Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 38 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[EFFECT OF SURFACE TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PIASSAVA FIBER <em>Attalea funifera Martius</em>]]> The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the properties of waste piassava fiber with the goal of aggregating additional business value. The fiber surface was subjected to four different treatments. In the present work, it was found that washing the fibers with water partially removed impurities from the surface rendering it rougher. Alkaline treatment removed impurities from the surface, hemicellulose and lignin, improving the flexibility of the fibers. Increasing the concentration of washing agents, times and temperature of treatment promoted intense defibrillation on the fiber surface, reducing its strength. <![CDATA[SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDTMA-ORGANOCLAYS: INSIGHTS INTO THEIR STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES]]> This study aims to synthesize and characterize organoclays developed from an Argentinian montmorillonite (Bent) using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) as the intercalation agent. Subsequently, an adsorption mechanism is proposed. The obtained organoclays were more hydrophobic than the starting clay. Surfactant molecules were adsorbed initially through cation exchange in sites placed in the interlayer space of the clay. Adsorption in such sites continued until the interlayer space was saturated. Depending on the surfactant loading introduced during the intercalation process, different organizations of surfactant in the interlayer were obtained. Further adsorption of surfactant occurred in the mesopores generated by tactoids in the "house of cards" organization. This process kept surfactant molecules relatively free and out of the interlayer space. <![CDATA[FLAVONOIDS FROM <em>Piper glandulosissimum</em> Yuncker (Piperaceae)]]> Three flavanones, two chalcones and one dihydrochalcone were isolated from the branches of Piper glandulosissimum. All isolated compounds were characterized based on IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR, including 2D NMR analyses (HMQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) and comparison with the literature. The compound 7-hydroxy-5,8-dimethoxyflavanone displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. <![CDATA[MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FLUID AND POWDERED MILK BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR]]> Samples of whole fluid pasteurized, UHT and powdered milk were analyzed for the presence of organophosphorus pesticide residues (OPR) using the QuEChERS method with detection by GC-FPD and confirmation by UPLC-MS/MS. A total of 23% of fluid milk samples and 27% of powdered milk samples contained at least one organophosphorus residue. The OPR found in the samples showed these can reach the milk and remain even after pasteurization, sterilization and drying processes. Some domestic sanitary residues were also present in the powdered milk samples. These residues have no LMR in Brazilian food legislation and are therefore not taken into account in food intake evaluations. There was an unidentified chromatographic peak in 30% of all the liquid and powdered milk samples, indicating the presence of some other contaminant. <![CDATA[CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> IN THE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL IN CONVENTIONAL AND MICROWAVE HEATING]]> Commercial and synthetic mesoporous aluminas impregnated with potassium carbonate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, infrared spectroscopy and 27Al MAS NMR. The activities in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production were evaluated. 27Al MAS NMR spectra evidenced the presence of AlIV and AlVI in the samples, and also of AlV sites in the mesoporous synthesized alumina, which disappeared after impregnation with potassium salt followed by calcination. All aluminas containing potassium were active for biodiesel production from sunflower seed oil, with high conversions by both conventional heating and microwave irradiation. <![CDATA[ACIDITY OF MODIFIED MORDENITES SYNTHESIZED FROM RICE HUSK SILICA AND CATALYTIC TRANSFORMATION OF METHYLBUTYNOL]]> Mordenite (MOR) was synthesized using rice husk silica and modified by base (B), acid (A) or acid-base (AB) and converted to H-form. The modification did not destroy the MOR structure but increased surface area and generated mesopores. Lewis acidity of the parent and modified MOR samples investigated by aluminum NMR and NH3-TPD showed a decrease in the following order: HMOR &gt; BMOR &gt; ABMOR &gt; AMOR. For the catalytic transformation of methylbutynol, ABMOR provided the highest conversion and selectivity of products from acid sites. <![CDATA[SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MACROPOROUS ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOSITES FOR H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> SENSING]]> Electrodes modified with poly(5-amino-1-naphthol)/Prussian blue (poly(5-NH2-1-NAP)/PB) hybrid films are able to electrochemically reduce H2O2 in medium containing an excess of Na+ cations. This is an important advantage for biosensing applications over electrodes in which only conventionally (electro) deposited Prussian blue is present. Consequently, the aim of this work was to examine the application of templates of ordered arrays of colloidal poly(styrene) spheres (800, 450 and 100 nm in diameter) to produce inverse opal structures of poly(5-NH2-1-NAP)/PB hybrid platforms, in an effort to study the influence of the increase in surface area/volume ratio and higher exposition of the mediator active sites on material performance during H2O2 determination employing the different sized porous structures. Moreover, since the accentuated hydrophilic character of poly(5-NH2-1-NAP)/PB also allows H2O2 electrochemical reduction in inner active sites, issues concerning the amount of mediator electrodeposited on the electrode were also reflected in the observed results. <![CDATA[PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANES USING CELLULOSE EXTRACTED FROM AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES FOR APPLICATION IN SEPARATION PROCESSES]]> The aim of this study was to produce membranes using the adapted cuprammonium method. The cellulose utilized was obtained from recycled agroindustrial residues: sugarcane bagasse, corn stover and soybean hulls. The levels of Cu (II) ions in regenerated cellulose membranes produced with cellulose from bagasse, corn stover and soybean hulls were 0.0236 wt%, 0.0255 wt% and 0.0268 wt%, respectively. These levels were approximately 15 times lower than those observed in previous studies (0.3634 wt%). Cellular viability data show that membranes produced from bagasse cellulose do not present toxicity to the cellular cultures studied. These results demonstrate an evolution in production of regenerated cellulose membranes from agroindustrial residues mainly due to a decrease in the Cu (II) ions level, showing the possibility of application of these systems with improved membranes processing. <![CDATA[DETERMINATION OF Cd AND Pb IN XANTHAN GUM SAMPLES BY GF AAS]]> This paper describes the evaluation of a method for determination of Cd and Pb in xanthan gum samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS) using NH4H2PO4 as the chemical modifier. The sample preparation was performed using a reflux system adapted in the digestion tubes. With this system it was possible to increase the temperature of the digester block above the boiling point of the reaction medium, preventing loss of analyte and excessive evaporation of acids during heating. Samples were digested with HNO3 for 3 h in a digester block at 220 ºC. The limits of detection for Cd and Pb were 2.2 and 33.8 ng g-1, respectively. The RSDs for both analytes were, on average, lower than 5.0% and accuracy was verified by recovery tests, yielding values in the 83-100% range. <![CDATA[EXTRACTION OF POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE), PRODUCED BY <em>Cupriavidus necator</em>, WITH PROPYLENE CARBONATE]]> The environmental impact of plastic waste has attracted worldwide attention. Amid the current context of increasing concern for the environment, biodegradable plastics have been widely studied as a replacement for synthetic plastics. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) is a biopolymer stored as an intracellular energy and reserve source in many microorganisms. Because it is an intracellular product, P(3HB) must be extracted from the cells at the end of the culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction time, heating temperature, first standing time (after filtration and extraction), second standing time (after P(3HB) precipitation) and solvent amount, during the process of extracting P(3HB) from Cupriavidus necator DSM 545, using propylene carbonate as solvent. The extraction kinetic of P(3HB) with propylene carbonate from thermally treated biomass was evaluated at different temperatures. The physical properties of the P(3HB) obtained were also evaluated. In this case, P(3HB) obtained at optimal conditions of recovery (98%) and purity (99%) was used. Results showed that temperature was the most important factor in these responses for the range of values studied (110-150 ºC). <![CDATA[INFLUENCE OF XYLAN CONTENT ON THE BLEACHABILITY, HYGROSCOPIC, PHYSICOMECHANICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BLEACHED EUCALYPTUS PULP]]> Bleached eucalypt kraft pulps are widely used in print and writing (P&amp;W) and tissue paper manufacture. Among the quality requirements of pulp for these papers, xylan content has been controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of xylan content on bleachability, hygroscopic, physic-mechanical and optical properties of the pulp. In this study industrial unbleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (15.6% xylans) treated with different NaOH loads to change its xylan content was used. Subsequently, pulps were bleached by the ODHT(EP)D sequence to achieve 90% ISO of brightness, then refined and submitted to hygroscopic, physicomechanical and optical tests. NaOH treatments decreased the xylan content to 14.5-5.9% using NaOH loads of 10-70 g L-1. Pulp bleachability was not significantly affected by xylan content decrease. The decrease in xylan content negatively affected the water retention value and Klemm capillarity of the pulp, while water absorption capacity was positively affected. Tensile and tear index were negatively influenced by the reduction in xylan content, whereas bulk and light scattering coefficient increased. <![CDATA[INVESTIGATION OF THE FLUORESCENCE QUENCHING OF BOVINE AND HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN BY RUTHENIUM COMPLEX]]> The binding of [RuCl2(L)] (L = N,N-bis(7-methyl-2-pyridylmethylene)-1,3-diiminopropane) to bovine and human serum albumin was investigated by the fluorescence quenching technique. The comparison of the quenching effect of serum albumin fluorescence by ruthenium complex allowed the estimation of subdomain IB in BSA and subdomain IIA in HSA as the binding sites for this complex. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that ruthenium complex quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a dynamic quenching mechanism, while HSA has a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic forces played a major role in the binding of ruthenium complex to proteins. The process of binding was a spontaneous process in which Gibbs free energy change was negative. <![CDATA[ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS AND MECHANISM OF 2-(1,3-DITHIAN-2-YLIDENE)-ACETONITRILE]]> We report an alternative method for the synthesis of 2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-acetonitrile using 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile and carbon disulfide as starting materials. The methanolysis of the intermediate 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-3-oxopropanenitrile occurs via three possible intermediates, leading to the formation of the product at a 75% overall yield. Molecular modeling simulation of the reaction pathway using B3LYP 6-311G++(2df,2p) justified the proposed reaction mechanism. <![CDATA[<em>Salacia crassifolia</em> (Celastraceae): CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY]]> The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3β-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3β-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-olean-9(11):12-diene and the mixture of α-amirin and β-amirin. β-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans. <![CDATA[DISTRIBUTION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, SYNTHESIS, AND PURIFICATION METHODS FOR PODOPHYLLOTOXIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES]]> Podophyllotoxin is the most studied lignan because of its use as an antimitotic agent and because it is a precursor of pharmacologically active derivatives. This review describes the anticancer activities of podophyllotoxin and the different processes that have been developed for its extraction and purification from Podophyllum spp. In addition, the synthesis routes of this compound and the development of three semi-synthetic procedures to obtain etoposide, teniposide, and Etopophos are detailed. <![CDATA[MICROBIAL AND ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS: A REVIEW]]> Polymer recycling has been one of the most important trend in the petrochemical area. Among different technologies, biotechnological (enzymatic and/or microbial) degradation of polymers for the recovery of monomers and oligomers is environmentally-friendly and meet some green chemistry principles. In this work, conditions for the biotechnological degradation of some industrially-relevant polymers (e.g. poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyethylene) were revised, and the main biocatalysts were identified. In most cases, biodegradation mechanisms are still unclear, thus being necessary more studies to unravel these promising bioprocesses. Polymer biodegradation studies also present considerable importance for other fields, including biomedical and agricultural. <![CDATA[MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE RESDUES IN SAMPLES OF BANANA, PAPAYA, AND BELL PEPPER]]> The objective of this study was to monitor 11 organophosphorus pesticides in samples of papaya, bell pepper, and banana, commercialized in the metropolitan area of Vitória (ES, Brazil). The pesticides were determined by an optimized and validated method using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All three samples exhibited a matrix effect for most of the pesticides, mainly with signal suppression, and therefore the calibration curves were produced in matrices. Linearity revealed coefficients of determination (r2) greater than 0.9895 for all pesticides and recovery results ranged from between 76% and 118% with standard deviation no greater than 16%. Precision showed relative standard deviation values lower than 19% and HorRat values lower than 0.7, considering all pesticides. Limits of quantification were less than 0.01 mg/kg for all pesticides. Regarding analysis of the samples (50 of each), none of the pesticides exceeded the maximum residue limit determined by Brazilian legislation. <![CDATA[NEW SORBENT WITH LOWER HYDROPHOBICITY FOR SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION]]> C18 chemically bonded sorbents have been the main materials used in solid phase extraction (SPE). However, due their high hydrophobicity some hydrophobic solutes are strongly retained leading to the consumption of larger quantities of organic solvent for efficient recoveries. This work presents a sorbent with lower hydrophobicity but similar selectivity to the C18 sorbent, prepared by thermal immobilization of poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-alkylmethylsiloxane) (PDAS) on silica. PDAS has organic chains with methyl groups alternating with octadecyl or hexadecyl groups in its monomeric unities. For the Si(PDAS) sorbent presented, the polymeric layer was physically adsorbed on the silica surface with 12% carbon load. Although the coating of silica with the polymeric layer was incomplete, the PDAS provided better protection for the silica surface groups, promoting mostly hydrophobic interactions between analytes and the sorbent. Sorption isotherm studies revealed that the retention of hydrophobic solutes on Si(PDAS) was less intense than on conventional sorbents, confirming the lower hydrophobicity of the lab-made sorbent. Additional advantages of Si(PDAS) include simplicity and low cost of preparation, making this material a potential sorbent for the analysis of highly hydrophobic solutes. <![CDATA[COLORIMETRIC KIT FOR DETECTION OF METHANOL IN ETHANOL FUEL FOR MONITORING THE QUALITY OF FUELS]]> A colorimetric kit for methanol detection in ethanol-containing fuels and ease of use in the field was developed and tested. The analysis can detect the presence of methanol in fuels when exceeding specification (0.5% v/v) in about 20 min and its simple instrumentation does not require a specialist. The kit method was successfully validated at gas stations located in São Paulo State and the Federal District. <![CDATA[ENZYMATIC RESOLUTION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUG PRECURSORS IN AN UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY]]> The use of biocatalysts in synthetic chemistry is a conventional methodology for preparing enantiomerically enriched compounds. Despite this fact, the number of experiments in chemical teaching laboratories that demonstrate the potential of enzymes in synthetic organic chemistry is limited. We describe a laboratory experiment in which students synthesized a chiral secondary alcohol that can be used in the preparation of antidepressant drugs. This experiment was conducted by individual students as part of a Drug Synthesis course held at the Pharmacy Faculty, Lisbon University. This laboratory experiment requires six laboratory periods, each lasting four hours. During the first four laboratory periods, students synthesized and characterized a racemic ester using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography. During the last two laboratory periods, they performed enzymatic hydrolysis resolution of the racemic ester using Candida antarctica lipase B to yield enantiomerically enriched secondary alcohol. Students successfully prepared the racemic ester with a 70%-81% overall yield in three steps. The enzymatic hydrolysis afforded (R)- secondary alcohol with good enantioselectivity (90%-95%) and reasonable yields (10%-19%). In these experiments, students were exposed to theoretical and practical concepts of aromatic acylation, ketone reduction, esterification, and enzymatic hydrolysis. <![CDATA[STRATEGY BASED ON DOUBLE CLINICAL SUPERVISION CYCLE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHING QUALITY IN UNIVERSITIES]]> This work describes a mentorship experience. Mentorship of novice teachers by experienced teachers is an important aspect in training teachers for universities. The strategy followed in this work consisted of a double improvement cycle (or clinical supervision cycle), based on the use of recordings of classes. Each of these cycles included planning, recording, viewing and analysis. Conclusions were reached in a final meeting after video analysis. In order to systematize the viewing, analysis and assessment of the videos, an observation test was employed. Class planning, contents, methodology, and verbal and nonverbal communication skills were evaluated using the test. <![CDATA[CORROSÃO DO AÇO-CARBONO: UMA ABORDAGEM DO COTIDIANO NO ENSINO DE QUÍMICA]]> In this paper, two simple ways of evaluating carbon steel sheet corrosion in a hydrochloric acid solution were presented as an experimental proposal for corrosion teaching. The first method is based on direct measurements of mass before and after corrosion tests. The second approach follows the principle of visual colorimetry by which soluble corrosion products are transformed into red complexes allowing monitoring of the products’ concentration according to increases in solution color intensity. Both methods proved able to determine the corrosion rate.