Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 60 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Extant diversity and estimated number of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) species yet to be discovered in the Neotropical region]]> ABSTRACT Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) are commonly known by the leaf miner habit found in the larval stage of most species. By using worldwide, public databases on species diversity and DNA sequences available for extant gracillariid species, we determined changes in the rate of taxonomic species descriptions through time, mapped their spatial distributions, examined their phylogenetic diversification, and estimated the number of species yet to be described for the family in the Neotropics. We recovered 185 species, a number that is smaller than that found in any other biogeographic region. However, it was estimated that at least 3875 additional species remain to be described in the region. Phylogenetic diversification showed a pattern of expanding diversity. A few entomologists have been involved with gracillariid taxonomy in the Neotropics, having 39% of the species been described by a single taxonomist. In most of such cases, descriptions were based on the adults only. A few species have been described from biomes known to have some of the greatest diversity on earth, such as the Atlantic Forest. Thus, such a scenario results from low sampling and scarce taxonomic activity that has prevailed for this family of moths in the Neotropics. It may also be associated with their small body size and to the fact that gracillariids do not seem to be attracted to light traps as much as other moths, which make their collection and identification by non experts difficult. We also suggested scientific and political actions that could be adopted to overcome such an unfavorable scenario. <![CDATA[Morphology of immature stages and mating behavior in <strong><em>Liogenys fusca</em></strong> (Blanchard) (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Melolonthinae)]]> ABSTRACT Liogenys fusca is a rizophagous insect pest in various crops of economic importance in Brazil. Here we investigated the morphology of immature stages and mating behavior of this species. The redescription of the 3rd instar larvae of L. fusca in this work allows identification and registration of occurrence independently of adults, which occur sporadically in a certain period of the year. Male and female of L. fusca remained confined in the soil during the day and exited between 19:00 and 23:30 h. The copulations occurred between 19:30 and 21:00 h, and were characterized by a typical behavioral sequence. Copulation durations in L. fusca lasted on average 512.23 s. Adults were observed feeding before the copulations on leaves and inflorescences of plant species belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinus terebinthifolius, Astronium fraxinifolium and Anacardium occidentale. <![CDATA[Rediscovery of <strong><em>Bothynus cribrarius</em></strong> (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae, Pentodontini): description of the male and precise location data]]> ABSTRACT Bothynus cribrarius (Fairmaire) was rediscovered after studying the MNRJ and FIOC collections. The male is described and illustrated for the first time. Accurate location data is presented after 130 years since its species description. <![CDATA[New synonymy to <strong><em>Simulium</em></strong> ( <strong><em>Inaequalium</em></strong> ) <strong><em>diversibranchium</em></strong> Lutz, with comments on the Inaequale species-group (Diptera, Simuliidae)]]> ABSTRACT Simulium (Inaequalium) Coscarón and Wygodzinsky, 1984 is a homogeneous subgenus widely spread on the Neotropical Region, which the adults can only be reliably identified from linked-reared specimens. Despite many revisionary works only a single character of the pupal gill separates Simulium diversibranchium Lutz, 1910 from S. mariavulcanoae Coscarón and Wygodzinsky, 1984. Specimens of both species show that S. mariavulcanoae is a junior synonym of S. diversibranchium. The relationship between S. diversibranchium and S. subnigrum Lutz, 1910 needs further investigation. Some features of the pupal gill often used as diagnosis in Simulium (Inaequalium) species, such as the direction of gill filaments or the height of the bifurcation of the secondary or tertiary branches of the pupal gill are highly polymorphic, making its use as diagnostic character not reliable. <![CDATA[Description of a new species of <strong><em>Adetus</em></strong> and of the female of <strong><em>Wappesoeme camiri</em></strong>, new records and updates to type depository for three species of <strong><em>Amphicnaeia</em></strong> Bates (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)]]> ABSTRACT A new species of Adetus LeConte, 1852 is described from Bolivia. Additions to the description of Wappesoeme Galileo et al., 2015 and differences between males and females of Wappesoeme camiri Galileo et al., 2015 are provided. New country and state records are provided in Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The type depository is corrected for three species of Amphicnaeia Bates, 1866. <![CDATA[Bees as hosts of mutillid wasps in the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Mutillidae)]]> ABSTRACT A review of bee species used as hosts of mutillid wasps in the Neotropical region is presented. Three new confirmed host records are provided for the mutillid species Hoplomutilla biplagiata Mickel, 1939, Pappognatha limes Mickel, 1939, and Tallium aracati Casal, 1962. Two potential host records are provided for Euspinolia rufula Mickel, 1938 and Lophomutilla inca Fritz and Pagliano, 1993. Additionally, Mutilla hoplitiformis Strand, 1909, is transferred to the genus Darditilla. Correlations between host nesting habits and female mutillid morphology are discussed. Lastly, all known confirmed and potential host records in the Neotropical region are compiled. <![CDATA[Chemical cuticular signature of leafcutter ant <strong><em>Atta sexdens</em></strong> (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) worker subcastes]]> ABSTRACT In leafcutter ants the division of labour is associated to worker size variation clustered in four subcastes. In this work we used Atta sexdens Forel (1908) as a model to test the hypothesis that each subcaste expresses its own chemical signature comprised of cuticular lipids. To assess it, we extracted epicuticular compounds by using nonpolar solvent hexane and analysed the samples in a combined Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). We found 24 hydrocarbons with carbon chains ranging from 19 to 39 atoms most of them classified as linear and branched alkanes. No compound occurred in the cuticle of specific worker subcaste, however, the relative proportion pattern varied greatly among them. Our results suggest that although subcastes have similar chemical signatures, significant differences in their relative proportions may play an important role between nestmate and group identification. <![CDATA[Protocol for collecting Mutillidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) in ecological studies: species-area effects on Mutillidae communities]]> ABSTRACT The species-area relationship is one of the most consistent patterns in ecology, and fragmentation is a major cause of habitat loss. Environmental changes in a site can affect the spatial distribution of organisms. Knowledge of Mutillidae ecology is still scarce due to the lack of standardized sampling. Our aim was to: (1) determine the effect of habitat fragmentation on the Mutillidae community and (2) establish a standard method for sampling Mutillidae in ecological studies. Sampling was conducted in four fragments of Brazilian Savanna in an urbanized matrix. We used quadrats with different areas: 25 m2, 100 m2 and 400 m2 to verify sampling effort. Male and female Mutillidae were collected from each of these three treatments. Males were collected using Malaise traps while females were collected through active search. Ecological index, richness, abundance, and percent similarity between fragments were used to analyze the communities. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to verify differences between treatments. Nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine community composition. Analysis of direct ordination of community with respect to the sample area size was performed. Three hundred individuals were collected; of which 201 were female, 99 male; belonging to 42 species distributed in 13 genera and two subfamilies. The richness, abundance and composition of the community were different between treatments. It was found that a 100 m2 quadrat was sufficient for comparison and application of ecological concepts and theories for the group. <![CDATA[Species richness and activity pattern of bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the restinga area of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Barreirinhas, Maranhão, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The Apidae community structure was studied in a vegetated area of coastal dunes in Lençóis Maranhenses National Park. Collections were performed monthly from August 2009 to July 2010. The collection methods included the use of entomological nets on flowers and Moerike traps. In total, 1211 individuals belonging to 59 species were collected. The pattern of abundance and richness was similar to those found in Maranhão and other coastal areas of northeastern Brazil. The bees were present throughout the year, with an increase in the number of individuals during the rainy season. Constant and dominant species included Trigona sp. gr. fulviventris, Apis mellifera, Plebeia alvarengai, Centris aenea, Xylocopa cearensis, and Centris caxiensis. <![CDATA[Biotic factors are more important than abiotic factors in regulating the abundance of <strong><em>Plutella xylostella</em></strong> L., in Southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The serious economic loss caused Plutella xylostella L., 1758 in several regions of the world has prompted a demand for alternative management strategies. In this context, understanding the key factors governing the population dynamics of the pest is important for development of management strategies. This study aimed to identify the larval parasitoids associated with P. xylostella and investigate the biotic (crop subspecies, plant age and parasitism) and abiotic factors (minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity and planting season) affecting the population dynamics of the pest in organic crops located in Southern Paraná State, Brazil. Despite the continuous and abundant availability of host plants throughout the year, P. xylostella occurred between June and November, and the largest peaks of abundance were observed between August and September, when low temperatures and rainfall were recorded. According to the stepwise regression analysis, P. xylostella was more abundant in broccoli during winter. Neither temperature, nor rainfall significantly influenced pest abundance. Four species of larval parasitoids were identified associated with the pest, of which Diadegma leontiniae (Brèthes) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Apanteles piceotrichosus Blanchard (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Siphona sp. Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) were abundant, while Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was rarely found. Parasitism was the major factor influencing population dynamics of P. xylostella, contributing to 48% of the variation in pest abundance. These results show the importance of larval parasitoids complex in regulating P. xylostella population and that the temperature and rainfall recorded during field experiments did not influenced pest abundance. <![CDATA[Intra-puparial development of the <strong><em>Cochliomyia macellaria</em></strong> and <strong><em>Lucilia cuprina</em></strong> (Diptera, Calliphoridae)]]> ABSTRACT The intra-puparial development of the blowflies Cochliomyia macellaria (n = 310) and Lucilia cuprina (n = 470), was studied under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 3rd instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the pre-pupae were separated according to the size in larval length and degree of pigmentation and of the cuticle. We observe a set of five continuous events or phases: (1) pupariation, (2) larva-pupa apolysis, (3) cryptocephalic pupa, (4) phanerocephalic pupa and (5) pharate adult. The total time of the intra-puparial development, larva-pupa apolysis to pharate adult, lasted for 120 h (5 days) to C. macellaria and 210 h (8.75 days) to L. cuprina. <![CDATA[Factors that alter the biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in <strong><em>Chironomus sancticaroli</em></strong> (Diptera, Chironomidae)]]> ABSTRACT Changes in physiology of the nervous system and metabolism can be detected through the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alpha esterase (EST-a) and beta esterase (EST-ß) in chironomids exposed to pollutants. However, to understand the real effect of xenobiotics on organisms, it is important to investigate how certain factors can interfere with enzyme activity. We investigated the effects of different temperatures, food stress and two steps of the enzymatic protocol on the activity of AChE, EST-a and EST-ß in Chironomus sancticaroli. In experiment of thermal stress individuals from the egg stage to the fourth larval instar were exposed to different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C). In food stress experiment, larvae were reared until IV instar in a standard setting (25 °C and 0.9 g weekly ration), but from fourth instar on they were divided into groups and offered different feeding regimes (24, 48 and 72 h with/without food). In sample freezing experiment, a group of samples was processed immediately after homogenization and another after freezing for 30 days. To test the effect of centrifugation on samples, enzyme activity was quantified from centrifuged and non-centrifuged samples. The activity of each enzyme reached an optimum at a different temperature. The absence of food triggered different changes in enzyme activity depending on the period of starvation. Freezing and centrifugation of the samples significantly reduced the activity of three enzymes. Based on these results we conclude that the four factors studied had an influence on AChE, EST-a and EST-ß and this influence should be considered in ecotoxicological approaches. <![CDATA[<strong><em>Bombus brasiliensis</em></strong> Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae) infected with <strong><em>Nosema ceranae</em></strong> (Microsporidia)]]> ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit) was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini) and orchid bees (Euglossini). <![CDATA[First host plant record for <strong><em>Strymon davara</em></strong> (Hewitson) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) in the highly human-modified coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert]]> ABSTRACT Some native plants can survive the disturbances associated with agricultural activities, sometimes being considered weeds and objects of control practices. However, these plants can be very important to support populations of native insects in disturbed habitats. Alternanthera halimifolia (Lam.) Standl. (Amaranthaceae) is locally considered a weed, and here it is reported as the first host plant known for the Neotropical hairstreak Strymon davara (Hewitson, 1868) based on research performed in the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Furthermore, field observations suggest that this is the only host of S. davara in this area. This case provides an example of the importance of a weed in the conservation of local populations of a butterfly in a highly human-modified environment. <![CDATA[First high-altitude record of <strong><em>Bucculatrix mirnae</em></strong> Vargas and Moreira (Lepidoptera, Bucculatricidae) on a newly documented host plant: the importance of host plant distribution for conservation on the western slopes of the Andes mountains of northern Chile]]> ABSTRACT Bucculatrix mirnae Vargas and Moreira, 2012 (Lepidoptera, Bucculatricidae) is a micromoth native to the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert previously known to occur only in the type locality of the Azapa Valley, close to sea level. Its immature stages are associated with the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz &amp; Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). We report data on the occurrence of B. mirnae found for the first time at 3500 m above sea level on the western slopes of the Andes mountains of northern Chile. In addition, Baccharis alnifolia Meyen &amp; Walp. is recorded as a new host plant for B. mirnae. The implications of this finding for conservation in the arid western slopes of the Andes habitats in northern Chile are discussed. <![CDATA[First report of two species of scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) inside nests of <strong><em>Azteca</em></strong> cf. <strong><em>chartifex</em></strong> Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest]]> ABSTRACT We report for the first time the occurrence of two species of scarab beetles, Phileurus carinatus declivis Prell, 1914 (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Cyclidius elongatus (Olivier, 1789) (Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini) inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel, 1896, a neotropical arboreal ant species. This report indicates that these two beetle species are associated, at least as inquilines, to this ant species, although the nature of this relationship remains unclear. <![CDATA[Erratum to "A new species of <strong><em>Machaeriobia</em></strong> Rübsaamen, 1915 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from Brazil"]]> ABSTRACT We report for the first time the occurrence of two species of scarab beetles, Phileurus carinatus declivis Prell, 1914 (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Cyclidius elongatus (Olivier, 1789) (Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini) inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel, 1896, a neotropical arboreal ant species. This report indicates that these two beetle species are associated, at least as inquilines, to this ant species, although the nature of this relationship remains unclear.