Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0074-027619540001&lang=pt vol. 52 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Sôro-reações em leprosos usando como antígenos extrato de leprona Stefansky e culturas de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Isolamento e estudo experimental de duas novas culturas de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes de muco nasal de leprosos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The A. described on December 14, 1951, his first culture of acid-fast bacillus isolated from nasal mucus of a leprous girl. in this paper the A. describes two new strains of acid-fast bacilli gotten also from nasal mucus of other two leprous girls, L3 cases. The first patient (layse S) had her mucus treated by petroff's method on December 16, 1952 and sown onto three tubes of loewenstein medium and in glycerin broth. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all three tubes of Loewenstein showed many punctiforme and pin-head yellowish colonies, whose microscopic examination proved to be of a pure acid-fast bacillus culture. This sample inoculated in rats and mice produced, after 55 days incubation, small tumors from which the culture was easily recovered. On April, 9, 1953 a new sample of nasal mucus of the same patient was sown in three tubes of Loewenstein. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all 3 tubes showed germination of small yellowish colonies of acid-fast bacilli. Within four months being gotten two samples of identical cultures in all smeared tubes of Loewenstein medium sown, proved that such cultures were not an ordinary ambient contamination. Second patient: - Maria N. After various sowing of different kinds of material from her, february 26, 1953 her nasal mucus treated by soda and sown onto Loewenstein medium, after 25 days incubation showed in only one tube, one small round colony, at first white, becoming creamy after three months. Transplants in various media grew at first slowly and after 2 or 3 generations grew faster. The "Layse" strain produced pellicle in glycerin broth and Dubos medium; the "Maria N." strain did not produce as yet. Both strains (Layse I and II, and Maria N.) gave weak positive Dubos test in half-an-hour and negative after 24 hours reading. Both were strongly positive when stained by Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fontes methods. Both strains gave also positive fluoroscopy. These cultures are being studied. The A. concludes that, according to his experience, the slower growing cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated from leprosy material, are the more suitable for experimental work. Aknowledgement. The A. thanks to Miss MARIA DE LOURDES SANTANA for her valuable collaboration in the studies of the described cultures. <![CDATA[Contribution à l'étude des microsparasites des termites brésiliens. Flagellés du contenu intestinal d"Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen 1858)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The A. described on December 14, 1951, his first culture of acid-fast bacillus isolated from nasal mucus of a leprous girl. in this paper the A. describes two new strains of acid-fast bacilli gotten also from nasal mucus of other two leprous girls, L3 cases. The first patient (layse S) had her mucus treated by petroff's method on December 16, 1952 and sown onto three tubes of loewenstein medium and in glycerin broth. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all three tubes of Loewenstein showed many punctiforme and pin-head yellowish colonies, whose microscopic examination proved to be of a pure acid-fast bacillus culture. This sample inoculated in rats and mice produced, after 55 days incubation, small tumors from which the culture was easily recovered. On April, 9, 1953 a new sample of nasal mucus of the same patient was sown in three tubes of Loewenstein. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all 3 tubes showed germination of small yellowish colonies of acid-fast bacilli. Within four months being gotten two samples of identical cultures in all smeared tubes of Loewenstein medium sown, proved that such cultures were not an ordinary ambient contamination. Second patient: - Maria N. After various sowing of different kinds of material from her, february 26, 1953 her nasal mucus treated by soda and sown onto Loewenstein medium, after 25 days incubation showed in only one tube, one small round colony, at first white, becoming creamy after three months. Transplants in various media grew at first slowly and after 2 or 3 generations grew faster. The "Layse" strain produced pellicle in glycerin broth and Dubos medium; the "Maria N." strain did not produce as yet. Both strains (Layse I and II, and Maria N.) gave weak positive Dubos test in half-an-hour and negative after 24 hours reading. Both were strongly positive when stained by Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fontes methods. Both strains gave also positive fluoroscopy. These cultures are being studied. The A. concludes that, according to his experience, the slower growing cultures of acid-fast bacilli isolated from leprosy material, are the more suitable for experimental work. Aknowledgement. The A. thanks to Miss MARIA DE LOURDES SANTANA for her valuable collaboration in the studies of the described cultures. <![CDATA[Contribuição ao estudo da ação central da mianesina]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt 1) Neste trabalho, expusemos a ação da mianesina sôbre o organismo do Leptodactylus ocellatus, sôbre as convulsões da crioepilepsia e estriquinina produzidas experimentalmente no mesmo e também a ação desta substância sôbre a contratura em flexão da perna do coelho espinhal produzida pelo arrancamento da pele da mesma. 2) A mianesina provocou em doses de 150 a 200 mg/kg paralisia flácida no Leptodactylus ocellatus. 3) A mianesina revelou-se capaz de suprimir os movimentos convulsivos de tipo epileptiforme, obtidos pelo resfriamento brusco da medula espinhal. 4) No Leptodactalus ocellatus o antagonismo da mianesina e estriquinina não é muito acentuado e doses paralisantes da primeira são ineficazes para impedir o surto dos efeitos do alcalóide. 5) A mianesina provocou uma abolição na contratura em flexão da perna do coelho espinhal motivada pelo arrancamento da pele da mesma. <![CDATA[Contribuição ao conhecimento das espécies do gênero Paraphrissopoda Townsed: (Diptera-Sarcophagidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt 1) Neste trabalho, expusemos a ação da mianesina sôbre o organismo do Leptodactylus ocellatus, sôbre as convulsões da crioepilepsia e estriquinina produzidas experimentalmente no mesmo e também a ação desta substância sôbre a contratura em flexão da perna do coelho espinhal produzida pelo arrancamento da pele da mesma. 2) A mianesina provocou em doses de 150 a 200 mg/kg paralisia flácida no Leptodactylus ocellatus. 3) A mianesina revelou-se capaz de suprimir os movimentos convulsivos de tipo epileptiforme, obtidos pelo resfriamento brusco da medula espinhal. 4) No Leptodactalus ocellatus o antagonismo da mianesina e estriquinina não é muito acentuado e doses paralisantes da primeira são ineficazes para impedir o surto dos efeitos do alcalóide. 5) A mianesina provocou uma abolição na contratura em flexão da perna do coelho espinhal motivada pelo arrancamento da pele da mesma. <![CDATA[Estudos histológicos das células glandulares dos insetos peçonhentos: I. os órgãos urticantes da largata de Automeris incisa Walker (Lepidoptera, Helmileucidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt São apresentados dados histológicos das glândulas com secreção urtificante da largata de Automeris incisa: 1. A célula glandular é a célula tricogênea da cerda inoculante. 2. O núcleo demonstra o polimorfismo típico para glândulas com células grandes em insetos; êle ramifica-se em forma de tubos chegando até as partes apicais da célula. 3. São apresentadas modificações citológicas durante as fases da secreção. 4. As estruturas da cutícula correspondem diretamente a função do órgão urtificante. 5. A cerda, que dá a picada é uma cerda verdadeira com inserção modificada. Não possui um lugar predestinado para quebrar durante a picada. 6. Uma zona de articulação na base dos ramos laterais froma, junto com uma placa anular perfurada e com uma massa esponjosa de fechamento formada pela endocutícula, uma válvula impedindo um refluxo do líquido do ramo. Por isso, durante a picada a peçonha pode sair da cerda. 7. Além de ramos laterais com cerdas encontram-se outros com pêlos finos. Provávelmente os últimos espalham a peçonha em cima da pele, enquanto que os primeiros inoculam-na no tecido do inimigo.<hr/>Es werden histologische Einzelheiten der Nesselgift fuehrenden Druesen von Automeris incisa gegeben: 1. Die Druesenzelle ist die trichogene Zelle der inokulierenden Broste. 2.Der Kern zeigt den fuer grosszellige Druesen bei insekten typischen Polymorphismus, er verzweigt sich schlauchfoermig, in die apikalen Zellteile vordringend. 3. Es werden cytologische Veraenderungen waehrend der Sekretionsphasen dargestellt. 4. Die Strukturen der cuticula stehen in direktem Zusammenhang mit der Funktion des Nesselorgans. 5. Die stechende Borste ist eine echte Borste mit modifizierter insertion. Sie hat keine vorgebildete Bruchstelle. 6. Eine Gelenkstelle an der Basis der Verzweigungen bildet in Verbindung mit einer durchloecherten Ringscheibe und einer spongioesen verschlussmasse, hervorgegangen aus der Endocuticula, ein Rueckstromventil. Hierdurch wird beim Stich der Austritt des Giftes ermoeglicht. 7. Neben Seitenzweigen mit Borsten finden sich solche mit duennen Haaren. Es wird vermutet, dass letztere das Gift nur auf die Haut, erstere aber in das Gewebe des Gegners ergiessen. <![CDATA[Estudos histológicos nas células glandulares dos insetos peçonhentos: II. os órgãos urtificantes da largata de Megalopyge albicollis superba Edwards (Lepidoptera, Megalopygidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt É examinado histològicamente o aparelho peçonhento da largata de Megalopyge albicollis superba. 1. As células glandulares são abaixadas da camada das células hipodérmicas para dentro da cavidade do corpo. Elas mantêm ligação com a cutícula por meio de um tubo quitinoso formado por células hipodérmicas deslocadas. 2. As células possuem um núcleo grande e relativamente, pouco protoplasma. 3. O lumen da célula é atravessado por um sistema de canais representando um órgão coletor de secreção. 4. O aparelho condutor forma um aparelho de injeção automático, a "bomba peçonhenta". 5. A bomba peçonhenta é formada por um aumento do canal entre célula glandular e cerda inoculadora. Consta de uma cavidade basal e imóvel e de uma parte apical coniforme e móvel que, pela pressão sôbre a ponta da cerda, pode entrar na primeira provocando, assim, a pressão necessária para a injeção. 6. A parte apical da bomba peçonhenta é formada pela inserção fortemente modificada da cerda inoculadora. 7. A extremidade da cerda inoculadora não possui um ponto predestinado para a rutura. 8. A fromação da secreção começa com grandes grânulos de secreção sendo depois liquidificados e conduzidos pelo sistema de canais para a bomba peçonhenta.<hr/>Es wird der Nesselapparat der Raupe von Megalopyge albicollis superba histologisch untersucht. 1. Die Druesenzellen sind aus dem Verband der Hypodermiszellen in die Leibeshoehle versenkt. Sie stehen durch Vermittlung von verlagerten Hypodermiszellen mittels eines chitinigen Schlauches mit der Cuticula in verbindung. 2. Die Zellen besitzen einen ueberaus grossen kern und relativ wenig Plasma. 3. Das Zellumen ist von einem kanalsystem als Sammelorgan fuer das Sekret durchzogen. 4. Der Ausfuehrapparat stellt einem automatischen Injektionsapparat, die "Giftpumpe", dar. 5. Die Giftpumpe wird von einer Erweiterung des Kanals zwischen Druesenzelle und Giftborste gebildet und besteht aus einem ruhenden, basal gelegenen Pumpenraum, in den durch eine Ringfalte der apikale, bewegliche Teil mit der Borsteninsertion (bei Druck durch Beruehrung der Spitze der Borste) eintreten kann, wodurch der notwendige Injektionsdruck erzeugt wird. 6. Der apikale Teil der Giftpumpe wird von der stark modifizierten insertion der Giftborste gebildet. 7. Die Spitze der Giftborste besitzt keine vorgebildete Bruchstelle. 8. Die Sekretbildung beginnt mit grossen Sekretgranula, die sich verfluessigen und durch das kanalsystem in die Giftpumpe gelangen. <![CDATA[Sôbre "Telmatogeton atlanticum" Oliveira, 1950, com a descrição do alótipo fêmea: (Diptera, Chironomidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt É examinado histològicamente o aparelho peçonhento da largata de Megalopyge albicollis superba. 1. As células glandulares são abaixadas da camada das células hipodérmicas para dentro da cavidade do corpo. Elas mantêm ligação com a cutícula por meio de um tubo quitinoso formado por células hipodérmicas deslocadas. 2. As células possuem um núcleo grande e relativamente, pouco protoplasma. 3. O lumen da célula é atravessado por um sistema de canais representando um órgão coletor de secreção. 4. O aparelho condutor forma um aparelho de injeção automático, a "bomba peçonhenta". 5. A bomba peçonhenta é formada por um aumento do canal entre célula glandular e cerda inoculadora. Consta de uma cavidade basal e imóvel e de uma parte apical coniforme e móvel que, pela pressão sôbre a ponta da cerda, pode entrar na primeira provocando, assim, a pressão necessária para a injeção. 6. A parte apical da bomba peçonhenta é formada pela inserção fortemente modificada da cerda inoculadora. 7. A extremidade da cerda inoculadora não possui um ponto predestinado para a rutura. 8. A fromação da secreção começa com grandes grânulos de secreção sendo depois liquidificados e conduzidos pelo sistema de canais para a bomba peçonhenta.<hr/>Es wird der Nesselapparat der Raupe von Megalopyge albicollis superba histologisch untersucht. 1. Die Druesenzellen sind aus dem Verband der Hypodermiszellen in die Leibeshoehle versenkt. Sie stehen durch Vermittlung von verlagerten Hypodermiszellen mittels eines chitinigen Schlauches mit der Cuticula in verbindung. 2. Die Zellen besitzen einen ueberaus grossen kern und relativ wenig Plasma. 3. Das Zellumen ist von einem kanalsystem als Sammelorgan fuer das Sekret durchzogen. 4. Der Ausfuehrapparat stellt einem automatischen Injektionsapparat, die "Giftpumpe", dar. 5. Die Giftpumpe wird von einer Erweiterung des Kanals zwischen Druesenzelle und Giftborste gebildet und besteht aus einem ruhenden, basal gelegenen Pumpenraum, in den durch eine Ringfalte der apikale, bewegliche Teil mit der Borsteninsertion (bei Druck durch Beruehrung der Spitze der Borste) eintreten kann, wodurch der notwendige Injektionsdruck erzeugt wird. 6. Der apikale Teil der Giftpumpe wird von der stark modifizierten insertion der Giftborste gebildet. 7. Die Spitze der Giftborste besitzt keine vorgebildete Bruchstelle. 8. Die Sekretbildung beginnt mit grossen Sekretgranula, die sich verfluessigen und durch das kanalsystem in die Giftpumpe gelangen. <![CDATA[Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II). One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948). The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial larvae and direct development. (B Lutz, 1948). The author interprets the morphological specialization of the casque-headed Hylids and the biological specialization of the montane forest forms as adaptive. Casque-headedness and phragmosis increase protection against blood-suckers and predators. The humidity of the rain forest permits eggs, embryos and larvae to develop, unharmed, outside their usual, aquatic, environment. <![CDATA[Sôbre a presença do copepodo Mesocyclops longisetus (Th.) no plancton de uma laguna litorânea]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II). One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948). The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial larvae and direct development. (B Lutz, 1948). The author interprets the morphological specialization of the casque-headed Hylids and the biological specialization of the montane forest forms as adaptive. Casque-headedness and phragmosis increase protection against blood-suckers and predators. The humidity of the rain forest permits eggs, embryos and larvae to develop, unharmed, outside their usual, aquatic, environment. <![CDATA[Nota prévia sôbre ensaios de combate aos Planorbídeos por métodos biológicos e bioquímicos]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761954000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II). One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948). The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial larvae and direct development. (B Lutz, 1948). The author interprets the morphological specialization of the casque-headed Hylids and the biological specialization of the montane forest forms as adaptive. Casque-headedness and phragmosis increase protection against blood-suckers and predators. The humidity of the rain forest permits eggs, embryos and larvae to develop, unharmed, outside their usual, aquatic, environment.