Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 62 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[First host record of <em>Epipompilus</em> (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Brazil and discussion of prey carriage mechanism]]> ABSTRACT We register for first time the occurrence of Epipompilus tucumanus Evans, 1967 in Brazil, and record the spider Ariadna boliviana Simon, 1907 as its host. The observations were made in the National Park of Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The prey carriage mechanism is described for first time for this genus, and we provide a video showing this behavior. <![CDATA[Occurrence of Bondar's Nesting Whitefly, <em>Paraleyrodes bondari</em> (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cassava in Uganda]]> ABSTRACT Cassava is a valued calorific source to millions of Africans who eat it daily and a vital staple for their food security. One of the key constraints to this crop is whiteflies which are both a vector of viral diseases and a direct pest. Although the African cassava whitefly is known to cause physical damage on cassava with considerable tuberous yield loss, a recent whitefly outbreak caused unusually severe damage, which prompted the current reported investigation. Molecular identification of whitefly adults sampled from the affected cassava field revealed the presence of a new whitefly species, Paraleyrodes bondari. This communication is the first report of the occurrence of P. bondari on cassava in Uganda. <![CDATA[Does <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> have adverse effects on the host egg location by parasitoid wasps?]]> ABSTRACT This study investigated the interaction between two pest biological control agents, the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillacea) (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of Bt (formulated products Agree®, Dipel® and HD1 and HD11 strains) interferes in the oviposition preference of T. pretiosum to eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Using an olfactometry test, the eggs of H. zea were bathed with the commercial formulations, with the Bt suspensions or distilled water, and offered to the parasitoid wasps in order to evaluate parasitism. The results showed that H. zea eggs sprayed with commercial formulations and Bt strains did not interfere in the choice made by the parasitoid. The parasitoid wasp is not able to distinguish between eggs with or without B. thuringiensis treatment, independently of strains suspension or commercial formulations. Therefore, these two control agents may be used together without negative interaction. <![CDATA[Characterization of artificial larval habitats of <em>Anopheles darlingi</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Brazilian Central Amazon]]> ABSTRACT Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles genus are of great relevance in the epidemiology and transmission of malaria, with their larval phase developing in clean waters in the presence of organic matter. However, the human presence in the Amazon has increasingly influenced the emergence of new breeding sites and larval habitats, such as clay pits, fish ponds and dams, among others. The objective of the study was to characterize mosquito larval habitats using the biotic and abiotic parameters in the metropolitan area of Manaus. We collected in 23 artificial larval habitats in Manaus, classified in dams, fish ponds and clay pits. Water samples, Anopheles larvae, aquatic macrophytes and limnological parameters were collected from each artificial larval habitat. The Larvae Index per Man/Hour and canonical correspondence analysis were used for data analysis. Results indicate that artificial larval habitats with characteristics similar to natural sites present higher larval density, displaying a high abundance of An. triannulatus and An. darlingi. More than 90% of the determined limnological parameters were in agreement with the environmental resolution stipulated by the Brazilian environmental resolution, while pH, dissolved oxygen and phosphorus levels were below the established limits at some of the larval habitats. Conductivity, total suspended solids and phosphorus were positively correlated to the presence of An. albitarsis, An. peryassui and An. nuneztovari in fish ponds, and An. trianulatus and An. braziliensis in dams. Thus, the evaluated limnological variables and habitat structure explain Anopheles species distribution in artificial larval habitats in the metropolitan Manaus region. <![CDATA[Population analysis of white grubs (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) throughout the Brazilian Pampa biome]]> ABSTRACT The replacement of natural grassland by cultivated areas might favor the increase in abundance of some root-feeding species such as the white grubs, which may become a constraint for field crop production. This research aimed to assay the population density and geographical distribution of white grubs pest and other species in natural grassland and cultivated areas throughout the Brazilian Pampa biome. White grubs were sampled in 18 locations in both landscape use types and identified. Population density (number of larvae m-2) was calculated for each recorded species and sorted within two groups (pest species and other species), compared between natural grasslands and cultivated areas, as well as among locations. A dendrogram to evaluate species similarity among locations was built based on combined data obtained from both landscape use types throughout the region. In total, 31 species were found in the Brazilian Pampa, and four of them are considered as crop pests: Diloboderus abderus (Sturm, 1826), Euetheola humilis (Burmeister, 1847), Lyogenys fusca (Blanchard, 1830), and Phyllophaga triticophaga Morón &amp; Salvadori, 1998. The average population density of pest species in cultivated areas was less than five larvae m-2, at most of locations. Some species had a wide geographical distribution (e.g. D. abderus and Cyclocephala modesta Burmeister), while other melolontids occurred at only one location. The knowledge of which white grub species are present in a field and its population densities assist farmers to take proper management decisions. <![CDATA[Male and female association in <em>Trichomyia</em> Haliday in Curtis, 1839 using a molecular approach (Diptera, Psychodidae, Trichomyiinae), and description of new species from Brazil]]> ABSTRACT A new species of Trichomyia from the state of Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated, and male and female are associated using DNA barcoding. Additionally, fragments of the COI of two other species, Trichomyia cerdosa Araújo &amp; Bravo, 2016 and Trichomyia ituberensis Araújo &amp; Bravo, 2016, and the females of two unidentified species, are sequenced. <![CDATA[Filling gaps in species distributions through the study of biological collections: 415 new distribution records for Neotropical Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae)]]> ABSTRACT Filling gaps in species distributions is instrumental to increase our understanding of natural environments and underpin efficient conservation policies. For many hyperdiverse groups, this knowledge is hampered by insufficient taxonomic information. Herein we provide 415 new distribution records for the parasitic wasp subfamily Cryptinae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the Neotropical region, based on examination of material from 20 biological collections worldwide. Records span across 227 sites in 24 countries and territories, and represent 175 species from 53 genera. Of these, 102 represent new country records for 74 species. A distinct "road pattern" was detected in the records, at least within Brazil, where 50.2% of the records fall within 10 km of federal roads, an area that occupies only 11.9% of the surface of the country. The results help to identify priority areas that remain poorly sampled and should be targeted for future collecting efforts, and highlight the importance of biological collections in yielding new information about species distributions that is orders of magnitude above what is provided in most individual studies. <![CDATA[Houseflies speaking for the conservation of natural areas: a broad sampling of Muscidae (Diptera) on coastal plains of the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The Brazilian Coastal Plain of the Pampa Biome (CPPB), has suffered fragmentation caused by resource extraction and cattle raising. In turn, conservation proposals are needed to prevent the anthropisation of Pampa natural areas. The first step towards conservation proposals by using insects is fauna inventories, providing data support for legislators. Thus, we undertook a regional and broad-scale sampling survey to investigate the diversity of Muscidae flies in protected and non-protected areas of CPPB. In addition, we carried out an ecological guild diversity analysis as a metric approach of bioindication. The Muscidae sampling resulted in 6314 specimens, 98 species taxa in 31 genera. Based on diversity estimators, our sampling represents 70-86% of all muscids of CPPB. The highest diversity occurs in Pelotas streams (non-protected) and Taim Ecological Station (a huge protected area). Despite the fact these areas are more diversified and present more predatory muscid species than others, invasive species associated with livestock were observed at a higher level, providing evidence of the impact of livestock proximity to protected areas. Based on biological characters of Muscidae species and ecological guild analysis, we were able to identify: (i) high diversity of carnivorous species associated with forested and more preserved areas and (ii) a high level of a few saprophagous species as indicator of anthropisation process. In general, our results represent a significant step towards understanding Muscidae in Southern Brazil, and we demonstrate how the population ecology of muscid flies supports data to conservation proposals. <![CDATA[Oviposition of <em>Aedes aegypti</em> Linnaeus, 1762 and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and field conditions using ovitraps associated to different control agents, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of different control agents of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus associated with ovitraps under laboratory and field conditions. Five treatments were used: grass infusion + Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (gI + Bti), grass infusion + Saccharopolyspora spinosa (gI + Ss), grass infusion + Pyriproxyfen (gI + P), distilled water + Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis (dW + Th), and grass infusion (gI) (control). The highest mean number of eggs of both species were obtained with grass infusion in the laboratory. Among control agents, the lowest mean of A. aegypti eggs occurred with gI + Ss and the lowest mean of A. albopictus eggs occurred with dW + Th. There was no difference between treatments in A. aegypti (P = 0.4320) and A. albopictus (P = 0.7179). In the field, the highest mean number of eggs for both species were obtained with gI + Ss, and the lowest values were obtained with gI + P (P = 0.0124). The treatments can be applied to both the surveillance and the control, but ovitraps with biological larvicide Bti were more effective and safer considering the number of eggs laid and selectivity of pathogens for mosquitoes. <![CDATA[Status and preliminary mechanism of resistance to insecticides in a field strain of housefly (<em>Musca domestica</em>, L)]]> ABSTRACT Resistance profiles of houseflies (Gol-RR) collected from a field in Golmud city, Qinghai province, China, were determined for seven insecticides using topical bioassays. Resistance ratios of &gt;1219.51, 153.17, &gt;35.43, 6.12, 3.24, 1.73, and 0.86-fold were obtained for propoxur, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and chlorfenapyr, respectively, relative to a laboratory susceptible strain (SS). Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenylphosphate (TPP), and diethyl maleate (DEM) increased propoxur toxicity by &gt;105.71, &gt;7.88, and &gt;5.15-fold in the Gol-RR strain, compared with 5.25, 2.00, and 1.39-fold in the SS strain, indicating the involvement of P450 monooxygenases, esterases, and glutathione-S-transferase in conferring resistance. Although cypermethrin resistance was significantly suppressed with PBO, TPP, and DEM in the Gol-RR strain, the synergistic potential of these agents to cypermethrin was similar in the SS strain, demonstrating that metabolism-mediated detoxification was not important for conferring resistance to cypermethrin in the Gol-RR strain. However, the three agents did not act synergistically with imidacloprid, indicating that other mechanisms may be responsible for the development of resistance to this insecticide. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was 13.70-fold higher in the Gol-RR than in the SS strain, suggesting the properties of the AChE enzyme were altered in the Gol-RR strain. Thus, rotation of chlorfenapyr insecticide with other agents acting through a different mode with minimal/no resistance could be an effective resistance management strategy for housefly. <![CDATA[Two new species of <em>Hanshumba</em> from Southeastern Brazil and a key to males of the genus (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini)]]> ABSTRACT The genus Hanshumba Young, 1977 is recorded from Southeastern and Southern Brazil (Atlantic Forest) and currently includes only three species. Here we describe and illustrate, based mainly on features of the male terminalia, two new species from State of Espírito Santo, Municipality of Santa Teresa: H. setifera sp. nov. and H. teresa sp. nov. The former can be distinguished by the male pygofer and anal tube with large processes bearing numerous setae and the aedeagus with pair of dentiform processes on median portion, whereas the latter has three pairs of longitudinal flanges on the aedeagal shaft. A key to males of the genus is added and its taxonomic status is briefly discussed. <![CDATA[New genus of fossil apoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) from the Cretaceous amber of Myanmar]]> ABSTRACT The new genus †Burmasphex is proposed for two fossil species, †Burmasphex sulcatus sp. nov. and †Burmasphex pilosus sp. nov., described from Myanmar Cretaceous amber. It exhibits many plesiomorphic features in relation to the extant Apoidea and is here provisionally allocated in the extinct family †Angarosphecidae. <![CDATA[A new species of the sharpshooter genus <em>Onega</em> Distant, 1908 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini) from Ecuador and Peru]]> ABSTRACT Onega comprises nine valid species distributed in South American countries, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru, commonly at high altitudes. The genus has as diagnostic characteristics the transition crown-frons with transversal carina; crown and superior portion of frons with concavities; pronotum wider than transocular width of head; and paraphysis, when present, as a median esclerite. The present paper describes Onega musa sp. nov., from Ecuador and Peru, which can be distinguished from other Onega species by: body mostly yellow, with brown maculae distributed on dorsum; posterior margin of male pygofer serrate, with long microsetae on the basiventral margin; aedeagus with shaft bisinuate with dorsal acute preapical process; female sternite VII with posterior margin slightly convex; and first valvula of ovipositor with 38 noncontiguous teeth. Intraspecific morphological variations are discussed.