Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 59 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[An estimate of the potential number of mayfly species (Ephemeroptera, Insecta) still to be described in Brazil]]> ABSTRACTThis study reviewed the data on the Brazilian Ephemeroptera, based on the studies published before July, 2013, estimated the number of species still to be described, and identified which regions of the country have been the subject of least research. More than half the species are known from the description of only one developmental stage, with imagoes being described more frequently than nymphs. The Brazilian Northeast is the region with the weakest database. Body size affected description rates, with a strong tendency for the larger species to be described first. The estimated number of unknown Brazilian species was accentuated by the fact that so few species have been described so far. The steep slope of the asymptote and the considerable confidence interval of the estimate reinforce the conclusion that a large number of species are still to be described. This emphasizes the need for investments in the training of specialists in systematics and ecology for all regions of Brazil to correct these deficiencies, given the role of published papers as a primary source of information, and the fundamental importance of taxonomic knowledge for the development of effective measures for the conservation of ephemeropteran and the aquatic ecosystems they depend on. <![CDATA[Notes on social wasps of the group of <em>Mischocyttarus</em>(<em>Omega</em>) <em>punctatus</em> (Ducke), with description of six new species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae)]]> ABSTRACTA revision of the taxonomic status and an identification key for wasp species of the genus Mischocyttarus related to M. punctatus (Ducke, 1904) are presented here. Six new species are proposed (M. tayrona Silveira sp. nov.; M. anchicaya Silveira sp. nov.; M. caxiuana Silveira sp. nov.; M. verissimoi Silveira sp. nov.; M. rodriguesi Silveira sp. nov.; M. ryani Silveira sp. nov.), raising to nine the number of species in the M. punctatus group. The highest diversity of the group concentrates in northern South America, in Andean areas and Amazonia. New information concerning the very peculiar nests of these wasps is also given. <![CDATA[Notes on distributions for Argentinean Pentatomidae (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea), with new records in the country]]> ABSTRACTIn this contribution, we present new distributional records from Argentina of 63 pentatomid species; three genera (Caonabo, Cromata and Taurocerus) and 14 species (Marmessulus brasiliensis, Podisus crassimargo, Cromata ornata, Acledra haematopa, Caonabo pseudocylax, Dichelops avilapiresi, Euschistus cribarius, E. paranticus, Mormidea maculata, Rio indistinctus, Banasa lanceolata, B. nigrifrons, Pallantia macunaima, and Taurocerus edessoides) are reported for the first time from Argentina; also we provided 81 new province records of another 49 species. <![CDATA[Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera) with forensic importance in Southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel), Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis (Lopes), Peckia (Euboettcheria) australis (Townsend), Peckia(Euboettcheria) florencioi (Prado and Fonseca), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans (Walker), Peckia(Pattonella) resona (Lopes), Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann), and Sarcophaga(Bercaea) africa (Wiedemann). These species are distinguished mainly by genital characters as tergite 6 divided or undivided, presence of tergite 8, spermatheca morphology and vaginal plate shape. <![CDATA[Description and life history of a new cecidogenous species of <em>Palaeomystella</em> Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from Brazil]]> ABSTRACTMale, female, pupa, and last-instar larva of Palaeomystella beckeri (Moreira and Basilio) a new species from the Atlantic forest, southern Brazil, are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. Larvae induce galls on apical branches of Tibouchina trichopoda (DC.) Baill. (Melastomataceae) within which pupation occurs. Gall description and preliminary data on life history are also provided. <![CDATA[Checklist of Ephemeroptera (Insecta) from São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo, Brazil]]> ABSTRACTIn order to expand the knowledge on the composition of Ephemeroptera from large rivers, we present, herein, the first survey of mayflies from the São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo State. Adults were collected biannually in 2012 and 2013 with the aid of Pennsylvania light trap in eleven points distributed in the main river of the river basin, São Mateus River and its two main tributaries, Cotaxé River (Braço Norte) and Cricaré River (Braço Sul). Thirty-three species were identified (22 nominal and 11 morphospecies) in 24 genera and five families. One genus and one species are reported for the first time from Brazil, three species from Southeastern Region of Brazil, and two species from the state. Five species and one genus not previously described were also found. Moreover, around 20% of the known species of mayfly registered from the state were found. This work reinforces the need to give more attention to research on large rivers due to the high potential for diversity, not only for Ephemeroptera, but also for other aquatic insects. <![CDATA[Description of a new species of <em>Psathyromyia</em> Barreto (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from Amazonas state, Brazil]]> ABSTRACTA new species of phlebotomine sand fly is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characters of specimens collected from Tefé and Coari municipalities, Amazonas state. The phlebotomine sand flies were collected with CDC light traps used as aspirators at the base of tree trunks. Both male and female specimens collected in Tefé municipality were first identified as Psathyromyia souzacastroi. After the analysis of the holotype of Pa. souzacastroi deposited in Smithsonian Institute/Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, it was observed that the morphotypes collected in Tefé municipality belong to a distinct species, which characterization is here presented. <![CDATA[Seven new species of <em>Limnophora</em> Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from Ecuador]]> ABSTRACTHere we describe seven new species of Limnophora from Ecuador: Limnophora bifasciatasp. nov. from Napo, Quito; Limnophora equatoriensissp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora femurosetalissp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora lamasisp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora longivittatasp. nov. from Napo, Quito; Limnophora penaisp. nov. from Azuay, Cuenca and Limnophora polletisp. nov. from Napo, Quito. We provide an identification key for the ten recognized species of Limnophora from Ecuador, including L. marginata Stein, 1904, L. pica(Macquart, 1851) and L. saeva (Wiedemann, 1830). We also redescribed Limnophora marginata Stein, 1904, and designated designed lectotype male and paralectotypes males and females of the species. <![CDATA[Bee assemblage in habitats associated with <em>Brassica napus</em> L.]]> ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1) flowering canola crop, (2) forest remnant, and (3) grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50%) and in the flowering canola field (47%). Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers. <![CDATA[Bionomy of two flies of sanitary and forensic importance: <em>Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens</em> (Wiedemann) and <em>Oxysarcodexia amorosa</em> (Schiner) (Diptera, Sarcophagidae)]]> ABSTRACTThis study aims to elucidate the bionomy of Peckia(Sarcodexia) lambens and Oxysarcodexia amorosa to provide data for medical, veterinary and forensic entomology analyses. We analyzed larval stage duration (L1–L3), weight of the mature larvae (L3), pupal stage duration, L1–adult duration, adult emergence and viability of larvae and adults of both species. Larval viability of P. (S.) lambens was 82% and the mean duration of the larval stage was 3.51 ± 0.99 days. The mature larvae had a mean weight of 33.67 ± 7.13 mg. The mean duration of the pupal stage was 8.26 ± 0.93 days and the mean duration of the L1–adult was 11.53 ± 1.22 days. Mean lifespan for females and males was 39.33 ± 1.52 and 57.33 ± 4.72 days, respectively. Larval viability of O. amorosa was 76% and mean duration of larval stage was 3.51 ± 0.64 days. Mature larvae had a mean weight of 28.28 ± 3.38 mg. Mean duration of the pupal stage was 10.14 ± 0.63 days and mean duration of the L1–adult was 13.60 ± 0.69 days. Mean lifespan for females and males was 83.66 ± 15.94 and 84.00 ± 19.97 days, respectively. Oxysarcodexia amorosa showed a L1–adult stage longer than P. (S.) lambens; however both species showed low viability. O. amorosa laid more larvae than P. (S.) lambens, this fact may occur because O. amorosa had longer life duration. <![CDATA[Effect of <em>Bacillus sphaericus</em> Neide on <em>Anopheles</em> (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon]]> ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed. <![CDATA[Morpho-histological characterization of immature of the bioindicator midge <em>Chironomus sancticaroli</em> Strixino and Strixino (Diptera, Chironomidae)]]> ABSTRACTChironomidae immature are used as bioindicators of sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems and ecotoxicological assays. Histological descriptions for this family are outdated and limited and there are no studies with Neotropical species. The aim of this study was to describe the tissue architecture of several organs of the larva of Chironomus sancticaroli. For the description of the histological pattern, the larvae were fixed in Duboscq solution for insects at 56 °C, followed by routine histologic processing, infiltration in paraffin, and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin–Eosin. After examining the slides, the tube digestive, salivary gland, excretory, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, and integumentary systems and fat body were histologically characterized. The histology allows evaluation of cell morphology, and for being not expensive and easily accessible can be routinely used in biomonitoring. In addition, is a useful tool in ecotoxicological assays and allow to evaluate biomarkers at tissue and cell levels. <![CDATA[A survey of mealybugs infesting South-Brazilian wine vineyards]]> ABSTRACTMealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests of the grapevine Vitis spp. and are responsible for direct and indirect damage to production. The main mealybug species present in wine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Southern Brazil were identified and their incidence evaluated. Bunch-samples (n = 50) from 131 vineyards located in the Serra Gaúcha Region (RS) of Brazil were analyzed at harvest, and the occurrence of mealybugs in the roots was evaluated at the time of eradication of plants for replanting. Mealybugs were reared in laboratory until adulthood for species determination. The species Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1983), Dysmicoccus sp., Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813), Pl. minor(Maskell, 1897), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, 1875) and Pseudococcus sp. were identified in bunches. Dysmicoccus sp., D. umbambae Granara de Willink, 2009, Pl. citri and Pseudococcus sp. were found in the roots. Pl. citri (31.4%) and Dysmicoccus sp. (22.7%) were the most common species found in wine grape bunches in the Serra Gaúcha Region. <![CDATA[New records of Sarcophagidae species (Diptera) with forensic potential in Rio de Janeiro]]> ABSTRACTSarcophagidae species are frequent and abundant in the decomposition process of corpses and, consequently, play an important role as a tool for the application of Forensic Entomology. Helicobia pilifera Lopes, 1939, Microcerella erythropyga (Lopes, 1936), Oxysarcodexia fringidea Curran &amp; Walley, 1934 and Peckia (Peckia) pexata(Wulp, 1895) were recorded for the first time in a Forensic Entomology experiment in Rio de Janeiro, using domestic pig carcasses as substrate. <![CDATA[Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp <em>Agelaia fulvofasciata</em> (Degeer) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy]]> ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773) on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.). Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed. <![CDATA[Beta-ionone attracts <em>Euglossa mandibularis</em>(Hymenoptera, Apidae) males in western Paraná forests]]> ABSTRACTMales of Euglossa mandibularis were consistently captured in scent traps baited with β-ionone in areas of Mixed Ombrophylous Forests or transition between this latter physiognomy and Montane Semideciduous Forest at Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná state, Brazil. Geographic records for the species and sampling effort (including or not β-ionone among the offered compounds) along Atlantic Forest biome are presented and discussed. We also discuss seasonal and geographic variation in collection of scents by orchid bees.