Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz]]> vol. 102 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B>Association of insecticide use and alteration on <I>Aedes aegypti</I> susceptibility status</B>]]> Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, vector-borne diseases transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, are presently important public health problems in Brazil. As the strategy for disease control is based on vector control through the use of insecticides, the development of resistance is a threat to programs efficacy. The objective of this study was to compare the Aedes aegypti susceptibility in nine vector populations from the state of São Paulo and seven from Northeast region of Brazil, since there was a difference on group of insecticide used between the areas. Bioassays with larvae and adult were performed according to the World Health Organization methods.The results showed higher resistance levels to organophosphates group in populations from the Northeast region where this group was used for both larvae and adult control than in São Paulo where organophosphates were used for larvae and pyretroids for adult control. Resistance to pyretroids in adults was widespread in São Paulo after ten years of use of cypermethrin while in vector populations from the Northeast region it was punctual. The difference in resistance profile between the areas is in accordance to the group of insecticide used. <![CDATA[<B>Description of <I>Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) paleotrichia</I>, a Miocene period new species from the Dominican Republic (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)</B>]]> A new fossil species of phlebotomine sandflies is described from Dominican amber based in one specimen. Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) paleotrichia sp. nov. is distinguished from the other extant and extinct species by aspects of paramere and the basal tuft of bristles in the gonocoxite. <![CDATA[<B>The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil</B>]]> By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r² = 0.24, p = 0.001) supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection. <![CDATA[<B>Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil</B>]]> Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande. <![CDATA[<B>First isolation of microorganisms from the gut diverticulum of <I>Aedes aegypti</I> (Diptera: Culicidae)</B>: <B>new perspectives for an insect-bacteria association</B>]]> We show for the first time that the ventral diverticulum of the mosquito gut (impermeable sugar storage organ) harbors microorganisms. The gut diverticulum from newly emerged and non-fed Aedes aegypti was dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on BHI medium. Microbial isolates were identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA for bacteria and 28S rDNA for yeast. A direct DNA extraction from Ae. aegypti gut diverticulum was also performed. The bacterial isolates were: Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Serratia sp. The latter was the predominant bacteria found in our isolations. The yeast species identified was Pichia caribbica. <![CDATA[<b>Biology of three species of North American Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) fed on rabbits</b>]]> Aspects related to hatching, lifetime, number of blood meals for molting, mortality, feeding time, and postfeeding defecation delay were evaluated and compared in each instar of three North American Triatominae: Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma lecticularia and Triatoma protracta, all of them fed on rabbits. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found among the three species regarding mean hatching rate, which was close to 20 days. Egg-to-adult development times were significantly shorter (p < 0.05) for T. lecticularia. Number of blood meals for molting to next instar ranged from one to five for T. protracta, and from one to six for T. gerstaeckeri and T. lecticularia. Mortality rates were higher in younger nymphs of T. lecticularia and T. protracta, while rates in T. gerstaeckeri were higher in fifth-instar nymphs. Mean feeding time was longest in T. gerstaeckeri, followed by T. lecticularia. More than twice the number of T. gerstaeckeri nymphs completed the development process, if compared to the nymphs from the other two species. Defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. lecticularia, T. protracta and the youngest nymphs of T. gerstaeckeri. Results point out that these three species may be important potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi for human populations, in areas of Mexico where these species are currently present. <![CDATA[<B>Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development in Lewis rats from a conventional animal facility</B>]]> Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord that is mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes specific to myelin components. In this study we compared development of EAE in Lewis rats from two colonies, one kept in pathogen-free conditions (CEMIB colony) and the other (Botucatu colony) kept in a conventional animal facility. Female Lewis rats were immunized with 100 µl of an emulsion containing 50 µg of myelin, associated with incomplete Freund's adjuvant plus Mycobacterium butyricum. Animals were daily evaluated for clinical score and weight. CEMIB colony presented high EAE incidence with clinical scores that varied from three to four along with significant weight losses. A variable disease incidence was observed in the Botucatu colony with clinical scores not higher than one and no weight loss. Immunological and histopathological characteristics were also compared after 20 days of immunization. Significant amounts of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were induced by myelin in cultures from CEMIB animals but not from the Botucatu colony. Significantly higher levels of anti-myelin IgG1 were detected in the CEMIB colony. Clear histopathological differences were also found. Cervical spinal cord sections from CEMIB animals showed typical perivascular inflammatory foci whereas samples from the Botucatu colony showed a scanty inflammatory infiltration. Helminths were found in animals from Botucatu colony but not, as expected, in the CEMIB pathogen-free animals. As the animals maintained in a conventional animal facility developed a very discrete clinical, and histopathological EAE in comparison to the rats kept in pathogen-free conditions, we believe that environmental factors such as intestinal parasites could underlie this resistance to EAE development, supporting the applicability of the hygiene hypothesis to EAE. <![CDATA[<B>Antigenic and genomic characterization of adenovirus associated to respiratory infections in children living in Northeast Brazil</B>]]> From January to December 1998, nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 482 children with acute respiratory infections attended in emergence department and wards of a teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The samples were tested for the presence of adenovirus by isolation in tissue culture and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Eleven adenoviruses were detected by both methods in the same clinical samples. Infections by adenovirus were observed during seven months of the year without association with rainy season. Genome analysis was performed on these 11 isolates. Species C was represented by serotypes 1, 2 and 5. Within species B, only serotype 7 (Ad7) was detected. Two genomic variants of Ad1, two variants of Ad2, one of Ad5, and one of Ad7 (7h) were identified. This is the first study of molecular epidemiology of adenovirus associated to acute respiratory infections in children living in Northeast Brazil, and contributes to a better understanding of adenovirus infections in the country. <![CDATA[<B>Naturally acquired antibodies to merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1<SUB>19</SUB> and cumulative exposure to <I>Plasmodium falciparum </I>and <I>Plasmodium vivax</I> in remote populations of the Amazon Basin of Brazil</B>]]> To infer recent patterns of malaria transmission, we measured naturally acquired IgG antibodies to the conserved 19-kDa C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of both Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1(19)) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfMSP-1(19)) in remote malaria-exposed populations of the Amazon Basin. Community-based cross-sectional surveys were carried out between 2002 and 2003 in subjects of all age groups living along the margins of the Unini and Jaú rivers, Northwestern Brazil. We found high prevalence rates of IgG antibodies to PvMSP-1(19) (64.0 - 69.6%) and PfMSP-1(19) (51.6 - 52.0%), with significant differences in the proportion of subjects with antibodies to PvMSP-1(19) according to age, place of residence and habitual involvement in high-risk activities, defining some groups of highly exposed people who might be preferential targets of malaria control measures. In contrast, no risk factor other than age was significantly associated with seropositivity to PfMSP-1(19). Only 14.1% and 19.3% of the subjects tested for antibodies to PvMSP-1(19) and PfMSP-1(19) in consecutive surveys (142 - 203 days apart) seroconverted or had a three fold or higher increase in the levels of antibodies to these antigens. We discuss the extent to which serological data correlated with the classical malariometric indices and morbidity indicators measured in the studied population at the time of the seroprevalence surveys and highlight some limitations of serological data for epidemiological inference. <![CDATA[<B>Population structure of the malaria vector <I>Anopheles darlingi</I> in Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon, based on mitochondrial DNA</B>]]> Anopheles darlingi is the most important Brazilian malaria vector, with a widespread distribution in the Amazon forest. Effective strategies for vector control could be better developed through knowledge of its genetic structure and gene flow among populations, to assess the vector diversity and competence in transmitting Plasmodium. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of An. darlingi collected at four locations in Porto Velho, by sequencing a fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial gene. From 218 individual mosquitoes, we obtained 20 different haplotypes with a diversity index of 0.756, equivalent to that found in other neotropical anophelines. The analysis did not demonstrate significant population structure. However, haplotype diversity within some populations seems to be over-represented, suggesting the presence of sub-populations, but the presence of highly represented haplotypes complicates this analysis. There was no clear correlation among genetic and geographical distance and there were differences in relation to seasonality, which is important for malarial epidemiology. <![CDATA[<b>Systematics of <I>Anopheles lanei</I> Galvão and Amaral, a species of the subgenus <I>Nyssorhynchus</I> Blanchard (Diptera: Culicidae)</b>]]> Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) lanei Galvão and Amaral is here redescribed using morphological characteristics of adult, male and female, fourth instar larva and pupa. The larva, pupa, and male genitalia are illustrated. Diagnostic morphological characters of adults, male genitalia, fourth instar larva and pupa are provided to distinguish An. lanei from other species of the Argyritarsis section. Species distribution data are based on the published literature records and bionomics data are based on both literature records and field data. <![CDATA[<b>Molecular characterization of astrovirus in stool samples from children in São Paulo, Brazil</b>]]> The purpose of this study was to characterize astrovirus in faecal samples collected from children with and without diarrhea in São Paulo, Brazil, grouped into two sets: EPM and HU. Detection and genotyping were carried out using reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific primers directed towards the genome open reading frame 2 (ORF2). Results for EPM set showed that 66/234 (28.2%) were positive: 28/94 (29.7%) from children with acute diarrhea, 14/45 (31.1%) with persistent diarrhea, and 9/55 (16.3%) from control individuals. No data was available for 15/40 (37.5%) of samples. Mixed infections with other viruses were found in 33 samples. In the HU, 18/187 (9.6%) were positive: 12/158 (7.6%) from individuals with acute diarrhea and 6/29 (20.7%) from control children. Four samples were mixed with other viruses. Out of 66 astrovirus positive EPM samples, 18 (27.2%) were characterized as human astrovirus type-1 (HAstV-1), two (3.0%) as HAstV-2, two (3.0%) as HAstV-3, and three (4.5%) as HAstV-8. Among 18 astrovirus positive HU samples, one (5.5%) was characterized as HAstV-1, six (33.3%) as HAstV-2, and one (5.5%) as HAstV-8. Two HAstV-8 genotyped samples were further confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Our results shows that astroviruses are circulating in a constant manner in the population, with multiple serotypes, in higher frequency than it was described for other Brazilian regions. For the first time in Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was shown that astroviruses play an important role in children gastroenteritis, as described for most locations where they were detected. <![CDATA[<b>Diverse population dynamics of three <I>Anopheles</I> species belonging to the Triannulatus Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)</b>]]> The Triannulatus Complex of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) consists of at least three sibling species, namely Anopheles triannulatus s.s., Anopheles halophylus and a third undescribed member herein referred to as An. triannulatus "C". Sympatric anophelines belonging to species complexes, even though closely related, may exploit different environments such as larval habitats. In this paper we hypothesize that rainfall and seasonal flooding would distinctly influence the availability of larval habitats and consequently the seasonal population dynamics of sympatric members of the Triannulatus Complex. A reflection of this is distinct seasonal biting frequencies exhibited by three members of the Triannulatus Complex at a site in Central Brazil. Population dynamics seem to be influenced by the water level in the local rivers, although biting frequency of all three species was negatively influenced by rainfall. An. triannulatus s.s. was more abundant following the end of the rainy season, but notably 30 to 60 days after flooding. On the other hand, An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C peaked during the middle of the dry season, when water impoundments have no inflow, are somewhat reduced in size and the water becomes brackish. Differences in population dynamics were greater between An. triannulatus s.s. and An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C than between An. halophylus and An. triannulatus C. This might reflect differences in larval habitat exploitation and therefore spatial segregation among these members of the complex. <![CDATA[<B>An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation </B>]]> An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever. <![CDATA[<b>Polymorphism in the promoter region of the mannose-binding lectin gene among human T-cell lymphotropic virus infected subjects</b>]]> The present study investigated the frequency of the mutations at positions -550 and -221 of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene in a sample of 75 human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infected patients and 96 HTLV seronegative controls, in order to evaluate the occurrence of a possible association between the polymorphism and HTLV infection. A sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was used for discrimination of the polymorphism. The analysis of allele frequencies at position -550 did not show any significant differences between HTLV infected group and controls, but there was a significant difference at position -221. The comparative analysis of haplotypes frequencies were not significant, but the genotype frequencies between the two groups, revealed a higher prevalence of genotype LYLX (25.3%), associated with medium and low MBL serum levels among HTLV infected subjects. The odds ratio estimation demonstrated that the presence of genotype LYLX was associated with an increased risk of HTLV infection (p = 0.0096; 1.38 < IC95% < 7.7605). There was no association between proviral load and the promoter polymorphism, but when promoter and exon 1 mutations were matched, it was possible to identify a significant higher proviral load among HTLV infected individuals carrying haplotypes correlated to low serum levels of MBL. The present study shows that the polymorphism in the promoter region of the MBL gene may be a genetic marker associated with HTLV infection, and emphasizes the need for further studies to determinate if the present polymorphism have any impact on diseases linked to HTLV infection. <![CDATA[<b>Identification of hepatitis C virus subtype 2c by sequencing analysis in patients from Córdoba, Argentina</b>]]> In Argentina, most information on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution comes from studies carried out in Buenos Aires (east province). In order to identify HCV subtypes in central Argentina, nucleotide sequencing of core region was performed in samples from 36 patients living in Córdoba, the second most populated province of Argentina. The sequence analysis identified subtype 2c as the most prevalent (50%), followed by subtype 1b (33%) and to a lesser extent by subtypes 1a (11%), 3a (3%) and 4a (3%). This is the first report of circulation of HCV subtype 2c in this region of Argentina and also such high prevalence has never been found before in the genotype distribution of South America. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of a modified culture medium for <I>Borrelia burgdorferi</I> sensu lato</b>]]> The aim of the present study was to assess the possible use of a modified medium, prepared in the laboratory using the constituents of Barbour-Stonner-Kelly (BSK) medium and medium 199 as base, for the culture of Borrelia strains, comparing the growth of individual strains in this medium and in the BSK-H medium, and the protein profile and antigenic characteristics of Borrelia proteins expressed in these media. A qualitative evaluation of growth of Borrelia species was made with acceptable results (morphology and motility), but during a quantitative evaluation using the three main genospecies of Borrelia, the better results were obtained with a B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. The modified medium did not enable the growth of a B. afzelii strain. The protein profile and antigenic characteristic of the expressed proteins in the modified medium were studied with satisfactory results. These results suggest the modified medium as an alternative for the cultivation of Borrelia strains, with some limitations, in poorly-resourced laboratories. <![CDATA[<b>First encounter of subclinical human <I>Leishmania (Viannia) </I>infection in State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil</b>]]> The objective of the present study was to evaluate the specificity of the Montenegro skin test (MST) in an area in Brazil, state of Grande do Sul State (RS), which was considered to be non-endemic for leishmaniasis. Sixty subjects presented a positive MST and were reevaluated by clinical examination, serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of peripheral blood for the detection of subclinical Leishmania infection. None of the subjects presented clinical signs or symptoms of current leishmaniasis or a history of the disease.Leishmania (Viannia) DNA was detected in blood by PCR and hybridization in one subject. The PCR skin test-positive individual remained asymptomatic throughout the study. Clinical examination showed no scars suggestive of past cutaneous leishmaniasis. Human subclinical infection with Leishmania (Viannia) in RS was confirmed by PCR. This is the first report of subclinical infection with this parasite in the human population of this area. <![CDATA[<b>A thirty years follow-up study on Schistosomiasis mansoni in a community of Minas Gerais, Brazil</b>]]> During thirty years - 1973-2003 - a group of individuals infected by Schistosoma mansoni in Capitão Andrade, Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated by the same authors, being one of the longest follow-up studies on schistosomiasisis mansoni in an endemic area. The diagnosis of S. mansoni was based on parasitological stool tests. In the clinical classification, three groups were considered: type I - schistosomiasis-infection, type II - hepatointestinal form, and type III- hepatosplenic form. The prevalence of infection were 60.8% in 1973, 36.2% in 1984, 27.3% in 1994, and 19.4% in 2003, while the index of hepatosplenomegaly were respectively 5.8%, 2.8%, 2.3% and 1.3%. The maintenance of high prevalence and severity of clinical forms are probably related to reinfection.