Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 59 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Description of the male of <em>Evandromyia gaucha</em> Andrade Filho, Souza, Falcão (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae)]]> Here, we present the description of male of the sand fly species Evandromyia gaucha. Six male specimens of E. gaucha, together with conspecific females, were collected in native forest areas of the municipalities of Porto Alegre, Caçapava do Sul (type locality of E. gaucha) and Santa Cruz do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The specimens are distinguished from other species of the rupicola series of the genus Evandromyia by the presence of dilatation in the apical quarter of the genital filaments followed by tapering of the final portion. <![CDATA[Biology and reproductive capacity of <em>Spodoptera eridania</em> (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different soybean cultivars]]> This study aimed to evaluate the development, survival and reproductive capacity of Spodoptera eridania in four soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in a climatic chamber at 25 °C ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photophase. The cultivars used were: FMT Tabarana, BRS/MT Pintado, FMT Tucunaré and Monsoy 8757, all conventional cultivars with medium cycles. All cultivars tested allowed the development of S. eridania. However, Monsoy 8757 was the cultivar that most affected the prolonged in the duration larval, pupal and total cycle, showed lower pupal weight as well as reduction in the intrinsic rate increase. These results contribute to the management of this species in regions of outbreaks in soybean areas. <![CDATA[Sex ratios in juveniles and adults of <em>Dichroplus maculipennis</em> (Blanchard) and <em>Borellia bruneri</em> (Rehn) (Orthoptera: Acrididae)]]> Dichroplus maculipennis and Borellia bruneri are two of the 18 grasshopper species of actual or potential economic relevance as pests in Argentina. The objective of this study was to estimate the sex ratios for adults and older nymphs of D. maculipennis and B. bruneri in the field, and analyze possible temporal variations. The study was conducted during seven seasons (2005-06 to 2011-12) in representative plant communities of the southern Pampas region. A total of 4536 individuals of D. maculipennis, and 6038 individuals of B. bruneri were collected. The sex ratio registered in older nymphs for D. maculipennis and B. bruneri did not deviate from a 1:1 ratio (p &gt; 0.05), suggesting that these species have such a primary sex ratio. However, a significant bias in sex composition in adults of both species was observed (p &lt; 0.05). The sex ratio in adults of D. maculipennis was different in five of the 18 sampling dates carried out. In three sampling dates it was biased toward males, while in the other two it was biased toward females. Taking into account the sex ratio by sampling season, significant differences were recorded in two seasons. In 2007-08 the sex ratio was biased toward males (1 F:2.26 M), while in 2008-09 it was biased toward females (1.35 F:1 M). The sex ratio in adults of B. bruneri was always biased toward males (p &lt; 0.05). We conclude that results obtained in this study indicate that various factors like differential survival, dispersion, predation, among others, could have modified the primary sex ratio in these species. <![CDATA[Biological aspects of immature stage of <em>Nyssomyia whitmani</em> (Antunes and Coutinho) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in laboratory conditions]]> Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho, 1939) has been considered as a complex of cryptic species, and some of the populations of this complex plays an important role in the transmission of Leishmania spp. in Brazil. The present study reports the biological aspects concerning the productivity out of eggs and the development time of the descendants of females obtained in Dourados municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The females were captured with modified electric aspirators, fed in hamsters and further individualized in containers for breeding. At the insectary, temperature and relative humidity were maintained on average of 24.5 °C and 67.3%, respectively. From 944 females 3737 eggs were obtained, 748 (20.0%) evolved to the stage of larvae, and 93 (12.4%) of these reached adult stage. The life cycle lasted 80.6 days and the last larval instar was the longest. The use of a higher protein diet revealed a significant improvement in larval development. <![CDATA[Maternal care in <em>Gargaphia decoris</em> (Heteroptera, Tingidae), with comments on this behavior within the genus and family]]> Maternal care in Gargaphia decoris is described for the first time. A video is presented as supplementary material. The knowledge on such trait within Tingidae is summarized. The behavior within the family is discussed, and the potential as a source of phylogenetic characters for further analyses is stressed. <![CDATA[Sexual behavior of the digger wasp <em>Sphex ingens</em> Smith (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae)]]> A species' mating system depends on its spatial distribution and temporal availability of mating opportunities, as well as on the resources that create these opportunities. In addition, for many species, courtship is driven by specific behaviors that precede and follow copulation. Although Sphex ingens is a taxonomically well known species of digger wasp, its ecology and behavior remain poorly known. Hence, we analyzed patterns and trends of sexual behavior, in order to understand whether courtship can persist in a polygamous mating system. We monitored by video wasp populations in Ilha Grande, southeastern Brazil. Based on the observed behaviors, we calculated stochastic probabilities with a Markov chain to infer on behavioral trends. We recorded four behavioral phases based on 19,196 behavioral acts observed in 224 copulation attempts. There were no significant differences in common behavioral acts between males and females. The copulation patterns, conflicts, and trends observed in S. ingens clearly show the influence of sexual selection in its promiscuous mating system. <![CDATA[Immatures of <em>Epilachna Chevrolat</em> (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae)]]> Description of the pupa and redescription of the larva of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius), collected for the first time on Brugmansia suaveoleus (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. and J. Presl (Solanaceae) (trombeteiro), in the state of São Paulo (Brazil), is presented. The diagnoses of the described pupae of E. clandestina (Mulsant), E. paenulata (Germar) and E. spreta (Mulsant), based on specimens examined, and that of E. cacica Guérin, based on the literature, are presented. A comparison among the known larvae and pupae of this genus is also presented. This is the first description of immatures of E. vigintioctopunctata from the Western Hemisphere. <![CDATA[First record of folivory on a newly documented host plant for the little known geometrid moth <em>Eupithecia yubitzae</em> Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in northern Chile]]> The native tree Schinus molle (Anacardiacae) is reported for the first time as a host plant for larvae of the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas &amp; Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, based on morphology and DNA barcodes. This discovery importantly expands the host range of E. yubitzae, as previous records were restricted to Fabaceae trees. Larvae were previously known as florivorous, while these were found to be folivorous on S. molle. Furthermore, host-associated cryptic larval polychromatism was detected, as larvae collected on S. molle were found to be mostly pale green, contrasting with the dark yellow ground color of the larvae typically collected on fabaceous host plants. <![CDATA[The taxonomic identity of <em>Heliconius melpomene</em> f. <em>pyritosa</em> var. <em>fumigata</em> Zikán (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)]]> The taxonomic identity of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) is discussed based on the discovery of the specimen based on which this name was assigned. The specimen is not a variation of Eueides tales surdus Stichel, 1903, as previously stated, but is in fact a variation of H. melpomene f. pyritosa, which is a synonym of Heliconius erato amalfreda Riffarth, 1901. <![CDATA[Dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) assemblage of a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic forest: from small to the largest fragments of northeastern Brazilian region]]> Human activities in tropical forests are the main causes of forest fragmentation. According to historical factor in deforestation processes, forest remnants exhibit different sizes and shapes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dung beetle assemblage on fragments of different degree of sizes. Sampling was performed during rainy and dry season of 2010 in six fragments of Atlantic forest, using pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion. Also, we used two larger fragments as control. We used General Linear Models to determine whether the fragments presented distinguished dung beetle abundance and richness. Analysis of Similarities and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling were used to determine whether the dung beetle assemblage was grouped according to species composition. A total of 3352 individuals were collected and 19 species were identified in the six fragments sampled. Dung beetle abundance exhibited a shift according to fragment size; however, richness did not change among fragments evaluated. Also, fragments sampled and the two controls exhibited distinct species composition. The distinction on abundance of dung beetles among fragments may be related to different amount of resource available in each one. It is likely that the dung beetle richness did not distinguish among the different fragments due to the even distribution of the mammal communities in these patches, and consequent equal dung diversity. We conclude that larger fragments encompass higher abundance of dung beetle and distinct species. However, for a clearer understanding of effects of fragmentation on dung beetles in Atlantic forest, studies evaluating narrower variations of larger fragments should be conducted. <![CDATA[Trophic roles of scavenger beetles in relation to decomposition stages and seasons]]> Carcasses represent a trophic and reproductive resource or shelter for arthropods, which are a representative component of the decomposition process. Four experiments, one per season, were conducted in a semi-rural area of Bahía Blanca, Argentina, to study the trophic roles of cadaveric beetles, evaluating the abundance, composition and dominance during all decomposition stages and seasons. Species of necrophagous, necrophilous and omnivorous habits were found. Abundance, composition and dominance of beetles in relation to their trophic roles changed according to seasons and decomposition stages. Guilds and patterns of succession were established in relation to those periods. Trophic roles could be an indicator of beetle associations with decomposition stages and seasons. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Zethus (Zethusculus)</em> de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from southern Brazil]]> Zethus (Zethusculus) paschoali, a new species from Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil, is described and pictures comparing it to similar species are presented. <![CDATA[On the nesting biology of eumenine wasps yet again: <em>Minixi brasilianum</em> (de Saussure) is a builder and a renter... at the same time! (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae)]]> Our understanding of eumenine nesting biology is still elusive. The use of two nesting strategies, namely renting and building, are reported concomitantly for the first time for Minixi brasilianum (de Saussure, 1875). Ecological factors such as resource availability and protection against potential enemies may play an important role in eumenine nesting biology. <![CDATA[<em>Axima nordestina</em> (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), a new stalk-eyed wasp from Brazilian savannah]]> A new stalk-eyed wasp Axima nordestina sp. n. is described from the Northeastern Brazilian savannah. Axima nordestina is the fourth species of stalk-eyed wasps (A. noyesi species group) and the second one known from Brazil. The head morphology of A. nordestina appears less derived than in the other known species. An updated key of the A. noyesi species group is provided.