Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 58 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Description of the third instar larvae of five species of<i> Cyclocephala </i>(Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae) from Mexico</b>]]> Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae) from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented. <![CDATA[<b>Revision of the Neotropical genus <i>Mulfordia </i>Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae)</b>]]> Revision of the Neotropical genus Mulfordia Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae). The present paper provides a revision of Mulfordia Malloch (Diptera, Muscidae), including redescriptions of the genus and of its three species. The descriptions are complemented with illustrations of some characters to make the recognition of the species easier and to help the use of the key. The male terminalia of M. ferruginea Malloch is described for the first time. <![CDATA[<b>Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus <i>Eulaema </i>(Hymenoptera, Apidae)</b>]]> Notes on the systematics of the orchid-bee genus Eulaema (Hymenoptera, Apidae). The classification of the genus Eulaema is modified in order to make it congruent with recent phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular data. The speciosa group, containing E. peruviana, E. speciosa and related species, is removed from E. (Eulaema) and transferred to E. (Apeulaema). New morphological characters are presented to support the revised scope of the subgenera and their diagnostic features are revised. Six species groups are recognized herein: two in E. (Apeulaema) and four in E. (Eulaema). A list of valid species in each species group and an identification key to males of each of the subgenera and species groups are provided. Finally, an older overlooked designation of a type species for Eulaema is presented in the Appendix. <![CDATA[<b>A new species of <i>Stempellina </i>Thienemann & Bause from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae)</b>]]> A new species of Stempellina Thienemann & Bause from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae). The male imago of Stempellina sofiae sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on material collected in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the expeditions of the project SISBIOTA Brazil. One of the core focuses of this project is identifying and describing new species of Diptera from central Brazil. The new species herein presented can be easily segregated by their congeneric by the rounded shape of the superior volsella. <![CDATA[<b>Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae)</b>]]> Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae). The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world. <![CDATA[<b>An unusual food plant for <i>Cydia pomonella </i>(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Mexico</b>]]> An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758) were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864) near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest. <![CDATA[<b>Senescent stem-galls in trees of <i>Eremanthus erythropappus </i>as a resource for arboreal ants</b>]]> Senescent stem-galls in trees of Eremanthus erythropappus as a resource for arboreal ants. Members of the dipteran families Tephritidae and Cecidomyiidae are inducers of stem-galls in Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) MacLeish (Asteraceae), a tree common in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. When senescent, these galls become available to other organisms, such as ants. The present study describes a community of ants having benefitted from this process of ecosystem-engineering. The colonies in question inhabit the senescent stem-galls of trees of E. erythropappus and were examined in view of answering the following questions: i) whether the presence of stem-galls had any bearing on the richness, composition, or size of the ant colonies therein; and ii) whether the ants displayed any preferences regarding the shape and/or size of the galls. The study was conducted in populations of E. erythropappus trees near the city of Ouro Preto, MG. A total of 227 galls were collected, 14% of which were occupied by ants, belonging to eight different species. Half of the species occupied galls of both morphotypes (fusiform and globular), although we observed a marked preference for larger, globular shapes. Overall, our results showed the galls to be an effective and abundant resource, helping to maintain the diversity of the ants in the canopy. We also observed the occurrence of outstations and polydomic nests, although an in-depth examination of the influence of galls on this type of structuring has not been investigated. <![CDATA[<b>Comparative abundance and diversity of Dryininae (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) in three savannah phytophysiognomies in southeastern Brazil, under three sampling methods</b>]]> Comparative abundance and diversity of Dryininae (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) in three savannah phytophysiognomies in southeastern Brazil, under three sampling methods. This study aimed to assess the abundance and diversity of Dryininae in riparian vegetation, Brazilian savannah, and savannah woodland vegetation at the Estação Ecológica de Jataí, in Luiz Antônio, State of São Paulo, Brazil, by using Moericke, Malaise, and light traps. The sampling was carried out from December 2006 to November 2009, and 371 specimens of Dryininae were caught, with the highest frequencies in spring and summer. Fourteen species of Dryinus Latreille, 1804 and one of Thaumatodryinus Perkins, 1905 were identified. The highest frequencies of Dryinus in the riparian vegetation differed significantly from those obtained in the Brazilian savannah and savannah woodland vegetation. In the riparian vegetation, the highest number of Dryinus was collected using light traps and the interactions between abundance and the collection method used were significant. The number of specimens of Dryinus collected in the Brazilian savannah and savannah woodland vegetation using Malaise traps did not differ significantly from those obtained using Moericke traps. Males significantly outnumbered females in the sex ratio of Dryinus. The species diversity of Dryinus based on females collected using Malaise traps was high in the Brazilian savannah. Furthermore, high species richness of female Dryinus was observed in riparian vegetation (six species) and Brazilian savannah (five). The light trap was the most successful method for sampling diversity of Dryininae. <![CDATA[<b>Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert</b>]]> Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. The spatial distribution of the immature stages of the leaf miner Angelabella tecomae Vargas & Parra, 2005 was determined at two intra-plant levels (shoot and leaflet) on the shrub Tecoma fulva fulva (Cav.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chilean Atacama Desert. An aggregated spatial pattern was detected for all the immature stages along the shoot, with an age dependent relative position: eggs and first instar larvae were clumped at apex; second, third and fourth instar larvae were mostly found at intermediate positions; meanwhile the spinning larva and pupa were clumped at basis. This pattern suggests that the females select new, actively growing leaflets for egg laying. At the leaflet level, the immature stages were found more frequently at underside. Furthermore, survivorship was higher for larvae from underside mines. All these results highlight the importance of an accurate selection of egg laying site in the life history of this highly specialized leaf miner. By contrast, eventual wrong choices in the egg laying site selection may be associated with diminished larval survivorship. The importance of the continuous availability of new plant tissue in this highly human modified arid environment is discussed in relation with the observed patterns. <![CDATA[<b>No impact of <i>Bt</i> soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of <i>Euschistus heros </i>(Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) and its egg parasitoid <i>Telenomus podisi</i> (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae)</b>]]> No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae). Biological traits of the stink bug Euschistus heros and its main biological control agent Telenomus podisi were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; and 14/10 h photoperiod) by placing first instar nymphs into Petri dishes with pods originating from two soybean isolines (Bt-soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788, which expresses the Cry1Ac protein, and its near non-Bt isoline A5547) where they remained until the adult stage. Due to gregarious behavior exhibited by first instar nymphs, they were individualized only when at the second instar. Adults were separated by sex and weighed, and pronotum width of each individual was subsequently measured. They were placed into plastic boxes containing soybean grains of the same soybean isoline as food source. Egg viability and female fecundity were assessed in adult individuals. Adult females of T. podisi (up to 24h old) were placed with eggs of E. heros from mothers reared on both soybean isolines. Nymphal development time, insect weight, pronotum width, sex ratio, female fecundity, and egg viability (% emergence) of Euschistus heros did not differ between treatments. Eggto-adult development time, female longevity, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitized eggs were not impacted by the Bt-soybean (expressing Cry1Ac protein). Results indicate that the Bt-soybean, MON 87701 × MON 89788, has no direct significant impact on the two studied species. <![CDATA[<b>Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of <i>Tamarixia radiata</i> (Waterston) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae)</b>]]> Thermal hygrometric requirements for the rearing and release of Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). Tamarixia radiata is the main agent for the biological control of Diaphorina citri in Brazil with a parasitism rate ranging from 20 to 80%. This study investigated the influence of temperature on the development, fecundity and longevity of adults of T. radiata and the effect of relative humidity (RH) on their parasitism capacity and survival rate in the pre-imaginal period. The effect of temperature was assessed in the range between 15 and 35 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 14-h photophase. The RH effect was evaluated in the range from 30 to 90 ± 10%, temperature at 25 ± 1ºC, and photophase of 14-h. At 25ºC, circa 166.7 nymphs were parasitized, the highest parasitism capacity observed compared to other treatments. The longest longevity of females was observed at 25ºC, although the rate did not differ in the 20-30ºC temperature range. The threshold temperature (TT) was 7.2ºC, and 188.7 degrees-day were required for the development (egg-to-adult period). The parasitism rate and longevity were higher at 50 and 70% of RH. This shows that temperature and RH may affect the parasitism capacity of T. radiata on nymphs of D. citri, which can explain the great parasitism variation for D. citri observed in citrus groves in São Paulo State, Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in <i>Chironomus sancticaroli</i> (Diptera, Chironomidae) in acute and chronic toxicity tests</b>]]> Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae) in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alpha (EST-α) and beta (EST-β) esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates. <![CDATA[<b>Occurrence and damages of <i>Danothrips trifasciatus</i> (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on <i>Calophyllum brasiliense</i> (Clusiaceae) in Brazil</b>]]> Occurrence and damages of Danothrips trifasciatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) in Brazil. Danothrips trifasciatus Sakimura, 1975 (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) is recorded for the first time in Brazil, in the municipality of Garça, São Paulo state. Individuals were collected in April 2011 damaging young leaves of guanandi, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), forest species of increasing importance in Brazil. Future studies involving aspects on biology and population dynamics of the thrips in this plant species need to be carried out, in order to establish its potential economic importance to guanandi. <![CDATA[<b>Observations on the biology and distribution of <i>Uresiphita reversalis </i>(Lepidoptera, Crambidae), a defoliator of the native tree <i>Calia secundiflora</i> in México</b>]]> Observations on the biology and distribution of Uresiphita reversalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae), a defoliator of the native tree Calia secundiflora in México. Uresiphita reversalis (Guenée, 1854) feeding on Calia secundiflora (Ortega) Yakovlev is recorded for the first time in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. New aspects regarding the life cycle, feeding behaviour, geographical distribution and host plant damage by U. reversalis on C. secundiflora are here presented and discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) eating flowers of <i>Dalea pennellii</i> var. <i>chilensis</i> (Fabaceae) in the northern Chilean Andes</b>]]> Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae) in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae) is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae): Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887), Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881) and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895), based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.