Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 37 num. 10 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A simple square-wave voltammetric method for the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceuticals using a boron-doped diamond electrode</b>]]> A simple procedure is described for the determination of scopolamine by square-wave voltammetry using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that the oxidation of scopolamine is irreversible at a peak potential of 1.59 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl)) in a 0.50 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution. Under optimized conditions, the analytical curve obtained was linear (r = 0.9996) for the scopolamine concentration range of 1.0 to 110 µmol L-1, with a detection limit of 0.84 µmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample preparation. <![CDATA[<b>Application of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical and chemometrics analyses to the characterization of agro-industrial waste</b>]]> Agroindustrial waste in general presents significant levels of nutrients and organic matter and has therefore been frequently put to agricultural use. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and carbon content, as well as the qualitative characteristics through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of four samples of poultry litter and one sample of cattle manure, from the southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Results revealed that, in general, the poultry litter presented higher amount of nutrients and carbon than the cattle manure. The infrared spectra allowed identification of the functional groups present and the differences in degree of sample humification. The statistical treatment confirmed the quantitative and qualitative differences revealed. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of Mn<sup>2+</sup> ion by solution scanometry as a new, simple and inexpensive method</b>]]> In this research, scanometry was used as a new, simple, fast and inexpensive method for a colorimetric determination of Mn2+ ion in water samples and thermocouple wire through the use of periodate reagent in an acidic medium. The results showed the oxidization of colorless Mn2+ ion by periodate and the formation of a purplish MnO4- ion. The system had a linear range of 1.0 to 70.0 µg mL-1 Mn2+ ion with a detection limit of 0.314 µg mL-1 and a relative standard deviation of 2.77% for G color value. This method has the capability to determine low levels of Mn2+ ion in thermocouple wire and water samples. <![CDATA[<b>Mefenamic acid removal in water using activated carbon powder, red mud and oxidation with chlorine</b>]]> The use of activated carbon powder (ACP), red mud and oxidation with chlorine to remove mefenamic acid in water are described, aimed at their application as a complement to sewage treatment processes in Brazil. A study on the behavior of mefenamic acid in water was performed by evaluating its dissolution for different concentrations and times. Subsequently, the optimal conditions for removal of mefenamic acid were investigated using ACP adsorption at different pH and concentrations, and red mud adsorption using different pH. The utilization of different pH and times was also investigated to establish the ideal conditions for chemical oxidation of the drug. Among the different conditions studied, the best condition for drug removal by ACP and red mud were 100% and 96%, respectively, while the best condition for chemical oxidation occurred using solutions with pH 6 and 7 and reaction times of 30 and 60 minutes. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of initial CaO/SiO<sub>2</sub> ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub> pastes</b>]]> This work presents the results of a study on the hydration of pastes containing calcium hydroxide and either rice husk ash (RHA) or sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in various initial CaO/SiO2 molar ratios. The products of the reactions were characterized by thermal analyses X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of the RHA pastes, the product was composed of CaO-SiO2-H2O (type I C-S-H) or CaO-SiO2-H2O (type II C-S-H) according to the CaO/SiO2 ratio of the mixture. In contrast, in the case of the SBCA pastes, the product was composed primarily of CaO-SiO2-H2O that differed from both the previous types; the product also contained inclusions of calcium aluminate hydrates. <![CDATA[<b><i>In vitro</i></b><b> effect of isoschaftoside isolated from <i>Syngonium podophyllum</i> on pig kidney Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase</b>]]> The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of isoschaftoside isolated from Syngonium podophyllum on pig kidney Na+,K+-ATPase. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined by colorimetric measurement of inorganic phosphate (Pi), resulting from ATP hydrolysis. Isoschaftoside significantly decreased the renal Na+, K+-ATPase activity at the highest concentration as well as at a lower concentration. Our work suggests that isoschaftoside is a promising compound for the treatment of hypertension. <![CDATA[<b>Preparation and evaluation of magnetic chitosan particles modified with ethylenediamine and Fe(III) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions</b>]]> The adsorption of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution by magnetic particles of crosslinked chitosan-ethylenediamine-Fe(III) (MPCh-EDA-FeCL) was studied in a batch system. Fe3+ in the MPCh-EDA-FeCL permitted that adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred with maximum efficiency between pH 3 and 11. The maximum adsorption capacity at pH 7.0 was 81.04 mg g-1 at 25 ºC. The adsorption kinetic process was described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters indicated spontaneous, exothermic and chemical adsorption nature. The adsorbent was successively regenerated using a 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH solution. Results were satisfactory for treatment of wastewater from the electroplating industry. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of antitryptic activity in proteins from peanut products isolated by affinity chromatography</b>]]> The peanut is an oleaginous plant of high nutritional value, a source of protein and a trypsin inhibitor. Trypsin inhibitors are proteins present in the vegetable kingdom, considered anti-nutritional factors for animals. However, there have been several recent reports about their heterologous and beneficial effects on human health. These important effects have been the focus of studies investigating these inhibitors in foods. The aim of the present study was to isolate and determine the estimated molecular mass and specific inhibitory activity, for trypsin in the Japanese peanut, peanut butter, and peanut nougat using the techniques of precipitation with ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography on trypsin - Sepharose CNBr 4B. The techniques used in this study were efficient for isolating the protein inhibitors with antitryptic specific activity of 694 UI mg-1, 823 UI mg-1 and 108 UI mg-1 for the Japanese peanut, peanut nougat, and peanut butter, respectively. The techniques featured high selectivity of the adsorbent, with consequent efficiency in isolation, given the low amount of dosed proteins and specific antitryptic activity presented by the products studied. The various health-related benefits show the importance of detecting and isolating efficient trypsin inhibitors in foods, taking into account the health claims attributed to the vegetable and its high consumption by humans. <![CDATA[<b>Coprecipitation of trace amounts of silicon with aluminum hydroxide and the determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry</b>]]> A simple preconcentration method of silicon based on coprecipitation with aluminum hydroxide prior to its flame atomic absorption (FAAS) determination was established. The recovery values of analyte ion was higher than 95%. The parameters including types of hydroxide ion source for precipitation, acid type for dissolution step, amount of aluminum ion as collector, pH, temperature, standing and centrifuge time, and sample volume were optimized for the quantitative recovery of the analyte. The influences of matrix ions were also examined. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.2%. The limit of detection was calculated as (0.1 mg L-1). The preconcentration factor is 100 for (200 mL) solution. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of silicon in some water and alloy samples. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of anti-cancer drug emodin using a silica-gel-modified carbon paste electrode</b>]]> In this paper, a silica-gel-modified carbon paste electrode (Si-gel/CPE) was used to determine the anti-cancer drug emodin by anodic stripping differential pulse voltammetry (ASDPV). The effects of the silica-gel content, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, and the scan rate on the oxidation current of emodin were investigated. The oxidation currents of emodin obtained from ASDPV measurements were linearly correlated with the concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10-9 to 300.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The limit of detection was determined to be 1.5 × 10-9 mol L-1. The current method was successfully applied to determine emodin in a knotweed root sample, with recovery rate of 92.5% to 98.3%. <![CDATA[<b>Interaction of ruthenium complex with bovine serum albumin for amperometric detection of ascorbic acid</b>]]> The binding of [Ru(PAN)(PPh3)2(ISN)]Cl (PAN = 1-(2'-Pyridylazo)-2-naphtholate) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. According to analysis of the results from the Stern-Volmer equation, the ruthenium complex is able to quench the fluorescence intensity of BSA via a dynamic mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated (ΔH = 30.3 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 195.4 J mol-1 K-1), indicating that hydrophobic force is the main interaction driving force. The site marker competitive experiments revealed that the binding site of ruthenium complex was in the sub-domain IIA of BSA. FTO glass with a film of BSA-[Ru(PAN)(PPh3)2(ISN)]Cl was used as an ascorbic acid sensor. The linear range of the modified electrode was between 1 and 8 × 10-6 mol L-1. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of variation of reactional parameters in the preparation of graphene by oxidation and reduction of graphite</b>]]> This work shows the influence of several reactional parameters for obtaining graphene through successive steps of oxidation and exfoliation of bulk graphite (resulting in graphene oxide), followed by chemical reduction. The results showed that changes in temperature, reaction time, reducing agent and source of primary graphite lead to different surface compositions and stability in dispersion of graphene oxide. Also, the use of different reducing agents promoted different degrees of restoration of C=C bonds in the bidimensional structure of graphene. <![CDATA[<b>Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp</b>]]> It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage. <![CDATA[<b>Physico-chemical properties of <i>meso</i>-tetrakis(<i>p</i>-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMPP) incorporated into pluronic<sup>TM</sup> p-123 and f-127 polymeric micelles</b>]]> The physicochemical properties (solubilization, structural organization and stability) of meso-tetrakis(p-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (TMPP), a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy, solubilized in polymeric micelles of tri-block copolymers PluronicTM P-123 and F-127, were studied. The formulations obtained by the solid dispersion method led to monomerization of TMPP in these copolymers. Solubility studies showed that P-123 solubilizes double the photosensitizer than F-127. The self-aggregation phenomenon was affected by the [TMPP]/[poloxamer] ratio and medium temperature. The decrease in the temperature of these systems promoted the formation of different kinds of TMPP aggregates intrinsically connected with the structural changes occurring in the micelles. <![CDATA[<b>Study of nickel catalysts prepared from rice husk ash for the reaction of methane reforming with carbon dioxide</b>]]> Rice husk ash (RHA) is used as a silica source for several purposes, among them to obtain metal catalysts, as was done in this work. The catalysts were characterized by chemisorption, physisorption, thermal analyses (TG, DSC), X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, temperature-programmed reduction and scanning electron microscopy. The catalysts synthesized with different Ni loadings supported on RHA were applied to the reaction of dry reforming of methane. The reaction was tested at three temperatures of catalytic reduction (500, 600 and 700 ºC). All synthesized catalysts were active for the studied reaction, with different H2/CO ratios achieved according to degree of metallic dispersion. <![CDATA[<b>Noctuidae-induced plant volatiles</b>: <b>current situation and prospects</b>]]> Noctuids are phytophagous lepidopterans with some species causing significant damage to agriculture. The host plants, in turn, have developed defense mechanisms to cope with them, for instance chemical defenses. In this study we review the literature on plant volatiles induced by noctuids, and discuss the methodologies used to induce the production of volatiles that are usually employed in plant defense mechanisms. Future prospects involving this line of research in pest control are also discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Chiral gas chromatography in the resolution of enantiomers involved in fruit flavours</b>]]> This work addresses the use of chiral gas chromatography in resolving optically active stereoisomers and racemates found in fruit flavours. It presents the types of chiral selectors applied to terpene-derived metal coordination compounds, polysiloxane-linked α-amino acid and mixed chiral stationary phases, and focuses on derivatized cyclodextrins, the most popular chiral stationary phases presently used in chromatographic analysis. Knowledge about the techniques involved in chiral recognition and enantiomer identification in the fruit flavour field is given along with examples from the latest studies. <![CDATA[<b>State of the art two-dimensional liquid chromatography</b>: <b>fundamental concepts, instrumentation, and applications</b>]]> The constant evolution of science and the growing demand for new technologies have led to new techniques in instrumentation that can improve detection, separation, resolution, and peak capacity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC) is presented as a powerful tool in complex sample analyses. During an analysis, a sample is subjected to two independent separation mechanisms that are combined, resulting in increased resolving power. For appropriate application of LC×LC, understanding the influence of parameters that require optimization is necessary. The main purpose of optimization is to predict the combination of stationary phases, separation conditions, and instrumental requirements to obtain the best separation performance. This review discusses theoretical, intrumental, and chemometric aspects of LC×LC and focuses on its applications in foods. It aims to provide a clear understanding of the aspects that can be used as strategies in the optimization of this analytical method. <![CDATA[<b>Separation and quantitative determination of linear and cyclic/branched alkanes in brazilian petroleum using urea adduction and gas cromatography</b>: <b>a case study revisited</b>]]> A complete analysis of oils and their fractions allows correlations to be defined between their composition and derivatives or related geological materials. This work focused on optimization and implementation of a method for separation and quantification of n-alkanes in Brazilian oil samples by urea adduction and GC-FID techniques. Ten samples with different ºAPI were analyzed in triplicate to quantify individual n-alkanes and cyclic/branched alkane fraction. For individual quantification of n-alkanes, internal standardization with deuterated n-tetracosane was used. The use of urea adduction for the separation and quantification of n-alkanes was highly effective, with recovery values of above 80%. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization of chromatographic conditions and comparison of extraction efficiencies of four different methods for determination and quantification of pesticide content in bovine milk by UFLC-MS/MS</b>]]> This paper describes the optimization of a multiresidue chromatographic analysis for the identification and quantification of 20 pesticides in bovine milk, including three carbamates, a carbamate oxime, six organophosphates, two strobilurins, a pyrethroid, an oxazolidinedione, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate acid/ester, a neonicotinoid, a dicarboximide, and three triazoles. The influences of different chromatographic columns and gradients were evaluated. Furthermore, four different extraction methods were evaluated; each utilized both different solvents, including ethyl acetate, methanol, and acetonitrile, and different workup steps. The best results were obtained by a modified QuEChERS method that lacked a workup step, and that included freezing the sample for 2 hours at -20 ºC. The results were satisfactory, yielding coefficients of variation of less than 20%, with the exception of the 50 µg L-1 sample of famoxadone, and recoveries between 70 and 120%, with the exception of acephate and bifenthrin; however, both analytes exhibited coefficients of variation of less than 20%. <![CDATA[<b>Selective detection of fluoride based on a pyridinium <i>n</i>-phenolate-calix[4]pyrrole displacement assay</b>: <b>an undergraduate laboratory experiment</b>]]> A two-step experiment is proposed for a third year class in experimental organic chemistry. Over a period of five weeks, the students synthesized calix[4]pyrrole, a receptor that is highly selective for fluoride, and a pyridinium N-phenolate dye. Subsequently, the students used the synthesized compounds to investigate a displacement assay on the basis of the competition in acetonitrile between fluoride and the dye for calix[4]pyrrole. The experiment increased the students' skills in organic synthesis and in the characterization of organic compounds, provided a very attractive and accessible illustration of important supramolecular phenomena, and allowed the study of a chromogenic chemosensor. <![CDATA[<b>Catalyzed and non-catalyzed synthesis of bioactive monastrol</b>]]> The bioactive 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-thione derivative known as Monastrol was synthesized under catalyzed and non-catalyzed conditions through the Biginelli multicomponent reaction under solvent-free conditions. The use of two Lewis acids (FeCl3 and CuCl2) and two Brønsted acids (HCl and CF3COOH) as catalysts improved the reaction yields of the transformation compared with the non-catalyzed reaction. The experiments investigated catalysis and its role, the importance of multicomponent reactions and their green features, and the application of these concepts to the synthesis of a biologically important structure. <![CDATA[<b>An undergraduate level experiment on the synthesis of Au nanoparticles and their size-dependent optical and catalytic properties</b>]]> The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) 15, 26, and 34 nm in diameter, followed by the investigation of their size-dependent optical and catalytic properties, is described herein as an undergraduate level experiment. The proposed experiment covers concepts on the synthesis, stabilization, and characterization of Au NPs, their size-dependent optical and catalytic properties at the nanoscale, chemical kinetics, and the role of a catalyst. The experiment should be performed by groups of two or three students in three lab sessions of 3 h each and organized as follows: i) synthesis of Au NPs of different sizes and investigation of their optical properties; ii) evaluation of their catalytic activity; and iii) data analysis and discussion. We believe that this activity enables students to integrate these multidisciplinary concepts in a single experiment as well as to become introduced/familiarized with an active research field and current literature in the areas of nanoparticle synthesis and catalysis. <![CDATA[<b>Chemistry in poetry and poetry in chemistry</b>]]> Goethe's novel 'Elective Affinities', published in 1809, uses Bergmann's concept of 'Elective Attractions', from 1775, as a metaphor for social relations. Its analysis demonstrates the possibility of describing chemical theories, characterised by an anthropomorphic language, using poetic means. Due to the inherently poetic nature of chemical language, Nobel Laureate Roald Hoffmann (2002) suggests relaxing strictures against expressing emotions and personal motives in scientific publications, thus enabling the use ofing poetry to understand and communicate science. Based on the analysis of Goethe's novel and Hoffmann's essay, this article discusses the possibility of using poetic means to help understand chemistry and communicate its research results. <![CDATA[<b>Comentários sobre o trabalho 'estimativa da incerteza de medição</b>: <b>estudo de caso no ensaio de migração de </b><b>ε</b><b>-caprolactama com determinação por CG-DIC'</b>]]> Goethe's novel 'Elective Affinities', published in 1809, uses Bergmann's concept of 'Elective Attractions', from 1775, as a metaphor for social relations. Its analysis demonstrates the possibility of describing chemical theories, characterised by an anthropomorphic language, using poetic means. Due to the inherently poetic nature of chemical language, Nobel Laureate Roald Hoffmann (2002) suggests relaxing strictures against expressing emotions and personal motives in scientific publications, thus enabling the use ofing poetry to understand and communicate science. Based on the analysis of Goethe's novel and Hoffmann's essay, this article discusses the possibility of using poetic means to help understand chemistry and communicate its research results.