Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0074-027619890004&lang= vol. 84 num. 4 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[The biology of Trypanosoma cruzi-macrophage interaction]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= <![CDATA[Scanning electron microscopy of the antennal sensilla in female Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We studied by sanning electron microscopy the number, types, structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of the medical important ceratopogonid Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi). There are about 174 sense organs on the antenmal flagellum which are classified as sensilla chaetica; sharp-tipped and blunt-tipped (type I and II) sensilla trichodea; sensilla basiconica; sensilla coeloconica; sensilla ampullacea and styloconic-type sensilla. The role of antennal sensory organs are discussed regarding the host preference of the biting midges.<hr/>Estudos sobre o número, tipo, estrutura e distribuição das sensilas antenais do ceratopogonídeo de importância médica, Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), são realizados com microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Encontram-se aproximadamente 174 órgãos sensoriais no flagelo, os quais são classificados em sensila caética; sensila trichoidea, de ápice afilado e de ápice curvo (tipoI e II); sensila basicônica; sensila ampulácea e sensila do tipo estilocônica. É discutido o papel dos órgãos sensoriais da antena na relação Culicoides/hospedeiro. <![CDATA[Three new species of neotropical Sarcophagidae (Diptera)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Three new species of Neotropical Sarcophagidae are described. Miltogrammatinae: Oebalia costarica sp. n (Costa Rica) and Senotainia trifida sp. n. (Chile), of which the latter is the first representative of the subfamily with a tripartite phallotreme. Sarcophaginae: Johnsonia woodorum sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama).<hr/>Oebalia costarica sp. n. (Costa Rica), Senotainia trifida sp. n. (Chile), e Johnsonia woodorum sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama) são descritas. <![CDATA[Treatment of acute experimental schistosomiasis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= A model of acute schistosomiasis of the mouse was used to observe whether curative treatment would be followed by an enhancement of the hepatic and splenic lesions, as a consequence of the massive destruction of worms and eggs within the portal system. Mice infected with 50 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were treated with both oxamniquine and praziquantel on the 50th day of infection and submitted to a sequential histologic examination from the 2nd to the 45th day after treatment. Although severe focal lesions due to dead and disintegranting worms were present in the livers of the treated animals, no aggravation of the general changes (reative hepatitis and splenitis, or periovular granulomas) was seen in comparison with a control non-treated group. Of 50 animals treated during the acute phase of schistosomiasis only one died espontaneously, while 16 ou of 30 infected controls died before the end of the experiment. The present investigation indicates that curative treatment during the acute phase of schistosomiasis does not enhance previous lesions at first and results in progressive disappearance of the lesions starting six days following chemotherapy.<hr/>Foi utilizado um modelo de esquistossomose aguda do camundongo para testar se o tratamentop curativo da parasitose nesta fase poderia produzir uma exacerbação das lesões hepáticas e esplênicas, em virtude da destruição maciça de vermes e ovos nointerior do sistema porta. Camundongos infectados com 50 cercárias do Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados no 50º dia da infecção por uma combinação de oxamniquine e praziquantel e submetidos a exames histopatológicos seqüenciados desde o 2º até o 45º dia após o tratamento. Muito embora tenham sido encontrados lesões focais intensas causadas por vermes mortos no interior do fígado, não foi encontrada qualquer evidência de agravamento das lesões gerais (hepatite reacional e esplenite, ou nos granulomas periovulares) quando se fez comparação com um grupo de controle de animais não tratados. Dos 50 animais tratados durante a fase aguda da esquistossomose apenas um morreu espontaneamente, enquanto no grupo de controle 16 de 30 animais morreram antes do fim do experimento. A presente investigação indica que o tratamento curativo durante a fase aguda da esquistossomose não agrava as lesões gerais desta fase no fígado e no baço e contribui para o desaparecimento gradual das lesões já a partir do 6º dia após a terapêutica. <![CDATA[Effects of immigration on the prevalence of malaria in rural areas of the Amazon basin of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Epidemiological studies were conducted on malaria in three rural areas of the Amazon basin in the State of Rondônia: the town of Costa Marques, Forte Príncipe da Beira (Fort), and an immigrant settlement in the nearby forest. These studies were instituted to document the malaria problem and to describe the role of immigration on its distribution and prevalence. Hospital records in the town show that the number of malaria cases increased five fold from 1983 to 1987 and that the predominant malaria parasite changel from Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum. Increased malaria followed increased immigration and colonization of the forest. A series of epidemiologic studies suggested the linkage between malaria and immigration as the prevalence of malaria was 1-2% at the Fort, a stable community, 8-9% at Costa Marques, a growing community, and 14-26% in the new settlements in the forest.<hr/>Foram conduzidos estudos epidemiológicos de malária em três áreas rurais da Amazônia legal, no Estado de Rondônia: a cidade de Costa Marques, Forte Príncipe da Beira (Forte) e uma colônia de imigrantes perto da floresta. Esses estudos descrevem o papel da imigração na distibuição e prevalência da doença. Os registros hospitalares na cidade mostram que o número de casos de malãria aumentou cinco vezes desde 1983 a 1987 e o parasita predominte da malária mudou do Plasmodium vivax para o P. falciparum. O aumento da malária foi seguido pelo crescimento da imigração e colonização da floresta. Uma série de estudos epidemiológicos sugeriu que há ligação entre malária e imigração uma vez que a prevalência da malária foi de 1-2% para o Forte, uma comunidade estável, 8-9% em Costa Marques, uma comunidade em crescimento, e 14-26% na nova colônia de imigrantes na floresta. <![CDATA[Strongyloides ferreirai Rodrigues, Vicente & Gomes, 1985 (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea) in rodent coprolites (8.000-2.000 years BP), from archaeological sites from Piauí, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Eggs and larvae of Strongyloides ferreirai Rodrigues, Vicente & Gomes, 1985 are identified in Kerodon rupestris (Wied.) coprolites dated from 8.000-2.000 years BP (Before Present), collected from archaeological sites from the northeast of Brazil.<hr/>Ovos e larvas de Strongyloides ferreirai Rodrigues, Vicente & Gomes, 1985 foram identificados em coprólitos de Kerodon rupestris (Wied.), datados de 8.000 a 2.000 anos AP, coletados em sítios arqueológicos do nordeste do Brasil. <![CDATA[Morphology of the EGG of Sarcodexia lambens (Diptera: sarcophagidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The egg of Sarcodexia lambens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is described on the basis of scanning electron microscopy.<hr/>O ovo de Sarcodexia lambens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) é descrito a nível de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. <![CDATA[Anopheline species, some of their habits and relation to malaria in endemic areas of Rondônia State, Amazon region of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In view of recent studies incriminating several species of anophelines, besides Anopheles darlingi, as malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon, we performed an anopheline survey in four localities - Ariquemes, Cujubim, Machadinho and Itapoã do Oeste - in Rondônia, the most malarious State in the Country. Twenty species were found. An. darlingi was, by far, the dominant species and the only one whose density coincided with that of malaria. On human baits it was more numerous in the immediate vincinity of houses than indoors whre, however, it was almost the only species encountered. On both situations it fed mostly at sunset and during the first half of the night. It was less numerous far from houses and scarce inside the forest. Other species (An. triannulatus, An. evansae, An. albitarsis, An. strodei) appeared in appreciable numbers only in Ariquemes, both in areas with and without malaria. The remaining species were scanty. An. darlingi was confirmed as the primary local vector.<hr/>Como recentes estudos vêm incriminando diversas espécies de anofelinos como trasnmissores da malária na Amazônia brasileira além do Anopheles darlingi, realizamos um estudo sobre esse grupo de mosquitos em quatro localidades - Ariquemes, Cujubim, Machadinho e Itapoã do Oeste - no Estado de Rondônia, o mais malarígeno do país. Vinte espécies foram achadas. An. darlingi foi, de longe, a predominante e a única cuja densidade coincidiu com a da malária. Sugando iscas humanas, esse mosquito mostrou-se mais numeroso na imediata vizinhança das casas que em seu interior, onde, entretanto, foi quase a única espécie encontrada. Em ambas as situações picava principalmente ao crepúsculo vespertino e durante a primeira metade da noite, sendo menos freqüente longe das casas e escasso na floresta. Outras espécies, como An. triannulatus, An. evansae, An. albirarsis e An. strodei foram capturadas em números apreciáveis, somente em Ariquemes, em áreas com e sem malária, porém as demais mostraram-se raras. O An. darlingi foi confirmado como transmissor primário na área. <![CDATA[Prevalence of avian haematozoa in São Paulo state, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The blood parasites of 15,574 birds representing 266 species of 43 families from primarily three areas in São Paulo State, Brazil were examined for haematozoa. Only 1240 (8.0% of 121 species fo 32 families were infected with blood parasites. This prevalence was similar to that reported in a previous study. Species of Haemoproteus were the most commonly encountered haematozoans (38.9%), followed by microfilaria (30.7%), Trypanosoma (13.7%), Plasmodium (7.5%) and Leucocytozoon (0.8%). Prevalence of parasitism was significantly different between the three major areas sampled. It was shown that this was due in part to differences in the avifaunas at both the familial and species levels. Prevalence varied markedly in only one of the 10 years of the study. Monthly fluctuations in prevalence were largely due to changes in relative proportions of highlytion of both. Prevalences of both microfilaria and Trypanosoma were higher than reported for any other similar survey in the world. <hr/>Analisamos o sangue de 15.574 aves que representam 266 espécies entre 43 famílias, para revelar a presença de hematozoários. Somente 1.240 (8,0%) de 121 espécies entre 32 famílias estavam infectadas com parasitas sanguíneos. Esta prevalência era semelhante àquele relatada em estudos anteriores. Espécies de Haemoproteus foram os hematozomas mais comuns encontrados (38,9%), seguidos por microfilária (30,7%) - Trypanosoma (13,7%), Plasmodium (7,5%) e Leucocytozoon (0,8%). A prevalência do prasitismo foi significativamente diferente nas amostras das três áreas maiores. Foi demonstrado que isto se deve em parte às diferenças da avifauna, tanto no que se refere às famílias, como às espécies. A prevalência só variou significativamente num dos anos, durante os dez do estudo. As altas flutuações mensais de prevalência foram devidas a alterações nas proporções relativas das famílias aviárias que apresentaram níveis altos e baixos de infecção, entre os meses ou entre as áreas, ou devo à combinação dos dois fatores. A prevalência da microfilária e do Trypanosoma foi maior do que qualquer outra já registrada em trabalhos semelhantes no mundo. <![CDATA[Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986), treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE), between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79.8%) patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2%) who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.). The moste occuring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lambia (15.2%). E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1%) and Isospora belli (10.1%). Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56,3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitc infections does not seem to depend on the acquisiton of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependancy is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity.<hr/>A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais, sua relação com o mecanismo de transmissão do HIV e a apresentação clínica da AIDS foram analisadas em 99 pacientes do grupo IV (CDC, 1986), atendidos no Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE) entre 1986 e 1988. O grupo era constituído de 79 (79,9%) pacientes cujo mecanismos de transmssão do HIV se deu por via sexual e de 16 (20,2%) que se infectaram por via sanguínea. Amostras de fezes de cada paciente foram examinadas por quatro métodos distintos (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes e Baxby et al.). Os parasitos mais frqüentemente encontrados foram: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli e Endolimax nana (18,2%) seguidos de Strongyloides stercoralis e Giardia lamblia (15,2%), E. histolytica e/ou E. hartmanni (13,1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11,1%) e Isospora belii (10,1%), sendo que 74,4% dos pacientes com AIDS albergavam pelo menos uma espécie. Observamos que 78,5% dos pacientes que adquiriram o HIV por via sexual e 56,3% dos que foram infectados por via sanguínea albergavam parasitos intestinais, mas a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). O mecanisto de infecção por via sexual não parece contribuir de forma importante para o aumento da ocorrência de infecções parasitárias no grupo estudado e sim os mecanismos clássicos de transmissão de parasitos em nosso meio. <![CDATA[Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) deaneorum: a new species in the albitarsis complex (Diptera: culicidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) deaneorum sp. n. is described from specimens collected in Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia state and Rio Branco, Acre state, Brazil, on human and animal baits, inside dwellings and from the progenies of engorged females. A detailed description of the shape of egg, external appearance of adult female and male, genitalias, female cibarial armature and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva show that it can be distinguished from Anopheles albitarsis from the type-locality and other areas by the paler general external appearance of the adult, the posterolateral tufts of scales, on the female abdominal terga and the branching of the outer anterior clypeal seta (3-C) of the fourth instar larva (as shown in illustrations). If species can also be distinguished from An. albitarsis from the type locality by the allele frequencies at 11 enzymic loci as represented by Nei's Genetic Distance.<hr/>Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) deaneorum sp. n. é descrito a partir de exemplares coletados em capturas comparativas no intradomicílio e no peridomicílio usando isca humana e animal e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas, em Guarajá-Mirim, Rondônia e Rio Branco, Acre. A descrição detalhada do ovo, dos adultos fêmea e macho, inclusive cibário da fêmea, genitália, quetotaxia da pupa e da larva e seu perfil isoenzimático, mostram que esse mosquito pode ser distinguido do Anopheles albitarsis na fase adulta pelo aspecto geral mais claro, pela presença de tufos laterais de escamas escuras somente a partir do quarto ou quinto tergitos abdominais, enquanto em albitarsis começam no terceiro e, na fase larvária, pela ramificação das cerdas clipeais anteriores externas, que em albitarsis são aciculadas (como mostram as ilustrações), bem como pelo padrão isoenzimático. <![CDATA[Pseudohaliotrema paralonchuri sp.n. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), parasitic on Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner) (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from the peruvian coast]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Pseudohaliotrema paralonchuri sp. n., parasitic on the sciaenid fish Paralonchurus peruanus (Steindachner) from the Peruvian central coast, is described, illustrated and compared with related species of the genus. P. paralonchuri differs from other Pseudohaliotrema by the characteristics of the cirrus, accessory piece, anchors and bars. This is the first record of Pseudohaliotrema from the South American Pacific Ocean. <![CDATA[Experimental american trypanomiasis in rats: sympathetic denervation, parasitism and inflammatory process]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Tissue parasitism, inflammatory process (histologic methods) and sympathetic denervation (glyoxylic acid-induced histofluorescence for demonstration of catecholamines) were studied in the heart (atrium and verntricle) and the submandibular gland of rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. In the heart paralleling intense parasitism and inflammatory process, the sympathetic denervation started at day 6 of infection and at the end of the acute phase (day 20) practically no varicose nerve terminals were found in both myocardium and vessels. In the submandibular gland, in spite of the rarity of anastigote pseudocysts and the scarcity of inflammatory foci, slight to moderate (days 13-15 of infection) or moderate to severe denervation (day 20) was found. At day 120 of infection both organs exhibited normal pattern of sympathetic innervation and only the heart showed some inflammatory foci and rare psudocysts (ventricle). Our data suggest the involvement of circulating factors in the sympathetic denervation phenomena but indicate that local inflammatory process is, at least, an aggravating factor.<hr/>Parasitismo tecidual, processo inflamatório (métodos histológicos) e desnervação simpática (histofluorescência induzida por ácido glioxílico para demosntração de catecolaminas) foram estudados no coração (átrio e ventrículo) e na glândula submandibular de ratos infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi. No coração, em paralelo com intenso parasitismo e processo inglamatório, a desnervação simpática iniciuo-se no 6º dia de infecção e ao fim da fase aguda (20º dia) praticamente nenhuma terminação nervosa varicosa foi encontrada tanto no miocárdio como em vasos. Na glândula submandibular, apesar da raridade de ninhos de amastigotas e da escassez de focos inflamatórios, encontram-se discreta e moderada 13º-15º dia de infeccção) ou moderada a severa (20º dia) desnervação. Aos 120 dias de infecção, ambos os órgãos exibiram padrão normal de inervação e somente o coração mostrou alguns focos inflamatórios e raros pseudocistos (ventrículos). Nossos dados sugerem o enlvolvimento de fatores circulantes no fenômeno de desnervação simpática mas indicam que processo inflamatório local é, pelo menos, um fator agravante. <![CDATA[Taxonomy and distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in Venezuela: II. The subgenus Trichopygomyia of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Species of sandflies in the subgenuys Trichopygomyia of the genus Lutzomyia occurring in Venezuela are reviewd. A new species, Lutzomyia pinna n. sp. is described. A distribution map and a pictorial key for maleds are provided with remarks on the ecological data collected in Venezuela.<hr/>Se hace una revisión de las especies de flebótomos del género Trichopygomyia, registradas hasta el presente en Venezuela. Se describe un nuevo taxon, Lutzomyia pinna n. sp. elevándose a 4 el número de especies conocidas para el País: L. conviti, L. longispina, L. wagleyi y L. pinna n. sp. Se proporciona una clave gráfica para los machos y un mapa de distribución geográfica de estas especies en Venezuela. <![CDATA[New conception for Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho's techinique for the searching of nematode larvae]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= We have adapted the Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho's technique and the results have demonstrated that more economy of material and physical space have been obtained becoming easier to work in the laboratory and in the field. The sensitivity of the adapted technique was somewhat higher for Strongyloides stercoralis (2,8%) when compared with the original technique and 6,5% for sedimentarion methods.<hr/>As adaptações por nós introduzidas no método de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho proporcionaram maior operacionalidade, economia de material e de espaço físico, facilitando sua execução, principalmente nos trabalhos de campo. A sensibilidade do método adaptado, objetivando o encontro de larvas de Strongyloides stercoralis foi, em números relativos, 2,8% maior do que o método original e 6,5% do que o de Lutz <![CDATA[The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura) in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae) and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae): some aspects of their ecological parasitology]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Leishmaniasis in Bolivia: VII. Infection of sentinel porcupines (Coendou prehensilis, L.) by Leishmania (LE.) chagasi]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Belostoma micantulum Stal, 1858 (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) as a predator of larvae and pupae of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Elisa and serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum: a note on specificity of crude soluble malarial antigen]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400019&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Trichuris trichiura eggs in human coprolites from the archaeological site of Furna do Estrago, Brejo da Madre de Deus, Pernambuco, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400020&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Leishmaniasis in Bolivia: V. Human strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis from the Department of Pando]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400021&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[In situ identification of Leishmania amazonensis associated with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400022&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[The feasibility of filter paper collected blood for the serodiagnosis of malaria]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400023&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati. <![CDATA[Episodes of malaria in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761989000400024&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977), from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina) together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host) the following conclusions have been reached: a) C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b) the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press) appeared correlated with prevalence; c) in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d) the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e) M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f) C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura) is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.<hr/>Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae) y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae) conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos) se pudo concluir que: a) C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b) el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa) aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c) en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d) la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e) M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f) C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae) son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g) Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.