Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0074-027619940002&lang=en vol. 89 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil: preliminary observations on the detection and transmissibility of canine and sandfly infections]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A Leishmania donovani-complex specific DNA probe was usedto confirm the widespread dissemination of amastigotes in apparently normal skinof dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. When Lutzomyia longipalpis were fed on abnormal skin of five naturally infected dogs 57 of 163 (35 per cent) fliesbecame infected: four of 65 flies (6 per cent) became infected when fed on apparently normal skin. The bite of a single sandfly that had fed seven days previouslyon a naturally infected dog transmitted the infection to a young dog from a non-endemic area. Within 22 days a lesion had developed at the site of the infectivebite (inner ear): 98 days after infection organisms had not disseminated throughout the skin, bone marrow, spleen or liver and the animal was still serologically negative by indirect immunofluorescence and dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When fed Lu. longipalpis were captured from a kennel with a sick dog known to be infected, 33 out of 49 (67 per cent) of flies contained promastigotes. In contrast only two infections were detected among more than 200 sandflies captured in houses. These observations confirm the ease of transmissibility of L.chagasi from dog to sandfly to dog in Teresina. It is likely that canine VL is the major source of human VL by the transmission route dog-sandfly-human. the Lmet2 DNA probe was a useful epidemiological tool for detecting L. chagasi in sandflies. <![CDATA[Distribution of phagetype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Cuba (1987-1991)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A Leishmania donovani-complex specific DNA probe was usedto confirm the widespread dissemination of amastigotes in apparently normal skinof dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. When Lutzomyia longipalpis were fed on abnormal skin of five naturally infected dogs 57 of 163 (35 per cent) fliesbecame infected: four of 65 flies (6 per cent) became infected when fed on apparently normal skin. The bite of a single sandfly that had fed seven days previouslyon a naturally infected dog transmitted the infection to a young dog from a non-endemic area. Within 22 days a lesion had developed at the site of the infectivebite (inner ear): 98 days after infection organisms had not disseminated throughout the skin, bone marrow, spleen or liver and the animal was still serologically negative by indirect immunofluorescence and dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When fed Lu. longipalpis were captured from a kennel with a sick dog known to be infected, 33 out of 49 (67 per cent) of flies contained promastigotes. In contrast only two infections were detected among more than 200 sandflies captured in houses. These observations confirm the ease of transmissibility of L.chagasi from dog to sandfly to dog in Teresina. It is likely that canine VL is the major source of human VL by the transmission route dog-sandfly-human. the Lmet2 DNA probe was a useful epidemiological tool for detecting L. chagasi in sandflies. <![CDATA[Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826) parasiting domestic animals in Buenos Aires and vicinities (Diptera, Calliphoridae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A Leishmania donovani-complex specific DNA probe was usedto confirm the widespread dissemination of amastigotes in apparently normal skinof dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. When Lutzomyia longipalpis were fed on abnormal skin of five naturally infected dogs 57 of 163 (35 per cent) fliesbecame infected: four of 65 flies (6 per cent) became infected when fed on apparently normal skin. The bite of a single sandfly that had fed seven days previouslyon a naturally infected dog transmitted the infection to a young dog from a non-endemic area. Within 22 days a lesion had developed at the site of the infectivebite (inner ear): 98 days after infection organisms had not disseminated throughout the skin, bone marrow, spleen or liver and the animal was still serologically negative by indirect immunofluorescence and dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When fed Lu. longipalpis were captured from a kennel with a sick dog known to be infected, 33 out of 49 (67 per cent) of flies contained promastigotes. In contrast only two infections were detected among more than 200 sandflies captured in houses. These observations confirm the ease of transmissibility of L.chagasi from dog to sandfly to dog in Teresina. It is likely that canine VL is the major source of human VL by the transmission route dog-sandfly-human. the Lmet2 DNA probe was a useful epidemiological tool for detecting L. chagasi in sandflies. <![CDATA[The occurrence of stenurus australis Tantalean and Sarmiento, 1991(Nematoda: Mestratongyloidea)in the Porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis (Burmeister,1865) on the Southern Coast of Chile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A Leishmania donovani-complex specific DNA probe was usedto confirm the widespread dissemination of amastigotes in apparently normal skinof dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. When Lutzomyia longipalpis were fed on abnormal skin of five naturally infected dogs 57 of 163 (35 per cent) fliesbecame infected: four of 65 flies (6 per cent) became infected when fed on apparently normal skin. The bite of a single sandfly that had fed seven days previouslyon a naturally infected dog transmitted the infection to a young dog from a non-endemic area. Within 22 days a lesion had developed at the site of the infectivebite (inner ear): 98 days after infection organisms had not disseminated throughout the skin, bone marrow, spleen or liver and the animal was still serologically negative by indirect immunofluorescence and dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When fed Lu. longipalpis were captured from a kennel with a sick dog known to be infected, 33 out of 49 (67 per cent) of flies contained promastigotes. In contrast only two infections were detected among more than 200 sandflies captured in houses. These observations confirm the ease of transmissibility of L.chagasi from dog to sandfly to dog in Teresina. It is likely that canine VL is the major source of human VL by the transmission route dog-sandfly-human. the Lmet2 DNA probe was a useful epidemiological tool for detecting L. chagasi in sandflies. <![CDATA[Re-description of Trypanosoma corvi Stephens and Christophers,1908 Emend. Baker, 1976 and remarks on the Trypanosomes of the Avian Family Corvidae]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The trypomastigote, epimastigote and amastigote stages of Trypanosoma corvi Stephens and Christophers, 1908 emend. Baker, 1976 from the peripheral blood, heart and bone marrow are described herein. Other trypanosomes described from the Corvidae are compared to T. corvi and their status is discussed. <![CDATA[Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59): shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73); shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37); shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51). Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates. <![CDATA[Two new neotropical species of Monohelea Kieffer and Downeshelea Wirth & Grogan (Diptera: Ceratipogonidae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Two new Neotropical predaceous midges are described and illustrated, Downeshelea charrua from Uruguay, and Monohelea bidenata from Argentina. The first species is described from female and male specimens; only one male is know from the second. <![CDATA[Description of Lutzomyia (Evandromyia) sipani, a new species of Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Loreto Department, Peru]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lutzomyia sipani n.sp. is described from males collected in Loreto Department, Peru. The new species belongs to the subgenus Evandromyia mangabeira and confirms the presence of this group in Peru. <![CDATA[Annotated list of the Phlebotominae (Diptera) of Suriname]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Phlebotomine sandflies were collected between 1952 and 1984 at 30 localities in the tropical rainforest and savanna regions of Suriname. Thirty-nine species were identified in the collections (2 Brumptomyia, 37 lutzomyia), including two known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and L. umbratilis. Nineteen of the species are new records for Suriname. In the rainforest region, the commonest phlebotomines were L. squatniventris maripaensis (79.8%), L. umbratilis (8.4%) and L. flaviscutellata (6.3%) in human bait catches, L. umbratilis (26.2%), L. infraspinosa (23.9%) and L. trichopyga (8.3%) in CDC light traps and L. umbratilis (84.3%), L. whitmani (6.8%) and L. shannoni (4.3%) in collections from tree trunks. The mean incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from 1979-1985 was 4.9 per 1000 inhabitants for the rainforest region and 0.66 per 1000 for Surinameas a whole. <![CDATA[Cytokine responses to Dengue Infection among Puerto Rican Patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Recently, a strong correlation between high concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) in blood and severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome has been reported from Asia and the Pacific. We wished to determine if a similar relationship could be found in dengue patients in the Americas where adult patients with severe syndromes have been observed more frequently than in Asia where severe cases have been observed mostly among children. The concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1beta) in hospistalized adult groups were significantly lower than that in outpatient adults. In contrast, the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly higher in hospistalized adults and children than in the corresponding outpatients. Levels of TNFalpha were higher in hospistalized children than in outpatient children or hospistalized adults. There was no significant difference in the levels of these three cytokines among hospitalized patients with or without hemorrhagic manifestations. Thus, an elevated IL-6 level was positively associated with severity of dengue infection in both children and adults, but IL-1beta level was negatively associated with severity in adults. <![CDATA[Comparative evaluation of a simple and sensitive assay for detection of orthomyxo and paramyxoviruses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Studies were done to evaluate comparatively the traditional HA assay and a more recently introduced lectin-neuraminidase (LN) methodologyin search of a simple and sensitive assay for virus detection during laboratorial diagnosis. The results proved the value of LN assay as a sensitive methodologyfor detection of virus particles, presenting results at least equal to those obtained by HA (hemagglutination) assay, with significant values of accumulated frequencies for LN/HA factors (ratios between LN and HA titers) higher than two. The accumulated values of frequencies for LN/HA factors as high as four were very significant, 72.7 (per cent) for influenzavirus and 60.7 (per cent) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), moreover accumulated frequencies for LN/HA factors even as high as 32 were due to influenzavirus (45.4 per cent) and NDV (7.2 per cent) samples. After the storage period, most of those concentraded samples that even did not present HA titers could be detected through LN assay, demonstrating a lower threshold for virus detection. <![CDATA[The use of ferromagnetic dacron as solid-phase in enzyme immunoassays]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ferromagnetic dacron is proposed as an alternative solid-phase for magnetic enzyme immunoassays. Human serum albumin (HSA) was covalentlyimmobilized onto ferromagnetic dacron and as enzyme immunoassay was developed using anti-HSA rabbit sera. Peroxidase, o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and hydrogen peroxide were used anti-HSA rabbit sera. Peroxidase, o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and hydrogen peroxide were used as the enzymatic label and substrates, respectively. Best results were observed when particles of 63-100 µm (diameter) and 10 µg of immobilized antigen were used. Positive reactions were detected until dilutions of1:51200 of immune sera. Its reproducibility was similar to standard ELISA. Disruption of the immunocomplexes formed and recuperation of the immobilized antigen in other immunoassays also proved to be reliable. <![CDATA[Human papillomavirus detection in genital lesions by in situ hybridization and ultrastructural observations]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Detection of papillomavirus DNA in sity hybridization technique was perfomed in 29 symptomatic patients (6 males and 23 females) during the period of 1989-1991 at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Universidade Federal Fluminense, State of rio de Janeiro. All the male patients had condyloma acuminata. Only HPV 6/11 were found in these lesions. Clinical features inthe female patients included vulvar condyloma acuminata, bowenoid populosis, flat cervical condyloma, cervical condyloma acuminatum and cervical intraepithelialneoplasia grade II (CIN II). We also found cases of condyloma acuminata associated to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (VIN III), as well as to vaginal invasive carcinoma. HPV 6/11 and 16/18 were found in vulvar condyloma acuminata. Mixed infection by 6/11-16/18 HPV were also seen in these lesions as well as in the patient who had cervical condyloma acuminatum. HPV 16/18 were found in the condyloma acuminatum plus VIN III and in the CIN II lesions. We have found HPV31/33/51 in the specimen of condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma. In order to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of HPV infection in genital tissue, the biopsies of three female patients were observed under electron microscope.Mature virus particles were found in the cells of a condyloma acuminatum as wellas in the condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma case. In another sample, chromosome breakages were found in the nuclei of the infected cells although no viral particles were observed. <![CDATA[An inhibition ELISA to determine α macroglobulin levels in mouse plasma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A sensitive method for quantifying mouse plasma alpha-macroglobulins (AM) using an inhibition ELISA is described. AM are important plasmaproteinase inhibitors that possibly act also as immunomodulatory molecules. The standard protocol develope in our experiments involves coating well with 10 µg/ml A2M in carbonate buffer, followed by incubation with a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the plasma to be tested (diluted 1/1000) and goat anti-AM (diluted 1/1250). This is followed by further incubation, first with the enzyme-conjugated antibody and with the substrate prior to the reading of absorbance levels of the reaction products. Standard curve samples must be included in each plate, employing known amounts of the purified Murine Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (MuA2M) used for coating, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml. Using test samples in triplicates and a 6-point standard curve in a single ELISA plate, 25 plasma samples can be tested accurately. The method offers an useful tool for establishing AM levelsin small samples of mouse plasma. <![CDATA[Conditions for the production and detection of Aeromonas enterotoxins]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A sensitive method for quantifying mouse plasma alpha-macroglobulins (AM) using an inhibition ELISA is described. AM are important plasmaproteinase inhibitors that possibly act also as immunomodulatory molecules. The standard protocol develope in our experiments involves coating well with 10 µg/ml A2M in carbonate buffer, followed by incubation with a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the plasma to be tested (diluted 1/1000) and goat anti-AM (diluted 1/1250). This is followed by further incubation, first with the enzyme-conjugated antibody and with the substrate prior to the reading of absorbance levels of the reaction products. Standard curve samples must be included in each plate, employing known amounts of the purified Murine Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (MuA2M) used for coating, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml. Using test samples in triplicates and a 6-point standard curve in a single ELISA plate, 25 plasma samples can be tested accurately. The method offers an useful tool for establishing AM levelsin small samples of mouse plasma. <![CDATA[Polimerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A sensitive method for quantifying mouse plasma alpha-macroglobulins (AM) using an inhibition ELISA is described. AM are important plasmaproteinase inhibitors that possibly act also as immunomodulatory molecules. The standard protocol develope in our experiments involves coating well with 10 µg/ml A2M in carbonate buffer, followed by incubation with a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the plasma to be tested (diluted 1/1000) and goat anti-AM (diluted 1/1250). This is followed by further incubation, first with the enzyme-conjugated antibody and with the substrate prior to the reading of absorbance levels of the reaction products. Standard curve samples must be included in each plate, employing known amounts of the purified Murine Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (MuA2M) used for coating, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 µg/ml. Using test samples in triplicates and a 6-point standard curve in a single ELISA plate, 25 plasma samples can be tested accurately. The method offers an useful tool for establishing AM levelsin small samples of mouse plasma. <![CDATA[Reversibility of muscle and heart lesions in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice after late trypanomicidal treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The effect of trypanomicidal treatment upon established histopathological Trypanosoma cruzi induced lesions was studied in Swiss mice. The animals were inoculated with 50 trypomastigotes and infection was allowed to progress without treatment for 99 days. After this period, the animals were divided in three groups, treated for 30 days with either placebo, benznidazole (200 mg/kg/day) or nifurtimox (100 mg/kg/day). These treatments induced 94 and 100 (per cent) cure rates respectively as detected by xenodiagnosis and reduction of antibody levels. Autopsies and histopathological studies of heart, urinary bladderand skeletal muscle performed on day 312 after infection showed almost complete healing without residual lesions. As long periods were allowed between infection, treatment and autopsy, the results indicate that tissue lesions depend, up to advances stages, on the continuous presence of the parasite. <![CDATA[Leishmaniasis dissemineted by Leishmania braziliensis in a mare (Equus cabalus) immunotherapy and chemotherapy assays]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Cutaneous disseminated lesions caused by Leishmania sp. were found in a pregnant mare (Equus cabalus) from a rural city in the State of rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Before delivering, treatment was undertaken by immunotherapy followed by chemotherapy. Histopatology and serology were performed during treatment, as well as the biochemical characterization of the parasite (L. braziliensis) that was isolated from one of the lesions. <![CDATA[Vibrio fluvialis attachs to but does not enter Hela cell monolayers]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Considering the possibility that invasiveness could be a neglected factor of virulence in Vibrio fluvialis-linked enteritis, since a dysenteric form of the disease was seen in Bangladesh, we studied 12 Brazilian strains of the organism, six clinical and six environmental, to determine whether they might be able to enter into HeLa cell monolayers or would carry plasmids incidentally involved in invasiveness. Four human and two environmental isolates attached to but did not enter into the cells. Though five strains harbored plasmids,no relationship was found between the carriage of these genetic elements and adhesiveness. <![CDATA[Effect of Proctoeces lintoni (Digenea) on the Fecundity of Fissurella crassa (Archaeogastropoda)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Considering the possibility that invasiveness could be a neglected factor of virulence in Vibrio fluvialis-linked enteritis, since a dysenteric form of the disease was seen in Bangladesh, we studied 12 Brazilian strains of the organism, six clinical and six environmental, to determine whether they might be able to enter into HeLa cell monolayers or would carry plasmids incidentally involved in invasiveness. Four human and two environmental isolates attached to but did not enter into the cells. Though five strains harbored plasmids,no relationship was found between the carriage of these genetic elements and adhesiveness. <![CDATA[Comparative chromatin analysis of Trypanosoma congolense]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The chromatin of Trypanosoma congolense was analyzed by electron microscopy. The chromatin is organized as nucleosome filaments but does not form a 30 nm fiber. There are five groups of histones, including a histone H1-like protein, which has a molecular weight within the range of the core histones, and is extremely hydrophilic. Weak histone-histone interaction, a typical feature of trypanosoma chromatin, was found. These results are similar to those for T. cruzi and T. b. brucei, but differ significantly from those for higher eukaryotes. The results confirm the model of trypanosome chromatin, and support the theory of their early separation from the other eukaryotes during the evolution. T. congolensis is an excellent model for chromatin research on trypanosomes, because it is easy to cultivate and its chromatin has, a relatively high stability, compared to that of other trypanosomes. <![CDATA[Adipokinetic hormone causes formation of low density lipophorin in the hemolymph of Triatoma infestans]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The chromatin of Trypanosoma congolense was analyzed by electron microscopy. The chromatin is organized as nucleosome filaments but does not form a 30 nm fiber. There are five groups of histones, including a histone H1-like protein, which has a molecular weight within the range of the core histones, and is extremely hydrophilic. Weak histone-histone interaction, a typical feature of trypanosoma chromatin, was found. These results are similar to those for T. cruzi and T. b. brucei, but differ significantly from those for higher eukaryotes. The results confirm the model of trypanosome chromatin, and support the theory of their early separation from the other eukaryotes during the evolution. T. congolensis is an excellent model for chromatin research on trypanosomes, because it is easy to cultivate and its chromatin has, a relatively high stability, compared to that of other trypanosomes. <![CDATA[Dengue in Brazil - situation, transmission and control: a proposal for ecological control]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses dengue in terms of its conceptual and historical aspects, epidemiological and clinical/pathological nature, and evolution up to the present situation in Brazil. The author discusses the ecological relationship in both the production of dengue and its control. Comparison is made between traditional dengue-control programs and a proposed socially-controlled program of an ecological nature without the use of insecticides. Stress is placed on interdisciplinary technical and scientific activity, broadbased participation by communities in discussing methodological aspects involving them, and prospective evaluation comparing the communities selected for intervention and control communities with regard to clinical and subclinical dengue cases and vector infestation rates in relation to climatic, socio-economic, and behavioural factors. <![CDATA[Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) in the control of slug and snail pests]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae) was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac) and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v) killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76) min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63) - 321.33 (± SD 4.14) and 271.20 (± SD 17.54) - 298.26 (± SD 16.69) min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively) when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods. <![CDATA[Susceptibility status of Aedes taeniorhynchus to organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae) was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac) and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v) killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76) min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63) - 321.33 (± SD 4.14) and 271.20 (± SD 17.54) - 298.26 (± SD 16.69) min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively) when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods. <![CDATA[Trypanosoma cruzi: metacyclogenesis in vitro - I. Changes in the properties of metacyclic trypomastigotes maintained in the laboratory by different methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this work we have studied the modifications in the biological properties of Trypanosoma cruzi when the parasite is maintained for a long time in axenic culture. The studies were done with a clone from an avirulent strain (Dm30L) and a non-cloned virulent strain (EP) of T. cruzi. Both parasiteswere maintained, for at least three years, by successive triatomine/mouse alternate passage (control condition), or by serial passage in axenic medium (culture condition), or only in the mouse (mouse condition). The comparison between parasites of culture and control condition showed that metacyclogenesis capacity was reduced in the former and that the resulting metacyclics displayed an attenuatedvirulence. In order to compare the virulence of metacyclics from the urine of the insect vector, Rhodnius prolixus were infected by artificial feeding with parasites of the control or culture condition. After three triatomine/triatomine passages, there was observed an almost identical biological behavior for these parasites, hence indicating that the maintenance of T. cruzi for a long time in axenic culture affects the differentiation capacity and the virulence of the parasite. Additionally, it was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain T. cruzi exclusively through passages in the invertebrate host. <![CDATA[Ovipositional substrates used by Calyptrate Diptera in Tijuca forest, Rio de Janeiro]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Twenty seven species of calyptrate muscoids were reared from a forested area of Rio de Janeiro (Tijuca Forest). Substrates for obtaining flies were beef liver, fish, mouse, frog, shrimp, snail carcasses, human faeces, banana and papaya fruits. The most frequent species found were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio) (49.9% on shrimp). Hemilucilia flavifacies (95.0% on liver). Phaenicia eximia (49.4% on mouse), Synthesiomyia nudiseta ( 100.0% on fish), Ophyra aenescens (100.0% on shrimp), Oxyvinia excisa (100.0% on faeces), Euboettecheria collusor (52.4% on faeces) and Pattonella intermutans (61.0% on frog). <![CDATA[Biology of Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 is a silvatic species with a widespread distribution in South America, found in nine Brazilian states, naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. The individual rearing of this species under laboratory conditions, allowed the following biological aspects to be observed: incubation time, search for first meal after eclosion or moult, time - lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding, duration of blood meal, time and place of defecation, number of blood meals, duration of each instar and adult longevity, and time required from egg to adult. <![CDATA[Possible absence of attraction to odor in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We tested the attraction of Panstrongylus megistus odor under laboratory conditons, between males and females of this species and by individuals of each sex on recently fed virgin couples. We employed a system of choice boxes both with or without aeration over the stimuli in the tested situations. We also observed a clear trend among the insects to remain in the central box where they had been placed in the beginning of the tests. <![CDATA[The cave organ of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) under scanning electron microscopy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We tested the attraction of Panstrongylus megistus odor under laboratory conditons, between males and females of this species and by individuals of each sex on recently fed virgin couples. We employed a system of choice boxes both with or without aeration over the stimuli in the tested situations. We also observed a clear trend among the insects to remain in the central box where they had been placed in the beginning of the tests. <![CDATA[Meeting on Parasites and Invertebrate Vector]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We tested the attraction of Panstrongylus megistus odor under laboratory conditons, between males and females of this species and by individuals of each sex on recently fed virgin couples. We employed a system of choice boxes both with or without aeration over the stimuli in the tested situations. We also observed a clear trend among the insects to remain in the central box where they had been placed in the beginning of the tests. <![CDATA[Report of the Meeting on Genetic Vaccines (Naked DNA/RNA) WHO]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We tested the attraction of Panstrongylus megistus odor under laboratory conditons, between males and females of this species and by individuals of each sex on recently fed virgin couples. We employed a system of choice boxes both with or without aeration over the stimuli in the tested situations. We also observed a clear trend among the insects to remain in the central box where they had been placed in the beginning of the tests.