Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz]]> vol. 99 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b><i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i></b>: <b>genetic structure of populations and relevance of genetic variability to the pathogenesis of chagas disease</b>]]> Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a variable clinical course, ranging from symptomless infection to severe chronic disease with cardiovascular or gastrointestinal involvement or, occasionally, overwhelming acute episodes. The factors influencing this clinical variability have not been elucidated, but it is likely that the genetic variability of both the host and the parasite are of importance. In this work we review the the genetic structure of T. cruzi populations and analyze the importance of genetic variation of the parasite in the pathogenesis of the disease under the light of the histotropic-clonal model. <![CDATA[<b>A comparative study of congenital toxoplasmosis between public and private hospitals from Uberlândia, MG, Brazil</b>]]> The main purpose of the present study was to examine if there is difference in terms of incidence rates of congenital toxoplasmosis among populations assisted in public and private hospitals from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 805 serum samples from cord blood were collected, being 500 from public hospital and 305 from private hospital, and all patients answered a questionnaire about pregnancy and newborns. An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and the positive samples were retested to verify the presence of specific IgM and IgA antibodies in a capture ELISA. We found significant differences among data from both hospitals with respect to maternal age, origin city, gestational age, number of visits to physicians during pregnancy, type of delivery, and birth weight. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii for patients from public and private hospitals was 57.6% and 41.9% respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). In addition, the frequency of congenital toxoplasmosis measured by the presence of IgM and/or IgA antibodies toward T. gondii was exclusively located in samples from public hospital (0.8%), and no positive sample was seen in private hospital (0%). Considering that almost all babies suffering from congenital toxoplasmosis, if undiagnosed and untreated, will develop visual or neurological impairments by adulthood, the results presented herein emphasized the importance to accomplish screening programs for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, particularly in the public hospitals, due to the expressive rate of congenital disease showed in the patients attended at these centers. <![CDATA[<b>Malaria during pregnancy in a reference centre from the Brazilian Amazon</b>: <b>unexpected increase in the frequency of <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> infections</b>]]> Malaria remains globally the most important parasitic disease of man. Data on its deleterious effects during pregnancy have been extensively documented in hyperendemic, holoendemic, and mesoendemic areas from Africa and Asia where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for almost all infections. However, knowledge about malaria during pregnancy in areas where transmission is unstable and P. vivax is the most prevalent species, such as the Brazilian Amazon, is scarce. Here, we report a preliminary cross sectional descriptive study, carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, a reference centre for diagnosis and treatment of tropical diseases in the west-Amazon (Manaus, Brazil). A total of 1699 febrile childbearing age women had positive thick blood smears to Plasmodium species, between January and November 1997: 1401 (82.5%) were positive for P. vivax , 286 (16.8%) for P. falciparum and 12 (0.07%) carried mixed infections. From the malarious patients, 195 were pregnant. The ratio of P. falciparum to P. vivax infections in the group of non-pregnant infected women was 1:5.6 while it was 1:2.3 in that of pregnant infected ones. Similar rates or even proportionally more vivax infections during pregnancy were expected to occur, in function of the contraindication of primaquine with the resulting increased P. vivax relapse rates. Such an observation suggests that the mechanism of resistance/susceptibility to infection and/or malaria pathogenesis in pregnant women may differ according to Plasmodium species and that the extensively described increase in the frequencies of malaria infection during pregnancy may be specifically due to P. falciparum infection. <![CDATA[<b>Southernmost finding of <i>Lymnaea viatrix</i> orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of <i>Fasciola hepatica</i> (Linnaeus, 1758) (Trematoda: Digenea), in urban and rural areas of </b><b>Patagonia</b><b>, </b><b>Argentina</b>]]> We report the first finding of Lymnaea viatrix south of parallel 41ºS, in rural and urban areas from Argentina. Ninety snails were collected during year 2000, from a concrete pond at a Public Square in El Bolsón Village, Río Negro province, and 811 snails in November 1999, and during 2000 from waterbodies within a farm at Cholila locality, Chubut province. Fasciola hepatica infection was detected in 0.9% snails from the rural area. We discuss the potential risk of L. viatrix to public health in urban areas and its epidemiological importance in rural areas of the Andean Patagonian region. <![CDATA[<b>Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of <i>Triatoma infestans</i>, <i>Rhodnius prolixus,</i> and <i>Rhodnius pallescens</i> (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)</b>]]> We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long-established laboratory material for experimental studies designed to extrapolate the natural behaviour and physiology of these species. <![CDATA[<b>Taxonomic reports of Otobothrioidea (Eucestoda, Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranch fishes of the southern coast off </b><b>Brazil</b>]]> Specimens of elasmobranch fishes, captured in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, of the southern coast off Brazil, represented by three families, four genera, and four species, were parasitized with otobothrioid trypanorhynch cestodes: Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788), Squalus sp. and Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868) were parasitized with Progrillotia dollfusi Carvajal & Rego,1987; Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) with Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1841) Dollfus, 1942. Details of internal morphology and/or scolex and/or proglottids surface ultrastructure, that expanded the description of M. horridus, through observations with lightfield, and/or scanning eletronic microscopy, are provided. The known geographical distribution for the species M. horridus is enlarged. P. dollfusi is reported for the first time in elasmobranchs. <![CDATA[<b><i>Simulium lobatoi</i></b><b>, new species of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás, Central Brazil</b>]]> During studies on the taxonomy of the Simuliidae of Brazil, a new species of Simulium was found. Full descriptions of the adults and pupae of this species are described here, its affinities with other species are discussed and its distribution, biology, and medical importance in Brazil are recorded. <![CDATA[<b><i>Simulium</i></b><b> (<i>Chirostilbia</i>) <i>bifenestratum</i> (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of </b><b>São Paulo</b><b>, </b><b>Brazil</b>]]> The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic forest, in São José do Barreiro county, state of São Paulo, in a high (1500 m) natural grassland. Larvae and pupae were collected on the edges of small waterfalls and in places with-high speed laminar water flow, attached to the bedrock. <![CDATA[<b>Whole blood assay to access T cell-immune responses to <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> antigens in healthy Brazilian individuals</b>]]> The production of interferon gamma (IFNgamma) guarantees effective T cell-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In the present study, we simply compare the in vitro immune responses to Mycobacterium antigens in terms of IFNg production in a total of 10 healthy Brazilian volunteers. Whole blood and mononuclear cells were cultivated in parallel with PPD, Ag85B, and M. bovis hsp65, and five-days supernatants were harvested for cytokine detection by ELISA. The inter-assay result was that the overall profile of agreement in response to antigens was highly correlated (r² = 0.9266; p = 0.0102). Potential analysis is in current progress to dictate the usefulness of this method to access the immune responses also in tuberculosis patients and its contacts. <![CDATA[<b>Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized <i>Leishmania </i>promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin</b>: <b>preliminary report</b>]]> Severe mucocutaneous (MCL) and diffuse (DCL) forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy . <![CDATA[<b>Plasminogen interaction with <i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i> </b>]]> The ability of Trypanosoma cruzi to interact with plasminogen, the zimogenic form of the blood serin protease plasmin, was examined. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that both forms, epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, were able to fix plasminogen in a lysine dependant manner. This interaction was corroborated by plasminogen activation studies. Both forms of the parasite enhanced the plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator.The maximal enhancements obtained were 15-fold and 3.4-fold with epimastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes, respectively, as compared to plasminogen activation in absence of cells. Ligand-blotting analysis of proteins extracted with Triton X-114 from a microsomal fraction of epimastigotes revealed at least five soluble proteins and one hydrophobic protein able to bind plasminogen. <![CDATA[<b>Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil</b>]]> The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR), has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for serotype B (B"-GWGR) infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02). The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06), for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23), with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53). Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies. <![CDATA[<b>In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> subsp. </b><i><b>medellin</b></i><b> to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)</b>]]> Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae. <![CDATA[<b>Detection of cytotoxic necrotizing factor types 1 and 2 among fecal <i>Escherichia coli</i> isolates from brazilian children with and without diarrhea</b>]]> The enteropathogenic role of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated by searching cnf genes among 2074 isolates from 200 children with and 200 without acute diarrhea in Brazil. Fourteen (7%) cases versus 10 (5%) control children carried at least one cnf positive isolate (P = 0.50) and most isolates expressed CNF type 1. DNA sequences of virulence factors of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 78.6% of CNF1-producing isolates. Besides not being associated with human acute diarrhea, the CNF1-producing isolates here identified may represent potential ExPEC transitorily composing the normal intestinal flora. <![CDATA[<b>Dominant character of the molecular marker of a <i>Biomphalaria tenagophila </i>strain (Mollusca: Planorbidae) resistant to <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i></b>]]> Biomphalaria tenagophila population from Taim (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) is totally resistant toSchistosoma mansoni, and presents a molecular marker of 350 bp by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the entire rDNA internal transcriber spacer. The scope of this work was to determine the heritage pattern of this marker. A series of cross-breedings between B. tenagophila from Taim (resistant) and B. tenagophila from Joinville, state of Santa Catarina (susceptible) was carried out, and their descendants F1 and F2 were submitted to this technique. It was possible to demonstrate that the specific fragment from Taim is endowed with dominant character, since the obtained segregation was typically mendelian. <![CDATA[<b><i>Strongyloides ratti</i></b><b> antigenic components recognized by IgE antibodies in immunoblotting as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis</b>]]> IgE antibody response in human strongyloidiasis was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting (IB) using Strongyloides ratti saline extract as heterologous antigen. A total of 50 serum samples of patients who were shedding S. stercoralis larvae in feces (group I, copropositive), 38 of patients with other intestinal parasites (group II), and 38 of subjects with negative results in three parasitologic assays (group III, copronegative) were analyzed. Levels of IgE anti-Strongyloides expressed in ELISA Index (EI) were significantly higher in patients of group I (1.32) than in group II (0.51) and group III (0.81), with positivity rates of 54%, 0%, and 10.5%, respectively. Fifteen S. ratti antigenic components were recognized in IB-IgE by sera of group I, with frequency ranging from 8% to 46%. In group II, only two antigenic bands (101, 81 kDa) were detected in a frequency of 10% and no reactivity was found in group III. Sera with EI values > 1.5 recognized five from 13 specific antigenic bands (70, 63, 61, 44, 7 kDa). It can be concluded that these five antigenic components recognized by IB-IgE using S. ratti antigen might be employed as an additional tool for improving the immunodiagnosis in human strongyloidiasis. <![CDATA[<b>Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil</b>]]> Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis), immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia), or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death). Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test), can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk. <![CDATA[<b>Circulating filarial antigen in the hydrocele fluid from individuals living in a bancroftian filariasis area - Recife, Brazil </b>: <b>detected by the monoclonal antibody Og4C3-assay</b>]]> The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detected by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Og4C3-ELISA in paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 104 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti. Nocturnal blood specimens were filtered and examined for microfilariae (MF) and ultrasound was used in order to identify the presence of adult worms (the filaria dance sign - FDS) in the lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area. Four groups were selected according to their parasitological status: group I - 71 MF- and FDS-; group II - 21 MF+ and FDS+; group III - 10 MF- and FDS+ and group IV- 2 MF+ and FDS-. CFA was identified simultaneously (fluid and serum) in 11 (15.5%), 21 (100%), 3 (30%), and 1 (50%) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In despite of high CFA+ level (antigen Og4C3) units/ml, the Geometrical Mean (GM) = 2696) in the sera of these 36/104 paired samples, when compared to the hydrocele fluid, (GM = 1079), showed a very good correlation between the CFA level in the serum and CFA level in the fluid (r = 0.731). CFA level in the serum of the 23 microfilaremics (groups II and IV) was extremely high (GM = 4189) and was correlated with MF density (r = 0.442). These findings report for the first time the potential alternative use of the hydrocele fluid to investigate CFA using the mAb Og4C3-ELISA. <![CDATA[<b>Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </i>isolates discrepancies, preliminary results</b>]]> Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), and/or rifampin (RIF) as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM) were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB). Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63%) for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%). Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains. <![CDATA[<b>Drug susceptibility testing of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> by the broth microdilution method with 7H9 broth</b>]]> In this study, we have evaluated the broth microdilution method (BMM) for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 43 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain were studied. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the BMM for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR), and ethambutol (ETM). The proportion method was carried out according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. The BMM was carried out using 7H9 broth with 96 well-plates. All strains were tested at 3.2-0.05 µg/ml, 16-0.25 µg/ml, 32-0.5 µg/ml, and 32-0.5 µg/ml concentrations for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. When the BMM was compared with the proportion method, sensitivity was 100, 100, 96.9, and 90.2%, while specificity was 100, 85.7, 90.9, and 100% for INH, RIF, STR, and ETM, respectively. The plates were examined 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after incubation. The majority of the result were obtained at 14th days after incubation, while the proportion method result were ended in 21-28 days. According to our results, it may be suggested that the BMM is suitable for early determining of multidrug-resistance-M. tuberculosis strains in developed or developing countries. <![CDATA[<b>Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of <i>Atlantia monophylla </i>(Family: Rutaceae) against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms</b>]]> Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae) were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.