Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 62 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[A new technique in the excavation of ground-nest bee burrows (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)]]> ABSTRACT Bees have a diversified natural history, thus the methods applied to study such diversity are varied. When it comes to studies of nesting biology, bees which nest in pre-existing cavities have been reasonably well studied since researchers started using trap-nests. However, bees whose nests are built underground are poorly studied due to the difficulty of finding natural nesting areas and the absence of a method that facilitates bee nest excavation. The latter is evidenced by the lack of accurate descriptions in literature of how nests are excavated. In this study we tested cylindrical rubber refills of eraser pen as a new material to be used as a tracer of underground nest galleries in a natural nesting area of two species of Epicharis Klug, 1807 (Apidae). We compared this technique directly with plaster in powder form mixed with water and our results with other methodological studies describing alternative methods and materials. The rubber refill technique overcame the main issues presented by materials such as plaster, molten metal alloys and bioplastic, namely: death of the organisms by high temperatures and/or formation of plugs and materials unduly following the roots inside the galleries. <![CDATA[Isolation and molecular characterization of <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> found in soils of the Cerrado region of Brazil, and their toxicity to <em>Aedes aegypti</em> larvae]]> ABSTRACT This study investigated the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates obtained in the Cerrado region of the Brazilian state of Maranhão for the biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and the identification of the B. thuringiensis colonies was based on morphological characteristics. Bioassays were run to assess the pathogenicity and toxicity of the different strains of the B. thuringiensis against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. Protein profiles were obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect the toxin genes found in the bacterial isolates. Overall, 12 (4.0%) of the 300 isolates obtained from 45 soil samples were found to present larvicidal activity, with the BtMA-104, BtMA-401 and BtMA-560 isolates causing 100% of mortality. The BtMA-401 isolate was the most virulent, with the lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) (0.004 × 107 spores/mL), followed by the Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis standard (0.32 × 107 spores/mL). The protein profiles of BtMA-25 and BtMA-401 isolates indicated the presence of molecular mass consistent with the presence of the proteins Cry4Aa, Cry11Aa and Cyt1, similar to the profile of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82. Surprisingly, however, none of the cry and cyt genes analyzed were amplified in the isolate BtMA-401. The results of the present study revealed the larvicidal potential of B. thuringiensis isolates found in the soils of the Cerrado region from Maranhão, although further research will be necessary to better elucidate and describe other genes associated with the production of insecticidal toxins in these isolates. <![CDATA[Parasitism rate of <em>Myzus persicae</em> (Sulzer) by <em>Diaeretiella rapae</em> (McIntosh) in the presence of an alternative, resistant host]]> ABSTRACT The aphids Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are important Brassicaceae pests, occurring worldwide and causing significant damage to crops. Interspecific variations in the resistance to natural enemies can potentially impact the interaction among aphid populations. Here we evaluated the hypothesis of associational resistance by determining if the presence of resistant aphids (L. pseudobrassicae) reduces the rate of parasitism by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) on non-resistant aphids (M. persicae). The experiment was conducted using collard green plants infested with M. persicae and L. pseudobrassicae either resistant or susceptible to D. rapae. The percentage of parasitism by D. rapae was greater on L. pseudobrassicae in the susceptible than in the resistant treatment, but parasitism rates on M. persicae did not differ between the treatments. There was no difference in average growth rate between M. persicae and susceptible L. pseudobrassicae populations, but resistant L. pseudobrassicae had greater growth rate than M. persicae. These results suggest that over a short period of time the presence of resistant L. pseudobrassicae does not affect the rate of parasitism by D. rapae on M. persicae. <![CDATA[Standard method for detecting <em>Bombyx mori</em> nucleopolyhedrovirus disease-resistant silkworm varieties]]> ABSTRACT Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) disease is one of the most serious silkworm diseases, and it has caused great economic losses to the sericulture industry. So far, the disease has not been controlled effectively by therapeutic agents. Breeding resistant silkworm varieties breeding may be an effective way to improve resistance to BmNPV and reduce economic losses. A precise resistance-detection method will help to accelerate the breeding process. For this purpose, here we described the individual inoculation method (IIM). Details of the IIM include pathogen BmNPV preparation, mulberry leaf size, pathogen volume, rearing conditions, course of infection, and breeding conditions. Finally, a resistance comparison experiment was performed using the IIM and the traditional group inoculation method (GIM). The incidence of BmNPV infection and the within-group variance results showed that the IIM was more precise and reliable than the GIM. <![CDATA[Effect of entomopathogens on Africanized <em>Apis mellifera</em> L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of commercially used entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Four bioassays were performed: 1) pulverized entomopathogens on A. mellifera; 2) entomopathogens sprayed on a smooth surface; 3) entomopathogens sprayed on soy leaves; and 4) entomopathogens mixed with candy paste (sugar syrup). Five treatments were prepared: sterile distilled water (control), distilled water sterilized with Tween® 80 (0.01%), and the commercial entomopathogens Metarhizium anisopliae E9 (1.0 × 109 conidia mL−1), Beauveria bassiana PL63 (1.0 × 108 conidia mL−1) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (3.0 × 108 spores mL−1). Each treatment consisted of five repetitions, with 20 workers per repetition, which were stored in a plastic box and, later, in a biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.) incubator (27 ± 2 ºC, RH of 60% ± 10%, 12-h photophase). The mortality of the workers was evaluated from 1 h to 240 h, and the data were analyzed using Bayesian inference. The workers killed by the ingestion of candy paste contaminated with the pathogens (products) were randomly separated and selected for the removal of the midgut. Each midgut was fixed in Bouin's solution and prepared for histology. B. bassiana was verified to reduce the survival of A. mellifera workers in all bioassays. Moreover, M. anisopliae reduced the survival of A. mellifera workers directly sprayed, on a smooth surface and mixed with candy. B. thuringiensis reduced A. mellifera survival on a smooth surface and mixed with candy paste. However, its effects were lower than that observed by B. bassiana. The treatments with the biological products did not induce morphometric alterations in the midgut of A. mellifera. <![CDATA[Assemblage of drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae) inhabiting flooded and nonflooded areas in the extreme South of Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Several studies on the potential use of drosophilid assemblages as bioindicator systems have been carried out in the last years. Nevertheless, the successful application of these organisms in these systems requires adequate filling of several knowledge gaps. In this sense, little is known about drosophilid assemblages in wetlands and flooded areas. The present study provides the first survey of drosophilid species inhabiting such environments in the extreme South of Brazil and compares general beta-diversity patterns between assemblages of flooded versus nonflooded areas. The specimens were collected with banana-baited traps, and the assemblages recovered in eight wetlands of the southernmost coast of Brazil were compared to those recovered from seven nonflooded areas of the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. A total of 5028 and 2571 individuals encompassing 27 and 37 species were collected in the flooded and nonflooded areas, respectively. The differential species composition patterns presented between these areas was statistically supported, which seems to be related to the lower beta-diversity presented by swamps, especially in regard to dominance patterns. So, the open and climatically harsher environment provided by wetlands possibly constitutes a hostile environment for the entry and, mainly, for the persistence of several native Drosophilidae species, in contrast to some exotic and more plastic species (as Drosophila simulans and Zaprionus indianus). Since the diversity gradient of flooded areas does not seem to be related to the conservation status of the swamp, our results question the use of Drosophilidae species as bioindicators of environmental disturbance and antropic influence in wetlands. <![CDATA[Hierarchical establishment of information sources during foraging decision-making process involving <em>Acromyrmex subterraneus</em> (Forel, 1893) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)]]> ABSTRACT During foraging, worker ants are known for making use of many information sources to guide themselves in external environments, especially individual (memory) and social (trail pheromone) information. Both kinds of information act in a synergic way, keeping the foraging process efficient and organized. However, when social and individual information is conflicting face a trail bifurcation, it is necessary to establish a hierarchical order so prioritizing one of them. This study aims to verify which information (social or individual) is prioritized by Acromyrmex subterraneus workers when facing a bifurcation in a Y-trail system. Only one branch of the Y-trail leads to food resource and it had a section covered by filter paper where trail pheromone was deposited by workers. Pheromone deposition was here estimated by worker flow. After an individually marked forager (target-worker) made 1, 3 or 5 trips to the food resource, the filter paper was transferred to the branch which did not lead to the food. The time spent by target workers on branch selection and their right choice (branch with food) frequency were registered. Regardless of the target worker's previous trips to the resource, right choice frequency stood over 70%. In addition, the number of previous trips did not influence the time spent on decision making. However, the higher the flow of workers, the longer the time spent on decision making. By simulating a situation with conflicting information, it was possible to verify that a hierarchical order is established by A. subterraneus, which prioritized individual information (memory). <![CDATA[Do container size and predator presence affect <em>Culex</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) oviposition preferences?]]> ABSTRACT Organisms with complex life cycles typically do not exhibit parental care. Hence, the ability of adult females to choose quality oviposition sites is critical for offspring success. Gravid females of many insect taxa have the capability to detect environmental conditions in water-holding containers (e.g., resource level, presence of competitors or predators) and to choose the sites that are most suitable for offspring growth and development. Mosquitoes may also detect physical container characteristics related to water permanence such as surface area, volume, or container size, and some species such as those in the genus Culex have been shown to prefer larger containers. However, predators may also preferentially colonize larger containers; thus, ovipositing females may face decisions based on cues of site quality that balance the costs and benefits for offspring. We used a field experiment to evaluate the oviposition preferences of two Culex species in response to experimental container size and predator abundances within the containers. We found that both species avoided ovipositing in the largest containers, which have high abundances of Chaoborus sp. and dragonfly larvae (predators). However, the container size most commonly chosen for oviposition (15-L buckets) also had high mean abundance per liter of dragonfly larvae. These results suggest either prey naiveté or reduced vulnerability of these species to dragonflies compared to Chaoborus sp. Other potential mechanisms for the observed patterns are discussed. <![CDATA[Nest architecture development of grass-cutting ants]]> ABSTRACT Atta bisphaerica is a species of grass-cutting ants commonly found in the Cerrado biome. The Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) biome covers 2 million km representing 23% of the area of the country. It is an ancient biome with rich biodiversity, estimated at 160,000 species of plants, fungi and animals. However, little is known about their nest architecture development. This study investigated the architecture of fourteen A. bisphaerica nests from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Molds were made of the nests by filling them with cement to allow better visualization of internal structures such as chambers and tunnels. After excavation, the depth and dimensions (length, width, and height) of the chambers were measured. As expected, there was a lateral development in the nests and increase in the number of chambers over time. Results showed that in nests with an estimated age of 14 months, the average depth was 1.6 ± 0.4 m; for those with 18 months it was 2.2 ± 0.7 m and at 28 months it was 2.5 ± 0.7 m. The number of chambers varied from 4 to 7 in 28-month nests, 2 to 4 in 18-month nests, and from 2 to 3 in 14-month nests. With respect to the dimensions of the internal tunnels, there were variations in their average width, increasing with time. The fungus chambers were located beneath the largest mound of loose soil. This study contributes to a better understanding of the so far unknown nest architecture development of A. bisphaerica grass-cutting ants. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Drepanocnemis</em> (Diptera, Muscidae) from Andes in Peru, with an updated phylogenetic analysis of species]]> ABSTRACT Drepanocnemis Stein (Diptera, Muscidae) is a small genus of flies that occur in high altitudes in the Colombian Andes, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Herein we describe Drepanocnemis aurifrons sp. nov. from Cuzco, Peru, which is found from high (2904 m) to lower altitudes (707 m). An updated phylogeny, key to species and map of species’ distributions are provided, together with images and illustrations of the male and the female terminalia. <![CDATA[<em>Phyllocnistis hemera</em> <strong>sp. nov.</strong> (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): a new species of leaf-miner associated with <em>Daphnopsis fasciculata</em> (Thymelaeaceae) in the Atlantic Forest]]> ABSTRACT During recent studies performed in the Atlantic Forest, a new species of Phyllocnistinae (Gracillariidae), Phyllocnistis hemera sp. nov., leaf miner of Daphnopsis fasciculata (Thymelaeaceae) was discovered. The adults are described and illustrated as well as the immature stages, with notes on natural history including a description of the leaf mine. Additionally, DNA barcode sequences were compared to other representatives of Phyllocnistinae to test for the specific status of P. hemera and to infer phylogenetic relationships. This is the fifth species described for the genus Phyllocnistis in the Atlantic Forest and the first record of a gracillarid mining Thymelaeaceae leaves. <![CDATA[Differences in volatile composition and sexual morphs in rambutan (<em>Nephelium lappaceum</em> L.) flowers and their effect in the <em>Apis mellifera</em> L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) attraction]]> ABSTRACT We studied the volatile composition and sexual morphs of Nephelium lappaceum flowers from two orchards, and investigated the choice behavior of the honey bee, Apis mellifera toward the floral extracts from both locations. Our results showed significant differences in chemical composition and sexual morphs; only the hermaphrodite flowers from the Herradero orchard produced limonene and α-pinene and had longer peduncle and sepal than flowers from the Metapa orchard; on the other hand, the hermaphrodite flowers from the Metapa orchard had longer gynoecium. In the behavioral experiment the extracts from the Herradero orchard seemed to give A. mellifera foragers better cues for orientation to food sources, perhaps due to the presence of limonene and α-pinene, which are absent in the samples from Metapa. Such differences in both orchards could affect pollinator attraction and ultimately seed set and productivity. <![CDATA[<em>Paxiximyia sulmatogrossensis</em>, a new genus and species of Tachinidae (Diptera) reared from <em>Urucumania borellii</em> () (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae) collected in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT A new genus and species of Tachinidae (Diptera), Paxiximyia sulmatogrossensis n. gen. and n. sp. , and its puparium are described. It was reared from the walking stick, Urucumania borellii (Giglio-Tos, 1897), collected in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Sogatella</em> (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) from temperate Argentina]]> ABSTRACT A new species from Argentina, Sogatella unidentata sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is described and illustrated as belonging to the Sogatella furcifera group. The main distinctive characteristics are tegmen coloration, shape of aedeagus and number and dispositions of its teeth, and shape of parameres in males; length of the ovipositor, and shape of the gonapophysis IX in females. A key is included to facilitate the comparison of the new species with the closely allied. Furthermore, information on host plants and geographical distribution is provided. This is the southernmost record in the distribution of the S. furcifera group.