Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 61 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Identification and pest status of <em>Holopothrips fulvus</em> (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil]]> Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae. <![CDATA[Can Sarcophagidae (Diptera) be the most important entomological evidence at a death scene? <em>Microcerella halli</em> as a forensic indicator]]> Abstract Although a corpse can harbor several species of flies, only a few have been sufficiently studied to be used as forensic indicators. Sarcophagidae are an example of how the forensic use of insects can be impaired by taxonomic and biological data limitation. This manuscript provides the first record of the Neotropical flesh fly Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931) on a human body and its use in forensics. M. halli and Sarconesia chlorogaster (Widemann, 1830) were sampled from a body located indoors at 20 °C. Only M. halli was used to estimate the mPMI (minimum post mortem interval) because it was the oldest larval stage on the corpse. Based on the development time of M. halli we estimate an mPMI of at least 10 days. In addition, we provide for the first time a case in which a flesh fly was the main source of entomological evidence in Southern Brazil. We also provide evidence that Sarcophagidae arrived before Calliphoridae in this case, an unusual successional pattern. <![CDATA[Species descriptions and digital environments: alternatives for accessibility of morphological data]]> Abstract Taxonomists' efforts throughout history provide significant amount of data that give support for establishing the specific identity of several groups of biological systems. In addition to identifying species, taxonomic research offers a wide range of biological information that can be used in other disciplines, e.g. evolution, ecology, integrated pest management. However, most of this information remains unappreciated due to certain aspects: (1) the advent of analytical tools have led to a shift in interest and investment in researches, focusing mainly in molecular studies; (2) the erroneous concept that the extensive data offered by taxonomic studies can be replaced by other datasets, separating it from its hypothesis-driven and investigative nature; (3) the final products found in taxonomic works are commonly restricted to a small group of researchers, due to its low accessibility and specific language. Considering this last aspect, web-based tools can be valuable to simplify the dissemination of the taxonomic product. Semantic annotation provide a condition in which species descriptions can be readily available and be far more extensive, enabling rapid exchange of countless data related to biological systems. <![CDATA[<em>Elbella luteizona</em> (Mabille, 1877) (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) in Brazilian Cerrado: larval morphology, diet, and shelter architecture]]> Abstract This study examined temporal variation in the abundance of immature stages of Elbella luteizona (Hesperiidae) and describes the morphology and behavior of the larvae on their host plants, Byrsonima coccolobifolia and Myrsine guianensis. Five hundred sixty-eight 10 m diameter plots were searched for caterpillars in the Brazilian Cerrado over a period of one year. We inspected 5968 host plants, and found 31 eggs and 262 larvae on 244 plants. Similar numbers of immatures were found in both species of host plants. The abundance of immature stages varied monthly and was significantly higher in the dry season on both host plants, which may be due to the low density of natural enemies during that time. E. luteizona is univoltine, and larvae present relatively little morphological variation. However, during development, substantial changes occur in the architecture of leaf shelters that caterpillars construct. In addition, E. luteizona larvae develop very slowly, taking more than 300 days to complete metamorphosis. <![CDATA[First record of <em>Heteropsylla caldwelli</em> Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) from Brazil and its population dynamics on earpod tree in Rio Grande do Sul]]> Abstract Heteropsylla caldwelli Burckhardt (Psyllidae, Ciriacreminae) is reported for the first time from Brazil (States of Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul) from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong. The earpod tree, from Albizia edwallii (Hoehne) Barneby and J.W. Grimes and Senegalia polyphylla (DC.) Britton (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae), all previously unknown hosts. The population dynamics of the psyllid were investigated in a seven-year-old plantation of E. contortisiliquum in an abandoned open-pit coal mine in Candiota, Rio Grande do Sul during two years. The population showed peaks in spring and summer, correlating directly with the mean air temperature and the population size of microhymenoptera. <![CDATA[Interseasonal variation of <em>Chrysodeixis includens</em> (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in the Brazilian Savanna]]> Abstract Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) is currently the main plusiine pest in the Americas, not only because of the damage caused to soybean, but also with several crop species in a broad geographical range. However, its population dynamics is still poorly understood, despite outbreak records that are common across different locations in the Americas. The current study aimed at identifying phenological patterns of C. includens emphasizing its differences among the three years of sampling effort in an intercropping area of the Brazilian Savanna. Thereafter, we tested whether the El Niño size effect, meteorological factors, or soybean, corn and wheat cycles, are better predictors of its monthly abundance. The insects were collected with a light trap during five consecutive nights (repetitions) during 35 new moons. In total, 2026 specimens were collected in all months of the year although not consecutively. Across each year, monthly abundance of C. includens was non-uniform, characterized by sharp population peaks concentrated in the rainy season. These peaks varied from January until March, depending on the year sampled. We found that the local soybean cycle and El Niño effect to significantly influence the species abundance across the entire period of study. These results aid in understanding the species population dynamics and its status as a pest, providing evidence of factors that determine its phenological patterns. Although it presents a very defined phenology, the population dynamics of C. includens varies significantly between years and locations, which demonstrates the importance and need to monitor local populations of larvae and adults for its management. <![CDATA[Daily activity of <em>Dichotomius geminatus</em> (Arrow, 1913) and <em>Deltochilum verruciferum</em> Felsche, 1911 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) facing carrion: from resource perception to feeding]]> Abstract Dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) interact with resources in different ways and are classified according to resource relocation guilds. Dichotomius geminatus (Coprini) and Deltochilum verruciferum (Canthonini) are two of the most abundant and ecologically important species of the semi-arid region of Brazil, and understanding their behaviour may facilitate the comprehension of strategies associated to competition for resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate the behavioural repertoire of D. geminatus (tunneler) and D. verruciferum (roller), in isolation and controlled setting in the Brazilian semi-arid biome, using carrion as a food resource. Our hypothesis was that, due to the distinct food relocation strategies presented by these species, distinct behaviours would occur involving resource utilization. We also compared the behaviour of the two species and investigated the period of diel activity. Both species were more active during the night, but D. geminatus presented a shorter peak of nocturnal activity when compared to D. verruciferum. Although there was activity during the day, feeding was only observed during the night, for both species. During the periods of inactivity, D. verruciferum commonly went underneath the carrion, remaining still. As the target species of the study are very abundant, the differences in behaviour associated with the distinct relocation guilds may indicate a strategy to avoid direct competition. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against <em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Diptera: Culicidae)]]> Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs) from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L) corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L). Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L), T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L), and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L). The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42%) and p-cymene (26.4%). <![CDATA[Effects of temephos resistance on life history traits of <em>Aedes albopictus</em> (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of arboviruses]]> Abstract The effects of temephos resistance on the fitness cost of the wild populations of Aedes albopictus was evaluated. The larvae of two wild populations were exposed to the diagnostic dose of 0.02 mg and 0.012 mg/L. The larvae which survived after the 24 h exposure to diagnostic dose were considered as resistant and F1 generations were chosen for the comparisons of fitness parameters with the control strain, which includes larval developmental time, adult longevity, fecundity, wing length and hatchability. We found that temephos resistance had negative effects on larval developmental time which was longer for Gelugor strain among the populations with the median range of 10 days and a shorter longevity was observed with the median range of 13 days for males and 16 days for females. Whereas, an effective reduction of 29.8 and 38.6% was observed in fertility and fecundity of Gelugor strain as compared to control strain. In contrast, no clear differences were found in biological parameters of Balik Palau and USM strain, except fecundity and fertility with a reduction of 13.4 and 15.5%, respectively. Whereas, no significant differences were seen in the wing size between the populations with the mean length (mm) of 2.40 for Gelugor, 2.44 for Balik Palau and 2.46 for USM control (p &gt; 0.05). Present results indicated that the temephos resistance is associated with the developmental and reproduction potential of resistant population of A. albopictus and the fitness has been compromised. <![CDATA[The first gynandromorph of a zorapteran and potential thelytokous parthenogenesis in a population of <em>Zorotypus brasiliensis</em> Silvestri (Zoraptera: Zorotypidae)]]> Abstract The first gynandromorph of the insect order Zoraptera is reported. A gynandromorph of Zorotypus brasiliensis Silvestri is described from a likely parthenogenetic population in the Atlantic Forest around the border of the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. As has been previously surmised for this species, the sample consisted of only females, tending to support the hypothesis of thelytokous parthenogenesis for this population. The gynandromorph is largely female in outward appearance, but exhibits male secondary sexual traits on the left side of the apical abdominal segments. The left (male) antenna consists of antennomeres of different proportions to those of the right (female) antenna. The internal genitalia and associated sclerites, however, are female although some are augmented in their form relative to normal-type females. Comments are made on possible factors resulting in the development of the gynandromorph. This is the 16th insect order with gynandromorphism reported. <![CDATA[Morphology and fine organization of the spermatheca of <em>Haplotropis brunneriana</em> (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae)]]> Abstract We investigated the morphology and structure of spermatheca in Haplotropis brunneriana (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae) by light and electronic microscopy. The spermatheca can be subdivided into a tubular seminal receptacle and a multiple-coiled spermathecal tube, both of which are composed of cuticular intima, epithelium layer, basal lamina and muscle layer, from inside to outside. The cuticular intima is made up of a heterogeneous endocuticle, a homogeneous exocuticle and an epicuticle, but the proportion of exocuticle in intima of the seminal receptacle is larger than that of the spermathecal tube. The epithelium layer comprises epithelial cells, gland cells and duct cells. The ultrastructural features of the epithelial cells indicated that its function potentially includes support, secretion and absorption. The gland cells potentially fulfil a secretory role indicative of the abundance of mitochondria and microvilli. In gland cells, an extracellular cavity, showing region differences in the seminal receptacle and the spermathecal tube, was lined with microvillus border. The role of duct cell is responsible for forming the secretory ductules, which connect the extracellular cavity with the lumen of the spermatheca through the cuticular intima. These new data contribute to our understanding of the function of the spermatheca of H. brunneriana. <![CDATA[<em>Psyllobora picta</em> (Germain) species complex (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), with descriptions of two new species from Chile]]> Abstract The Psyllobora picta species complex (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini) was revised, with the description of two new species, Psyllobora lueri sp. nov. and Psyllobora pauline sp. nov., both from Chile. Psyllobora bicongregata was recorded for the first time from Brazil, and there is no confirmed record of this species for Chile. Also, P. picta was not recognized from Paraguay and Uruguay. Male and female genitalia characters are illustrated for all the species. <![CDATA[Description of immatures and mating behavior of <em>Liogenys bidenticeps</em> Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae)]]> Abstract Description of immatures and mating behavior of Liogenys bidenticeps Moser, 1919 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae). Some species of Melolonthinae are associated with several species of cropped plants, with larvae consuming roots and, in some cases, are considered as crop pests. In some agricultural regions of Brazil, larvae of L. bidenticeps are found associated with cultivated plants, and little information is available about this taxon. This study, aiming at expanding the knowledge about the morphology and behavior of this species, provides the description of immatures and mating behavior of adults. The studies were conducted at the experimental farm of the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, and the adults were collected with light trap and raised in the laboratory. Mating behavior was documented on video both in the field and under laboratory conditions. Descriptions and illustrations of the third instar larva and pupa are presented. Adults have crepuscular flight activity and their copulation lasts an average of 20.25 min, occurring from 19:00 to 22:00 h. On some occasions, females did not accept males for copulation, indicating an active selection of males by females. Field observations demonstrated that adults feed on Brazilian pepper leaves (Schinus terebinthifolius, Anacardiaceae) and cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), where male and female meet each other and copulation occurs. <![CDATA[A new species and new records of <em>Oxysarcodexia</em> Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Brazil]]> Abstract Oxysarcodexia cocais sp. nov. from Brazil is described and illustrated based on male specimens collected in a babassu palm forest in the state of Maranhão. The remarkable elongated surstylus (as long as cercus) and U-shaped male sternite 5 distinguishes the new species from other species in the genus. In addition, Oxysarcodexia nitidaSoares &amp; Mello-Patiu, 2010 is recorded for the first time from Brazil, and Oxysarcodexia adunca Lopes, 1975 is a new record from the Brazilian Amazon. <![CDATA[Description of the third instar larva of <em>Saccharoscaptus laminifer</em> (Dechambre) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae)]]> Abstract The larva of pentodontine S. laminifer is described for first time based on specimens collected under roots of sugarcane in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities with other previously described larvae of South American genera of Pentodontini are outlined. A key to the larvae of some American genera of pentodontines is included. <![CDATA[Description of immature stages of <em>Platycoelia valida</em> Burmeister, 1844 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae: Anoplognathini)]]> Abstract Description of immature stages of Platycoelia valida Burmeister, 1844 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae: Anoplognathini). Third instar larva and pupa of P. valida are described for the first time based on specimens collected in soils of yucca and coffee fields in Cundinamarca, Colombia. Illustrations of diagnostic structures and keys to the known third-stage larvae of Rutelinae tribes and Platycoelia species are included. Data on the biology and distribution of P. valida in Colombia are also commented. <![CDATA[Sexual dimorphism and population differentiation in the Chilean Neotropical moth <em>Macaria mirthae</em> (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a wing geometric morphometric example]]> Abstract Sexual shape dimorphism is the differentiation of male and female organisms based on their shape variation; this definition was proposed for the use of geometric morphometrics analysis where the geometric features of the shape are analyzed without the influence of the size. Macaria mirthae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a moth that inhabits different valleys in the north of Chile principally associated to Acacia macracantha and lately Leucaena leucocephala both trees of the Fabaceae family. The Sexual dimorphism was analyzed in this species in order to corroborate studies on the use of wing as a sexual differentiation trait, and specific influence of localities was also evaluated. A clear shape variation was found where the male wings are more contracted compared to female wings. A climate influence is also suggested that could differentiate the wing shape from the individuals that inhabit two different valleys in the neotropical region of the north of Chile. This research supports previous studies identifying a clear Sexual shape dimorphism in the wing, as a selected trait, suggesting that oviposition and male competition of this group of moths is reflected in their wings. These differences raise the question whether Sexual shape dimorphism can be modulated by natural selection.