Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 37 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Nasce a <i>publi</i>SBQ</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis, characterization and computational studies of (E)-2-{[(2-aminopyridin-3-yl)imino]-methyl}-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol</b>]]> (E)-2-{[(2-Aminopyridin-3-yl)imino]-methyl}-4,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol ( 3: ), a ligand containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond, was prepared according to a previous literature report, with modifications, and was characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HHCOSY, TOCSY and cyclic voltammetry. Computational analyses at the level of DFT and TD-DFT were performed to study its electronic and molecular structures. The results of these analyses elucidated the behaviors of the UV-vis and electrochemical data. Analysis of the transitions in the computed spectrum showed that the most important band is primarily composed of a HOMO→LUMO transition, designated as an intraligand (IL) charge transfer. <![CDATA[<b>Efficient experimental designs for chemical kinetics studies</b>]]> In this paper we show how to obtain efficient designs of experiments for fitting Michaelis-Menten and Hill equations useful in chemical studies. The search of exact D-optimal designs by using local and pseudo-Bayesian approaches is considered. Optimal designs were compared to those commonly used in practice using an efficiency measure and theoretical standard errors of the kinetic parameter estimates. In conclusion, the D-optimal designs based on the Hill equation proved efficient for estimating the parameters of both models. Furthermore, these are promising with respect to practical issues, allowing efficient estimation as well as goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons between some kinetic models. <![CDATA[<b>Physico-chemical characterization of oily sanitary waste and of oils and greases extracted for conversion into biofuels</b>]]> Oily waste from sanitation processes was characterized for its potential use in the generation of biofuels. The waste residues studied showed high levels of oil and grease, reaching up to 87% (m/m) in a grease trap of a food company, showing that these residues can be utilized for the production of biofuels. The results revealed high levels of moisture and saponification as well as high levels of free fatty acids (FFA). Analysis of chromatographic profiles (HPLC) showed great heterogeneity of the fatty acids contained in the sample, and a predominance of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical constituents isolated from <i>turnera subulata</i> Sm. and electrochemical characterization of phaeophytin b</b>]]> Turnera subulata Sm., known as "Chanana" or "flor-do-Guarujá" in Brazilian folklore, is a plant species belonging to the subfamily Turneroideae of family Passifloraceae, which is used for various medicinal purposes in Brazil. The phytochemical study conducted here led to the isolation and identification of ten compounds present in T. subulata: two mixtures of steroids, sitosterol and stigmasterol (nonglycosylated and glycosylated); a mixture of flavonoids, 5,7,4′-trihidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranosidel; and four phaeophytins, phaeophytin purpurin-18-phytyl ester, a rare natural product, phaeophytin a , 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S)-phaeophytin a , and phaeophytin b Phaeophytin b exhibited electrochemical activity similar to that of phthalocyanines. <![CDATA[<b>Adsorption of CO<sub>2</sub> on micro and mesoporous molecular sieves</b>]]> Microporous molecular sieves of type Y, Beta, ZSM-5, ZSM-12 and ZSM-35, and mesoporous molecular sieves of type MCM-41 and MCM-48, and these sieves modified with triethanolamine and ethylenediamine were obtained and characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA and nitrogen adsorption. The adsorption tests were performed by the gravimetric method under a stream of CO2 at ambient temperature and pressure. The adsorbents studied showed maximum adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide in the range of 13.1 to 85.5 mg of CO2 per gram of adsorbent. <![CDATA[<b>Ionic liquids as plasticizers in nitrile rubber/polyaniline blends</b>]]> Two imidazolium-based ionic liquids (C4MIMTf2N and C4MIMBF4) were used to verify their influence on polyaniline (PANI) and nitrile rubber (NBR)/PANI blend properties and the vulcanization process. High conductivity values were observed for PANI-C4MIMTf2N samples and no interference was found for the C4MIMBF4 samples. These materials were added to NBR by mechanical mixing. Based on the torque results, the presence of C4MIMBF4 does not protect the vulcanization reaction of NBR with PANI as performed by C4MIMTf2N. The highest conductivity value was obtained with 7 wt. % of PANI-DSBA-C4MIMTf2N (10-6 S/cm). This result is attributed to the more effective interaction of PANI and NBR phases promoted by the ionic liquid. <![CDATA[<b>Bent´s rule contextualizes hydrogen bond strength in trimolecular clusters</b>]]> This article presents a theoretical study of the molecular properties of trimolecular clusters of CnHm∙∙∙HCN∙∙∙HX formed by the ϖ∙∙∙H and n∙∙∙H hydrogen bonds. The interaction strengths of these interactions are in line with the variations in s-character, and independently, the red-shift rise whether stronger or weaker bound systems are carried out. This behavior was justified via NBO analysis and supported by Bent´s rule, wherein the greater variations in s-character of X are in good agreement with larger red-shifts and vice-versa. To conclude, the refinement of the supermolecule approach and NBO binding energies also corroborate in this regard. <![CDATA[<b>Indirect spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids in <i>Capsicum</i> peppers using the reaction of complex Co(II) with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol</b>]]> Capsaicinoids (CAPS) are substances responsible for pungency in Capsicum. It is important to quantify these types of compounds owing to their broad application in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical weapons. In this work, we developed an indirect spectrophotometric method based on the colorimetric reaction between CAPS, Co(II) 3.10×10-5 mol L-1 and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) 6.23×10-5 and, in cachaça:water 92:8v/v solutions, for quantification of total CAPS in Capsicum peppers. The product of the reaction is CoPAR2CAPS2 and its absorption in aquo-ethanolic solution at 510 nm is proportional to the total CAPS concentration from 0.60 to 17.94 mg L-1. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0004 and 0.001 mg of CAPS/g of pepper, respectively, with 4% relative standard deviation. The developed method yielded similar results to those obtained from high performance liquid chromatography, with 95% of confidence. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of <i>Sabicea brasiliensis</i> wernh (Rubiaceae)</b>]]> The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. <![CDATA[<b>Simple, mild, and highly efficient synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazoles and bis-benzimidazoles</b>]]> A new convenient method for preparation of 2-substituted benzimidazoles and bis-benzimidazoles is presented. In this method, o-phenylenediamines were condensed with bisulfite adducts of various aldehydes and di-aldehydes under neat conditions by microwave heating. The results were also compared with results of synthesis by conventional heating under reflux. Structures of the products were confirmed by infrared, ¹H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Short reaction times, good yields, easy purification of products, and mild reaction conditions are the main advantages of this method. <![CDATA[<b>Self-aggregation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (tmpp)</b>: <b>spectroscopic studies and multivariate analyzes</b>]]> In this work, the spectroscopic properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMPP) in solvents of different polarities and water/ethanol mixtures were studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy and resonance light scattering associated with statistical analysis. The molar absorption coefficient and emission maximum of TMPP were dependent on solvent polarity. In the water/ethanol mixture, TMPP remained monomeric up to 25% of water, when it reaches its critical aggregation percentage. Oblique head-to-tail aggregate was found at intermediate water content (35 - 55%), while formation of a J-type aggregate was observed at higher water content (> 60%). <![CDATA[<b>Ultrafiltration membranes from waste polyethylene terephthalate and additives</b>: <b>synthesis and characterization</b>]]> The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is reported. PET is currently used in many applications, including the manufacture of bottles and tableware. Monomer extraction from waste PET is expensive, and this process has not yet been successfully demonstrated on a viable scale. Hence, any method to recycle or regenerate PET once it has been used is of significant importance from scientific and environmental research viewpoints. Such a process would be a green alternative due to reduced raw monomer consumption and the additional benefit of reduced manufacturing costs. The membranes described here were prepared by a phase-inversion process, which involved casting a solution containing PET, m-cresol as solvent, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights as additives. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water permeability (PWP), molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), and flux and membrane morphology. The results show that the addition of PEG with high molecular weights leads to membranes with higher PWP. The presence of additives affects surface roughness and membrane morphology. <![CDATA[<b>Related properties to acidity and basicity from computational chemistry approach</b>]]> Analytical Chemistry books lack a clear link between thermodynamic and equilibrium approaches involving acids and bases. In this work, theoretical calculations were performed to search for these relations. An excellent relationship was found between difference in Gibbs free energy, ∆G of acid dissociation reaction and ∆G of hydrolysis reaction of the corresponding conjugate base. A relationship between ∆G of hydrolysis reaction of conjugate acids and their corresponding atomic radius was also identified, showing that stability plays an important role in hydrolysis reactions. Finally, the importance of solvation in acid/base behavior was demonstrated when comparing the corresponding theoretical and experimental ∆G´s. <![CDATA[<b>Flavonoid glycosides from <i>Erythroxylum pulchrum</i> a. st.-hil. (Erythroxylaceae)</b>]]> The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of flavonoids in stamen, gynoecium, and petals of <i>Magnolia grandiflora</i> L. and their associated antioxidant and hepatoprotection activities</b>]]> Chromatographic analysis of flavonoids in ethyl acetate fractions of the stamen, gynoecium, and petal of Magnolia grandiflora L. by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS-ESI in the negative ionization mode was performed in this study. The results revealed the presence of eight flavonoids: apigenin 8-C-glucoside, luteolin 8-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin, 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin. Their quantification revealed that luteolin 8-C-glucoside is the major flavonoid and that the total phenolic content is concentrated primarily in the stamen. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of the flower organs were evaluated against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, compared with the effects of silymarin. <![CDATA[<b>Flavonoids from <i>Lonchocarpus araripensis</i> (Leguminoseae) - isolation, unequivocal assignment of NMR signals <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C and conformational analysis</b>]]> In a continuing investigation for potentially bioactive natural products, flavonoids were isolated from Lonchocarpus araripensis (Leguminoseae) and identified as 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6'',6''-dimethylchromene-[7,8,2'',3'']-flavone (1), 3,6-dimethoxy-6'',6''-dimethylchromene-[7,8,2'',3'']-flavone (2) and 3,5,8-trimethoxy-[6,7,2",3"]-furanoflavone (3). This is the first time compound 3 has been described. Compound 2 has been previously isolated from roots while this is the first time 1 is reported in this species. Complete NMR assignments are given for1 ,2 and 3 together with the determination of conformation for 1. <![CDATA[<b>Electrochromism</b>: <b>basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes</b>]]> This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO3 and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. <![CDATA[<b>Tar removal from biomass gasification streams</b>: <b>processes and catalysts</b>]]> Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. <![CDATA[<b>Applications of enzymes in synthesis and modification of polymers</b>]]> Enzymes are biological catalysts that offer great potential for use in the synthesis and modification of polymers, being more specific and greener than chemical catalysts. In this work, enzymes from the classes of hydrolases (lipase, cutinase and protease) and of oxidoreductases (horseradish peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were identified as the main biocatalysts responsible for the synthesis of polymers. Biocatalysis can potentially be part of the life cycle of several polymers, including polyesters, polyurethanes, polycarbonates, polyamides, functionalized polysaccharides and polystyrene, allowing the synthesis of specialty macromolecules for fine applications and with higher added-value than commodity polymers. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical analysis of biomass - a review of techniques and applications</b>]]> Use of biomass as an alternative to nonrenewable feedstock for energy, materials, and chemicals is currently a prominent theme for industry and R Countries like Brazil, USA, and Germany are spending resources and efforts to promote a green economy based on biomass supply chains. Chemical analysis is an important tool to ensure quality, reliability, and to suggest the best potential use for the biomass, thereby enhancing its economic potential. Analytical techniques can identify chemical components, characterize their properties, and determine their concentration. This article discusses the commonly employed techniques and their application in chemical analysis of biomass and its products. <![CDATA[<b>Preliminary data on Brazilian monofloral honey from the northeast region using FT-IR ATR spectroscopic, palynological, and color analysis</b>]]> Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR ATR) spectroscopy was used to determine 14 different measurands in northeast Brazilian honey samples. Nine different honey samples (six monofloral and three polyfloral) from 2009 obtained from the company CEARAPI underwent FT-IR ATR, palynological, color, and sensorial analysis to obtain preliminary results for these types of honey. The results showed that there are five monofloral, three bifloral, and one extrafloral honey, and also that mid-infrared spectrometry can be used as a screening method for the routine analysis of Brazilian honey, with the advantages of being rapid, nondestructive, and accurate. <![CDATA[<b>Transdermal formulations containing human sexual steroids</b>: <b>development and validation of methods and <i>in vitro</i> drug release</b>]]> In vitro release of bioidentical hormones in four different liposomal transdermal emulsions (containing testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, or estradiol and estriol) was assessed. For this purpose, novel high-performance liquid chromatography methods were developed and validated in an eco-friendly manner and used to determine the in vitro release of such products. The methods were suitable for our intended goal, and the emulsions employed were found to be effective as transporting candidates for the efficient release of hormones in the transdermal delivery of human sexual steroids. <![CDATA[<b>Green tea in transdermal formulation</b>: <b>HPLC method for quality control and <i>in vitro</i> drug release assays</b>]]> RP-HPLC based analytical method for use in both quality control of green tea in a semisolid formulation and for in vitro drug release assays was developed and validated. The method was precise (CV < 5%), accurate (recovery between 98% and 102%), linear (R² &gt; 0.99), robust, and specific for the determination of epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), caffeine (CAF), and gallic acid (GA). In a diffusion cell chamber, the release rate of EGCG was 8896.01 µg cm-2. This data showed that EGCG will be able to exert its systemic activity when delivered though the transdermal formulation, due to its good flux rates with the synthetic membrane. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for the construction of a ball mill for grinding solids in the laboratory</b>]]> In this paper, we show the construction of a low-cost, high-quality ball mill for obtaining finely divided powders, with the goal of presenting guidelines for achieving the best results for the milling process. This equipment allows for the adjustment of the size of the mill in order to process different quantities of material. The construction of mechanical and electrical components that provide increased efficiency, the choice of milling medium, and frequent problems experienced with homemade ball mills are discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Development of a test for evaluating the conceptual knowledge of chemical equilibrium constant among university students and its application to spanish students</b>]]> This article outlines a procedure that was used to develop a written test for evaluating the conceptual knowledge of chemical equilibrium constant among university students. The concepts in the subject matter were carefully defined through propositional statements. Students' understanding of the topic was determined through interviews. These data were used to produce nine multiple choice questions. Each question was designed to identify misconceptions related to the chemical equilibrium constant. The test was evaluated by foure associate professors and was administred to a total of 196 spanish university students. This test has a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.63 and its content validity values ranged from 3.7 to 5. <![CDATA[<b>Preparation and properties of perichromic dye</b>: <b>an undergraduate laboratory</b>]]> An undergraduate experiment that illustrates the phenomenon of perichromism-the sensitivity of a dye to its microenvironment, as assessed by color changes of its solutions-is described. An easily prepared perichromic imine is synthesized and characterized, and its solvatochromism, thermochromism, halochromism, and preferential solvation in binary solvent mixtures are demonstrated by visual inspection of its solutions. The results are rationalized by invoking solute - solvent interactions in the various media. <![CDATA[<b>Nonlinear dynammics and limiting reagent</b>: <b>a transcritical bifurcation example</b>]]> The nonlinear analysis of a general mixed second order reaction was performed, aiming to explore some basic tools concerning the mathematics of nonlinear differential equations. Concepts of stability around fixed points based on linear stability analysis are introduced, together with phase plane and integral curves. The main focus is the chemical relationship between changes of limiting reagent and transcritical bifurcation, and the investigation underlying the conclusion. <![CDATA[<b>Rare earths in Brazil</b>: <b>historical aspects, production, and perspectives</b>]]> This contribution introduces a brief discussion about the properties and applications of the rare earth elements, with a focus on their current status in Brazil. The general chemical properties, main applications and historical background of the chemistry of these elements are presented, and special attention is devoted to the development of the exploitation and both academic and industrial activities involving rare earths in Brazil. A discussion of the current world scenario ensues and some perspectives regarding the prospection, market and government policy concerning the rare earth elements in Brazil are given.