Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Entomologia]]> vol. 63 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Ant fauna associated with <em>Microgramma squamulosa</em> (Kaulf.) de la Sota (Polypodiaceae) fern galls]]> Abstract Galls are neoformed plant structures created by cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy induced by a number of organisms, especially insects. After adult insects hatch, senescent galls may remain on the host plant and be occupied by a succession of fauna, the most important and dominant being ants. This study aimed at characterizing the ant fauna successor of stem galls induced by microlepidoptera in Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota (Polypodiaceae). Four collections were carried out in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The galls were packed in plastic bags and taken to the laboratory. Ants were euthanized and conserved in 70° GL alcohol and later identified. A total of 49 stem galls were collected and analyzed, 15 containing microlepidoptera galler larvae, one a parasitoid wasp and 33 without the microlepidoptera or parasitoid (67%). Twelve of these galls (39%) contained ants. Six ant species were recorded (Camponotus crassus, Crematogaster curvispinosa, Crematogaster sericea, Procryptocerus sampaioi, Tapinoma atriceps, and Wasmannia auropunctata), all native to Brazil. Ant occupation in M. squamulosa seems to be associated with senescent galls due to hatching of the galler insect, which leaves a hole that allows ants to colonize it, in other words, an opportunistic domatia. Senescent galls resulting from the death of galler insects do not seem to facilitate ant occupation. <![CDATA[First record of the sedge feeder <em>Bactra verutana</em> Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Chile based on morphology and DNA barcodes]]> Abstract The sedge-feeding moth Bactra verutana Zeller, 1875 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Bactrini), described from Dallas, Texas, USA, is widespread, recorded throughout much North America, Central and South America, including the Caribbean, and Africa. The species is recorded for the first time from Chile based on specimens collected in the coastal valleys of the Atacama Desert, where its larvae feed on Cyperus corymbosus Rottb. var. subnodosus (Nees &amp; Meyen) Kük. (Cyperaceae). A single DNA barcode haplotype, which is widespread in USA, was found in two Chilean specimens sequenced. <![CDATA[Sharing of termites (Blattodea: Isoptera) between sugarcane matrices and Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil]]> Abstract The Atlantic Forest of South America is one of the most degraded tropical forests and the cultivation of sugarcane is considered one of the main causes. In humid forests termites stand out with regard to their abundance and functional importance. The present study aimed to compare termite assemblages of fragments of the Atlantic Forest with that of the sugarcane matrices that surround them. Collections were performed in two sugarcane plantations in Northeast Brazil. In each plantation a fragment of Atlantic Forest and an adjacent sugarcane field were sampled using a standardized termite sampling protocol. A total of 39 species and 302 encounters were recorded. Species richness, relative abundance and composition differed significantly between forests and the matrices, with the presence of exclusive species in each environment—25 in the forests and seven in the matrices. Soil feeding species of the subfamily Apicotermitinae and species of open areas were found in the matrices. There was a marked difference between the assemblages of the matrices, possibly due to soil characteristics. The majority of the species found in the matrices do not cause damage to the crop, but instead act in the processes of soil decomposition and formation, thereby contributing to increased productivity. <![CDATA[Female genitalia of <em>Pero obtusaria</em> Prout, 1928 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)]]> Abstract The female genitalia of Pero obtusaria Prout, 1928 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are described and illustrated for the first time and compared to congenerics. The antrum with the dorsal part sculptured with two sinuous longitudinal stripes enables the identification of this species. <![CDATA[Rearing <em>Frankliniella zucchini</em> Nakahara & Monteiro (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on zucchini (<em>Cucurbita pepo</em> L. ‘Caserta’) fruits]]> Abstract Frankliniella zucchini transmits zucchini lethal chlorosis virus, causal agent of lethal chlorosis of zucchini squash. The characteristics of relationship between this virus with its vector have not been studied, one of the reasons being the lack of a method for rearing the thrips for laboratory studies. This work proposes a system for the rearing of F. zucchini on fresh virus free zucchini ‘Caserta’ fruits, offering a practical and efficient alternative for the supply of a large number of insects for later study of virus/vector relationship. In addition, to aid in the identification of this species of thrips, the immature and adult forms obtained from the colony were described. <![CDATA[Physiological characteristics of citrus plants infested with citrus blackfly]]> Abstract Aleurocanthus woglumi (Ashby, 1915) is an important agricultural pest that causes yield losses of 20-80% in citrus plants by removing plant nutrients while feeding and allowing the formation of sooty mold. The objective of this study was to evaluate physiological changes in citrus plants in response to A. woglumi infestation under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a citrus orchard in Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, Brazil. Thirty-two citrus plants were used, including eight of each of the following varieties: Tahiti lime, Tanjaroa tangerine, Nissey tangerine, and Ponkan tangerine. Four random plants with A. woglumi infestation and four plants free from this pest were selected from each variety. The physiological parameters evaluated were photochemical efficiency and gas exchange. Regarding photochemical efficiency, infested plants presented photoinhibition damage, with a performance index of 4.22. The gas exchange parameters of infested plants changed, with reductions in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation of 69.7% (Tahiti), 64% (Tanjaroa), 68.8% (Nissey) and 63.3% (Ponkan). Plants infested with A. woglumi also presented physiological changes; their photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, instantaneous transpiration, and performance indexes were affected. The infested citrus plants showed photoinhibition of photosystem II. The photosynthetic CO2 assimilation decreased approximately 70% in Tahiti lime, Tanjaroa tangerine, Nissey tangerine, and Ponkan tangerine plants infested with A. woglumi. <![CDATA[Aspects of the reproductive behaviour and development of two forensically relevant species, <em>Blaesoxipha</em> (<em>Gigantotheca</em>) <em>stallengi</em> (Lahille, 1907) and <em>Sarcophaga</em> (<em>Liopygia</em>) <em>ruficornis</em> (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)]]> Abstract We studied aspects of the reproductive behaviour and development of two species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance, Blaesoxipha stallengi (Lahille, 1907) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius, 1794), which are dominant in assemblages in dry forests in Northeastern Brazil. We described the behavioural acts associated with courtship and mating and estimated the development time (from egg/larva until adult) - of both species. Description of the reproductive behaviour was based on 50 couples of each species whereas 250 larvae were used for the estimation of the developmental time. A total of 55 successful copula were observed for B. stallengi and 142 for S. ruficornis. Pre-copulatory behaviour differed between the species, as S. ruficornis presented a high rate of competition among male specimens. Blaesoxipha stallengi copulated more frequently in the morning and the mean duration of copulation was similar for both species. The species showed different reproductive strategies: S. ruficornis follows the typical strategy in Sarcophagidae and are viviparous (larviparity), but we report here the first documented evidence of ovoviviparity of B. stallengi. Sex ratio of the emerged adults did not differ (p &gt; 0.05) markedly for either species. Total development time in days was similar with 22.9 for B. stallengi and 21.3 for S. ruficornis. The pronounced similarities in the morphology of both species - combined with their similar time of development - may act as confounding factors for forensic entomologists and stress out the need for an accurate taxonomical identification. <![CDATA[A new species of <em>Youngomyia</em> Felt from Brazil and new morphological data on <em>Youngomyia pouteriae</em> Maia (Insecta, Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)]]> Abstract Youngomyia matogrossensis Proença &amp; Maia a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Insecta: Diptera) that induces cylindrical hairy galls on leaves of Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk. (Sapotaceae) is herein described and illustrated (larvae, pupal exuviae, male and female). The galler, gall and host plant were collected at Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil). New morphological data and photographs of pupal exuviae, male and female of Youngomyia pouteriae Maia, 2001 are also provided. <![CDATA[<em>Cotesia invirae</em>, sp. nov., from South Brazil: a new gregarious microgastrine wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from <em>Opsiphanes invirae</em> (Nymphalidae) feeding on palms]]> Abstract A new species of microgastrine wasp, Cotesia invirae Salgado-Neto &amp; Whitfield, sp. nov., is described from southern Brazil in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. This species is a koinobiont gregarious larval endoparasitoid and spins a common mass of cocoons underneath the host caterpillars of Opsiphanes invirae (Huebner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), feeding on the palm trees Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc.; Livistona chinensis (N.J. Jacquim) R. Brown; Roystonea regia (HBK) O.F. Cook; Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Wendland &amp; Drude (Palmaceae). Morphological, molecular, biological, ecological and geographical data are integrated to describe the new species. <![CDATA[Ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of <em>Alabama argillacea</em> (Hübner, 1823) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)]]> Abstract Insects have several types of sensilla, the characterization of which has been fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of sensory perception in different species. This study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of the sensilla present on the antennae of Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1823) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), an important pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops, as well as their possible variation between sexes. To do this, the antennae of males and females of A. argillacea were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Sensilla morphometry was assessed using photomicrographs, from which the lengths and basal and apical diameters of sensilla were measured using the ImageJ program. Seven types of sensilla were identified on the antennae of A. argillacea: sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla styloconica, sensilla basiconica, and sensilla Böhm bristles. Differences between the sensilla of males and females were found in their lengths and basal diameters in the distal and proximal regions. This suggests that sensilla functionality may not only vary from one species to another, but also between sexes within the same species. Thus, further transmission electron microscopy and single sensillum recording studies may provide more detailed information on the sensilla of A. argillacea and their functions. <![CDATA[On the identities <em>of Rhinoleucophenga pallida</em> Hendel and <em>Rhinoleucophenga obesa</em> (Loew) (Diptera, Drosophilidae), with description of a new sibling species from Brazil]]> Abstract Rhinoleucophenga pallidaHendel, 1917 (type species of the genus) is redescribed based on its female holotype and a male from a nearby locality, and Rhinoleucophenga obesa (Loew, 1872) on its two syntypes, which are designated as the male lectotype and a female paralectotype. Both are valid species. A proposal is made to establish the genus Pseudophortica Sturtevant, 1918 (type species R. obesa), a junior synonym of Rhinoleucophenga, to subgenus rank and include all species of Rhinoleucophenga described or redescribed from males except R. pallida, which is unique in having a remarkable pedunculate surstylus, among other differences. The North American R. obesa is compared to its closest sibling, the South American species Rhinoleucophenga gigantea (Thomson, 1869). The occurrence of R. obesa in Brazil is also questioned, as suggested long ago by Marshall R. Wheeler. The specimens from Brazil previously identified as such most probably belong to the new species described in the present paper as Rhinoleucophenga (Pseudophortica) cantareira sp. nov. (type locality: Parque Estadual da Cantareira, City of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil). Numerous photomicrographs of their habitus and male terminalia taken with a Smartphone's rear camera and digitally stacked to create images with greater depth of focus are provided. <![CDATA[A redescription of <em>Antispastis clarkei</em> Pastrana (Lepidoptera, Glyphipterigidae) immature stages, with notes on the life history and phylogenetic placement of the genus]]> Abstract Antispastis Meyrick, 1926 is a poorly known genus of leaf-mining micromoths endemic to the Neotropics, with still uncertain taxonomic position within the Yponomeutoidea. In the present study, the egg, larva and pupa of A. clarkei Pastrana, previously known only from Argentina, are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. Data on life history, including histology of the mine, are also provided. Family placement of the genus is reassessed based on comparison of morphology and DNA sequences with closely related lineages. The larvae form blotch mines on the upper surface of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) leaves, feeding on palisade parenchyma in all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine, in an inverted basket-like, large-meshed cocoon constructed on the plant surface. DNA analysis of Cytochrome oxidase I gene of A. clarkei revealed interspecific differences averaging 10% with A. xylophragma, which provided species separation matching morphological differences. Antispastis was closely related phylogenetically to Digitivalva, clustering in the Acrolepiinae together with the genera Acrolepia and Acrolepiopsis, and ultimately placed within Glyphipterigidae. The geographical distribution of A. clarkei is expanded to the Southern Atlantic forest (Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states, Brazil).