report is important, as very few cases in the literature reporting death due to atypical Chikungunya virus infection are available. <![CDATA[Intralesional treatment with meglumine antimoniate in three patients with New World cutaneous leishmaniasis and large periarticular lesions with comorbidities]]> Abstract Although New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is not itself a life-threatening disease, its treatment with systemic antimonials can cause toxicity that can be dangerous to some patients. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate provides a viable, less toxic alternative. Herein, we describe an alternative treatment with subcutaneous intralesional injections of meglumine antimoniate into large periarticular lesions of three patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and comorbidities. This treatment was safe, successful, and well tolerated. This case series suggests that intralesional meglumine antimoniate is an effective therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis, even with periarticular lesions. This hypothesis should be tested in controlled clinical trials. <![CDATA[Paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like lesions:a diagnostic challenge]]> Abstract Clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) can be diverse. Morphology and quantity of skin lesions depends on interactions between host immunity and fungus virulence. Diagnosis can be a challenge considering that this fungus has low virulence and some individuals have immunity to microorganism, which results in well-marked granulomas without visible microorganisms. We report herein a clinical presentation of sarcoid-like PCM, initially diagnosed as tuberculoid leprosy. This rare type of PCM is often mistaken for other types of chronic granulomatous diseases. Diagnosis was confirmed after 4 years when a special stain analysis helped in the identification of the specific etiologic agent. <![CDATA[Facial botryomycosis-like pyoderma in an HIV-infected patient: remission after initiation of darunavir and raltegravir]]> Abstract Botryomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, suppurative, bacterial infection that primarily affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It has long been associated with defects of cellular immunity. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with a chronic, ulcerated lesion with draining sinuses in the right malar region. Predisposing factors were HIV infection with poor immunological control, alcoholism, and a previous trauma to the right cheek. Several courses of antimicrobial therapy provided only partial and temporary remission. Complete clinical remission was only achieved 5 years later when a novel antiretroviral regimen composed of darunavir and raltegravir was initiated. <![CDATA[Spleen damage in a dog naturally infected by <em>Leishmania infantum</em>]]> Abstract Botryomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, suppurative, bacterial infection that primarily affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It has long been associated with defects of cellular immunity. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with a chronic, ulcerated lesion with draining sinuses in the right malar region. Predisposing factors were HIV infection with poor immunological control, alcoholism, and a previous trauma to the right cheek. Several courses of antimicrobial therapy provided only partial and temporary remission. Complete clinical remission was only achieved 5 years later when a novel antiretroviral regimen composed of darunavir and raltegravir was initiated. <![CDATA[Accuracy of CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test: variation in results from different commercial versions]]> Abstract Botryomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, suppurative, bacterial infection that primarily affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It has long been associated with defects of cellular immunity. We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with a chronic, ulcerated lesion with draining sinuses in the right malar region. Predisposing factors were HIV infection with poor immunological control, alcoholism, and a previous trauma to the right cheek. Several courses of antimicrobial therapy provided only partial and temporary remission. Complete clinical remission was only achieved 5 years later when a novel antiretroviral regimen composed of darunavir and raltegravir was initiated.