Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 61 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Host-parasite interaction and impact of mite infection on mosquito population]]> ABSTRACT During the present study, the host-parasite relationship between mosquitoes and parasitic mites was investigated. The 8954 individuals of male and female mosquitoes belonging to 26 genera: seven each of Aedes and Culex, six of Anopheles and one each of Toxorhynchites, Coquillettidia and Uranotaenia were collected from 200 sites. The male and female mosquitoes were collected from the State of Uttar Pradesh, located at 26.8500° N, 80.9100° E in North India by deploying Carbon dioxide-baited and gravid traps. The intensity of mite's infection, type and number of mites attached to mosquitoes, mite's preference for body parts and host sexes were the parameters used to determine host-parasite relationship. Eight species of mites: Arrenurus acuminatus, Ar. gibberifrons, Ar. danbyensis, Ar. madaraszi, Ar. kenki, Parathyas barbigera, Leptus sp., and Anystis sp., parasitized mosquitoes. Parasitic mites preferred host's thorax for attachment as compared to the head, pre-abdomen or appendages. The present study suggests phoretic relationship between parasitic mites and mosquitoes. Wide occurrence, intensity of infection, parasitic load, and attachment preferences of the mites suggested their positive role in biological control of adult mosquitoes. The present study will set the path of future studies on host-parasite relationships of mites and mosquitoes and define the role of parasitic mites in the biological control of mosquitoes. <![CDATA[First records of parasitoids attacking the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador]]> ABSTRACT First records of parasitoids attacking the Asian citrus psyllid in Ecuador. The objective of the current study was to investigate the presence of natural enemies of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) (the Asian citrus psyllid) in Ecuador. Incidence of parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was assessed between November 2015 and March 2016, in Letamendi, Febres-Cordero and Tarqui, urban districts of Guayaquil. Highest incidence of parasitism occurred in those regions and seasons of the year with the highest temperatures commensurate with increase of citrus plant shoots. Similar to their host, these parasitoids appear to have established in Ecuador by accident, and were not the result of purposeful introduction. This fortuitous introduction is a potentially helpful tool in controlling the Asian citrus psyllid, and potentially Huanglongbing. <![CDATA[A spontaneous body color mutation in <em>Drosophila nappae</em> (Diptera, Drosophilidae)]]> ABSTRACT A yellow-bodied male appeared spontaneously in an isofemale line of Drosophila nappae established from a wild-caught female collected at the Forest Reserve of the Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária "Armando de Salles Oliveira", São Paulo city, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the first mutation found in D. nappae, a species belonging to the tripunctata group. The yellow male was isolated and individually crossed to two wild-type (brown-colored) virgin females from the same generation, yielding numerous offspring. All F1 individuals were wild-type, but the phenotypes yielded in the F2 generation were wild-type females, and both wild-type and yellow-bodied males. The latter yellow male mutants backcrossed with virgin wild-type F1 females yielded four phenotypes (brown-colored and yellow-colored flies of both sexes), indicating an inheritance pattern of X-linked recessive. Chi-square goodness of fit tests (α = 5%) detected no significant differences among the number of flies per phenotype. The new mutation is hereby named yellow, due to its probable homology to a similar mutation with an identical inheritance pattern found in Drosophila melanogaster. <![CDATA[Distribution, habitat use and plant associations of <em>Moluchia brevipennis</em> (Saussure, 1864) (Blattodea: Ectobiidae): an endemic cockroach from Chilean Mediterranean Matorral biome]]> ABSTRACT Wild cockroaches are often described as abundant and diverse insects from wet tropical zones; however, they can also be found in arid and semiarid areas. It is proposed that in these drier environments cockroach survival may dependent on its tight association with native plant species. In this work, using bait trapping and active collection methods, we surveyed cockroach species along central Chile coastal scrubland; the southern limit of the semiarid Mediterranean Matorral biome in the Neotropical Region (32° S). Based on morphological and DNA barcoding methods we found that our collected cockroaches belonged to native species Moluchia brevipennis (Saussure, 1864) (Blattodea: Ectobiidae). Furthermore, thanks to field sampling, we noticed for the first time that M. brevipennis predominantly can be found in patches of native vegetation from Matorral biome, for instance, associated to endemic plant species from Puya (Bromeliaceae) genus, where we recorded these wild cockroaches feeding on flowers at dusk. Under the light of these findings, we discuss the relevance of the association between M. brevipennis and native plants for its survival in this semiarid habitat, its potential ecological function and the ongoing hazards for native insect species resulting from nearby urban sprawl in coastal central Chile. <![CDATA[Spatial distribution of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae, and its implications for Public Health, in five areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT In view of the adaptive ability of mosquitoes and their role in the transport of infective agents, entomological surveys undertaken in transitional environments are very important for the determination of the risk they represent for Public Health. Among the principal vectors of the infectious agents involved in the occurrence of important arboviruses, such as dengue, for example, are the Culicidae-insects capable of installing themselves in the urban nuclei, which exist within areas containing vestigial forests. This present study conducted a survey of mosquito species by means of traps to catch their larvae installed in five rural areas within the Atlantic Forest domain and containing its vestigial vegetation in the municipality of Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13,241 larvae belonging to six mosquito species were collected on 920 occasions (32.52% of positive collections). Aedes albopictus (64.23%) and Aedes aegypti (32.75%) were the most frequent, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (1.32%), Aedes fluviatilis (1.04%), Culex Complex Coronator (0.40%) and Toxorhynchites theobaldi (0.22%). Three areas were analyzed by means of Simpson's diversity index and the spatial analysis showed that the sites with the greatest abundance of Ae. aegypti presented lower diversity values and were associated with more highly consolidated urban nuclei. The vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika has great infesting ability in urban areas, which means that the early implementation of entomological surveillance and control activities in specific areas - such as transitional ones - is highly important. <![CDATA[<em>Anopheles</em> (<em>Nyssorhynchus</em>) <em>striatus</em>, a new species of the Strodei Subgroup (Diptera, Culicidae)]]> ABSTRACT A new species of the genus Anopheles Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) striatus n. sp., preliminary designated as Anopheles CP Form, from Brazil, is here validated and described using morphological characteristics of the egg, fourth-instar larva, pupa, female and male genitalia. The species is morphologically more similar to species of the Strodei Subgroup of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) than to any other species of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus Blanchard. However, adult female that can be misidentified with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) galvaoi Causey, Deane &amp; Deane if the identification is mainly based on the ratio of dark and white scales of the hindtarsomere 2. In addition, the characterization of the new species includes aspects of its bionomics, and geographical distribution. The new species is known from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Paraná states, in Brazil. Diagnostic characters for the identification of the species are provided. <![CDATA[New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) from Brazilian birds (Aves) collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991)]]> ABSTRACT We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. <![CDATA[A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on <em>Haplopappus foliosus</em> (Asteraceae) from Chile]]> ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female). This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. <![CDATA[Studies on Brazilian Pseudophasmatidae (Phasmatodea) with the description of a new species of <em>Agrostia</em> Redtenbacher and new records for <em>Metriophasma</em> Uvarov and <em>Parastratocles</em> Redtenbacher]]> ABSTRACT Pseudophasmatidae currently includes 65 species recorded from Brazil. In this paper, we increase this number to 68 species by describing Agrostia flavimaculata sp. nov., based on male and female specimens from Acre and Amazonas states. Furthermore, Parastratocles multilineatus (Rehn) and Metriophasma (Metriophasma) diocles (Westwood) are recorded for the first time from Brazil based on specimens from Rondônia, Acre and Amazonas states. A key to species of Agrostia is also given. <![CDATA[Phylogeny and new species of the Neotropical bee genus <em>Paroxystoglossa</em> Moure (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)]]> ABSTRACT Paroxystoglossa is a solitary, ground-nesting bee genus. It was revised in 1960 and currently includes nine species from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The objectives of this contribution are to provide a morphological phylogeny for the group and to describe two new species: P. levigata n.sp. and P. mourella n.sp. Paroxystoglossa is monophyletic and three species groups are recognized, jocasta species group: (P. mourella n.sp., (P. brachycera, (P. jocasta, P. barbata))), transversa species group: (P. transversa, P. levigata n.sp.), and crossotos species group: (P. mimetica, (P. crossotos, P. seabrai, (P. andromache, P. spiloptera))). The crossotos and transversa species groups were considered as sister groups. Interestingly Paroxystoglossa species have very similar male genital capsules an uncommon pattern among Augochlorini genera. The species groups have a widely redundant distribution indicating replication events in southeastern South America. An updated, illustrated key for species identification is also presented. <![CDATA[Taxonomic revision of <em>Plyomydas</em> Wilcox & Papavero, 1971 with the description of two new species and its transfer to Mydinae (Insecta: Diptera: Mydidae)]]> ABSTRACT The monotypic Neotropical Mydidae genus Plyomydas Wilcox &amp; Papavero, 1971, to date confined to coastal Peru, is reviewed. Two new species, Plyomydas adelphe sp. nov. and Plyomydas phalaros sp. nov., are described from mid-elevational western Argentina, which extends the distribution of the genus considerably. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and identification keys are provided and made openly accessible in data depositories to support future studies of the included taxa. Plyomydas is transferred from the Leptomydinae to the Mydinae: Messiasiini based on the absence of acanthophorite spines on abdominal tergite 10 in females and the presence of vein M3 + M4 terminating in the costal vein C. Leptomydinae is therefore restricted to the Northern Hemisphere with the exception of Hessemydas Kondratieff, Carr &amp; Irwin, 2005 known from Madagascar. Messiasia notospila (Wiedemann, 1828) is compared to Plyomydas species.