Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 59 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Isolation of <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against <em>Aedes aegypti</em> (Diptera, Culicidae)]]> We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78%) of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins. <![CDATA[Larval development of <em>Spodoptera eridania</em> (Cramer) fed on leaves of <em>Bt</em> maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins and its non-<em>Bt</em> isoline]]> This study aimed to evaluate, in controlled laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±2 °C, relative humidity of 60±10%, and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod), the larval development of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1784) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) fed with leaves of Bt maize expressing Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 insecticide proteins and its non-Bt isoline. Maize leaves triggered 100% of mortality on S. eridania larvae independently of being Bt or non-Bt plants. However, it was observed that in overall Bt maize (expressing a single or pyramided protein) slightly affects the larval development of S. eridania, even under reduced leaf consumption. Therefore, these results showed that Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 can affect the larval development of S. eridania, although it is not a target pest of this plant; however, more research is needed to better understand this evidence. Finally, this study confirms that non-Bt maize leaves are unsuitable food source to S. eridania larvae, suggesting that they are not a potential pest in maize fields. <![CDATA[<em>Hypatropis inermis</em> (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): first record on rice crops]]> This study reports for the first time the occurrence of Hypatropis inermis on upland rice crops (variety Cambará), in Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil (7°07'45.71"S 55°23'21.13"W). The inventory of insect pests was conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with entomological sweep nets and visual search on stems of rice plants. This record indicates that rice crops may represent important feeding and mating sites for this species. <![CDATA[Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera) and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]]> Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart), Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering), Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering), Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering), Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston), Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom &amp; Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson) and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson). <![CDATA[Worker morphology of the ant <em>Gnamptogenys striatula</em> Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae) in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain]]> Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators. <![CDATA[Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of <em>Simulium subpallidum</em> Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado]]> In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows. <![CDATA[Is the capture success of orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) influenced by different baited trap designs? A case study from southern Brazil]]> Orchid bees are increasingly applied on Neotropical biomonitoring and bioindication studies due to the relative easiness of sampling and identification when compared to other bee groups. A considerable number of orchid bee community studies have been adopting baited traps as a sampling method, especially for replication purposes. However, the trap attributes are variable, and hitherto no evaluation of different designs was carried out. Here, five attributes of baited traps were tested: trap volume, number of entrance holes, presence of landing platform, kind of landing platform, and fixation content. We use Mann-Whitney tests to access differences in richness and abundance capture rates for each trap design. We found that volume, number of entrance holes, and fixation content do not influence orchid bees capture. However, the design without landing platforms had a significantly higher capture rate for richness when compared with sanded landing platforms. On the other hand, analyzing the kind of landing platform, we detected a significantly higher richness and abundance for the trap with landing platforms glued with sand. Despite the fact that the effects of different designs tested here were very punctual, we consider that results from samples taken with different baited trap designs are comparable. Some adjustments on trap design can be done according to the particularities of future studies. <![CDATA[Biology and management of the masked chafer <em>Cyclocephala distincta</em> Burmeister (Melolonthidae, Dynastinae, Cyclocephalini)]]> Adults of Cyclocephala distincta are flower visitors of Neotropical palms (Arecaceae) and commonly found in the Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco, Brazil. Males and females were collected in the wild and subjected to captive rearing and breeding. The egg hatching rate, the life cycle, longevity of immatures and adults, and oviposition parameters in captivity were analyzed. The average duration of the life cycle of C. distincta was 108.2 days (n = 45). The egg stage lasted on average 10.9 days, and the egg-hatching rate was 73.9%. The immature stage lasted on average 93.4 days. The larvae stage exhibited negative phototaxis, and the size of their head capsules increased at a constant rate of 1.6 between instars, following Dyar's rule. The average duration of the first instar was 24.8 days (n = 88), whereas the second and third instars lasted for 17.2 (n = 76) and 40.4 (n = 74) days respectively, and survival rates were 21.6%, 86.4% and 97.4%. The pre-pupal stage was recorded, and pupal chambers were built before pupation. The average number of eggs laid per female was 15.5, the total reproductive period lasted for 3.3 days, and the total fertility was 81.2%. Adults that emerged in captivity exhibited an average longevity of 18.9 days. Adult C. distincta exhibited thanatosis behavior upon manipulation, a strategy observed for the first time in Cyclocephala. <![CDATA[Effects of forest conversion on the assemblages' structure of aquatic insects in subtropical regions]]> The effects of forest conversion to agricultural land uses on assemblages of aquatic insects were analyzed in subtropical streams. Organisms and environmental variables were collected in six low-order streams: three streams located in a forested area, and three in areas converted to agricultural land uses. We expected that the aquatic insects' assemblage attributes would be significantly affected by forest conversion, as well as by environmental variables. Streams in converted areas presented lower species richness, abundance and proportion of sensitive insect taxa. The ANOSIM test evidenced strong difference in EPT assemblage structure between streams of forested and converted areas. The ISA test evidenced several EPT genera with high specificity to streams in forested areas and only one genus related to streams in converted areas. Thus, the impacts of the conversion of forested area to agricultural land uses have significantly affected the EPT assemblages, while environmental variables were not affected. We suggest that the effects detected can be influenced by two processes related to vegetation cover: i) lower input of allochthonous material, and ii) increased input of fine sediments in streams draining converted areas. <![CDATA[Spatial and temporal dynamics of drosophilid larval assemblages associated to fruits]]> The study of organisms and their resources is critical to further understanding population dynamics in space and time. Although drosophilids have been widely used as biological models, their relationship with breeding and feeding sites has received little attention. Here, we investigate drosophilids breeding in fruits in the Brazilian Savanna, in two contrasting vegetation types, throughout 16 months. Specifically, larval assemblages were compared between savannas and forests, as well as between rainy and dry seasons. The relationships between resource availability and drosophilid abundance and richness were also tested. The community (4,022 drosophilids of 23 species and 2,496 fruits of 57 plant taxa) varied widely in space and time. Drosophilid assemblages experienced a strong bottleneck during the dry season, decreasing to only 0.5% of the abundance of the rainy season. Additionally, savannas displayed lower richness and higher abundance than the forests, and were dominated by exotic species. Both differences in larval assemblages throughout the year and between savannas and gallery forests are consistent with those previously seen in adults. Although the causes of this dynamic are clearly multifactorial, resource availability (richness and abundance of rotten fruits) was a good predictor of the fly assemblage structure. <![CDATA[Additional records and male description of <em>Nordus stomachoponos</em> Chatzimanolis (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae)]]> Nordus stomachoponos Chatzimanolis, 2004 is a Neotropical species previously known only by the female. The male of N. stomachoponos is described, and additional records on its distribution are provided. <![CDATA[First record of <em>Molorchus minor minor</em> (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Brazil]]> Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia). It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia. <![CDATA[Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)]]> Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789) mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops. <![CDATA[Efficiency of the induced mating technique for <em>Toxorhynchites theobaldi</em> (Diptera, Culicidae)]]> Toxorhynchites mosquitoes play important ecological roles in aquatic microenvironments, and are frequently investigated as potential biological control agents of mosquito disease vectors. Establishment of Toxorhynchites laboratory colonies can be challenging because for some species, mating and insemination either do not occur or require a prohibitive amount of laboratory space for success. Consequently, artificial insemination techniques have been developed to assist with mass rearing of these species. Herein we describe an adapted protocol for colony establishment of T. theobaldi, a species with broad distribution in the Neotropics. The success of the technique and its implications are discussed. <![CDATA[<em>Anopheles goeldii</em> Rozeboom & Gabaldón (Diptera, Culicidae): a species of the Nuneztovari Complex of <em>Anopheles Meigen</em>]]> Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) goeldii Rozeboom &amp; Gabaldón, 1941, a species of the Nuneztovari Complex, was described based on morphological characteristics of the male, female, larva, pupa, and eggs. The type locality is Boa Vista (= Fordlândia), a district in the vicinity of Rio Tapajós, in the municipality of Aveiro, in the state of Pará, Brazil. Anopheles goeldii is redescribed based on morphological traits of the fourth instar larva, pupa, egg, and male and female. DNA sequences from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI barcode region) of the mitochondrial genome were utilized for species characterization. Specimens of An. goeldii from the Pará, Amapá, and Amazonas states were employed to redescribe the species and to compare with morphologically similar taxa. <![CDATA[The ant fauna of hospitals: advancements in public health and research priorities in Brazil]]> Ants inhabit several types of natural and urban habitats, where they successfully nest. In urban environments, the hospitals should be considered priority for studies, as ants pose risks to human health due to their pathogen carrying potential. We aimed at surveying the literature about studies on ants in hospital settings in Brazil in the past 20 years. We found 40 papers in 22 journals, the first one published in 1993. Among them, 26 papers assessed pathogenic microorganisms on ants. We recorded 59 ant species, being Tapinoma melanocephalum the most common. The Minas Gerais and São Paulo states had the largest number of published papers. Mato Grosso do Sul and Rio Grande do Sul showed the highest number of species. Exotic ant species were recorded in all states, except Goiás. Considering the potential to carry microorganisms and the importance of thorough studies on the ecology of ant species, our results can support and guide further research in Brazil.