Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 39 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[NOVO MODELO DE FINANCIAMENTO PARA AS PUBLICAÇÕES DA SBQ]]> <![CDATA[OBTAINMENT OF HYBRID COMPOSITES BASED ON HYDROGEL AND PORTLAND CEMENT]]> In this study, a novel hybrid composite based on biodegradable hydrogel and Portland cement with promising technological properties was reported. In the first step, a full 23 with central point factorial design was utilized to obtain the enhanced polyacrylamide-carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel compositions. A mathematical model was devised, indicating that the 3 main variables were significant and the AAm and MBAAm variables positively contributed to the mode and showing that the CMC variable had the opposite contribution. In the second step, these compositions were mixed with Portland cement to obtain the hybrid composites. The presence of cement improved the mechanical properties of polymeric matrices, and electronic microscopic micrographics revealed that the hydrogels were well adhered to the cement phase and no phase separation between hydrogel and cement was detected. Finally, using the energy dispersive X-ray technique, the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca and Fe were detected in the polymeric matrix, consistent with the hybrid composite formation. <![CDATA[STYRYLLACTONES FROM <em>Cryptocarya aschersoniana</em> MEZ. (LAURACEAE JUSS.) WITH ACTIVITY AGAINST <em>Meloidogyne</em> SPP. AND <em>IN SILICO</em> INTERACTION WITH A PUTATIVE FUMARASE FROM<em>Meloidogyne hapla.</em>]]> In a previous study, substances with nematicidal properties were detected in the bark of Cryptocarya aschersoniana. Continuing such study, the methanol extract from this plant underwent fractionation guided by in vitro assays with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne exigua. Two active compounds were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods as (E)-6-styrylpyran-2-one and (R)-goniothalamin. The latter compound was also active againstMeloidogyne incognita. In silico studies carried out with (R)-goniothalamin and the enzyme fumarate hydratase, which was extracted from the genome of Meloidogyne hapla and modeled using computational methods, suggested that this substance acts against nematodes by binding to a cavity close to the active site of the enzyme. <![CDATA[MCR-ALS APPLIED TO THE QUANTITATIVE MONITORING OF THE ELECTRODEGRADATION PROCESS OF ATRAZINE USING UV SPECTRA: COMPARATIVE RESULTS WITH HPLC-DAD AS A REFERENCE METHOD]]> Electrodegradation of atrazine in water was performed using homemade (PA and PB) and purchased (PC) boron-doped diamond anodes. The degradation was monitored off-line by analyzing total organic carbon and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and at-line by UV spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded every 2 min. The rank deficiency problem was resolved by assembling an augmented column-wise matrix. HPLC was employed to separate the original and byproducts degradation components. Aiming the same goal, multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to resolve the UV spectroscopic data. Comparison between HPLC and MCR-ALS separations is presented. By using MCR-ALS the spectra of atrazine and two byproducts were successfully resolved and the resulted concentration profiles properly represented the system studied. The ALS explained variance (R2) for PA, PB and PC was equal to 99.99% for all of them and the lack of fit for PA, PB and PC were 0.39, 0.34 and 0.54 respectively. The correlation (R) between the recovered and pure spectra were calculate for each electrodegradation, validating the MCR-ALS results. The average R was equal to 0.997. The spectral and concentration profiles described with this new approach are in agreement with HPLC-DAD results. The proposed method is an alternative to classical analyses for monitoring of the degradation process, mainly due to the simplicity, fast results and economy. <![CDATA[FTO MODIFIED ELECTRODES BY DIRECT GOLD ELECTRODEPOSITION: PRODUCTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR APLICATION]]> Chemically modified electrodes have been studied to obtain new and better electrochemical sensors. Transparent conductive oxides, such as fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO), shows electrical conductivity comparable to metals and are potential candidates for new sensors. In this work, FTO was modified by gold electrodeposition from chlorine-auric acid solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. A set of different materials were produced, varying the scan number. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed for the characterization of electrodes surfaces. From this analysis was possible to observe the resistive, capacitive and difusional aspects from all kind of modified electrodes produced, establishing a relationship between this parameters and the scan number. The electrode with 100 scans of CV presented better characteristics for an electrochemical sensor; it has the lowest global impedance and rising of capacitive behavior (related to electrical double layer formation) at lower frequencies. This electrode was tested for paracetamol and caffeine detection. The results showed a high specificity, decreased oxidation potential (0.58 V and 0.97 Vvs. SCE, for paracetamol and caffeine, respectively) and low detection limits (0.82 and 0.052 µmol L-1). <![CDATA[NOVEL ALKALOID FROM <em>Rauvolfia capixabae</em>(APOCYNACEAE)]]> A new sarpagine-type alkaloid, Na-methylrauflorine (1), was isolated from Rauvolfia capixabaetogether with isoreserpiline (2),Nb-oxide-isoreserpiline (3), ajmalicine (4), perakine (5) and vinorine (6) alkaloids. These compounds were characterized based on their spectral data basis, mainly one- (1H, 13C, APT) and two-dimensional(1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and mass spectra, also involving comparison with data from the literature. <![CDATA[APPLICATION OF PARAFAC AND OPLS-DA ANALYSES ON HPLC FINGERPRINTS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em>CALYXES]]> The calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa are used in traditional medicine around the world. However, quality assurance protocols and chemical variability have not been previously analyzed. In the present study, chemical characterization of a set of samples of H. sabdariffa calyxes commercialized in Colombia was accomplished with the aim to explore the chemical variability among them. Chemometrics-based analyses on the data obtained from the HPLC-UV-DAD-derived profiles were then performed. Thus, the pre-processed single-wavelength data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA-derived results evidenced different groups which were well-correlated to the corresponding total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents. Multi-wavelength chromatographic (HPLC-UV-DAD surfaces) data were additionally examined via parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) as data reduction method and the obtained loadings were subsequently submitted to PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Results were thus consistent with those from single-wavelength data. PCA loadings were employed to determine those chemical components responsible for the data variance and OPLS-DA model, constructed from PARAFAC loadings, and indicated differentiation according total anthocyanin contents among samples. The present chemometric analysis therefore demonstrated to be an excellent tool for differentiation of H. sabdariffacalyxes according to their chemical composition. <![CDATA[A NOVEL METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TRACE THORIUM BY DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION BASED ON SOLIDIFICATION OF FLOATING ORGANIC DROP]]> In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was used for the preconcentration and determination of thorium in the water samples. In this method, acetone and 1-undecanol were used as disperser and extraction solvents, respectively, and the ligand 1-(2-thenoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoracetone reagent (TTA) and Aliquat 336 was used as a chelating agent and an ion-paring reagent, for the extraction of thorium, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was applied for the quantitation of the analyte after preconcentration. The effect of various factors, such as the extraction and disperser solvent, sample pH, concentration of TTA and concentration of aliquat336 were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear within the thorium content range of 1.0-250 µg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.2 µg L-1. The method was also successfully applied for the determination of thorium in the different water samples. <![CDATA[TREATMENT OF VINASSE BY ADSORPTION ON CARBON FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE]]> The aim of this study was to develop an effective and economically viable technology for the treatment of vinasse, prior to its disposal in the soil for fertirrigation, aiming this way at reducing the environmental impacts generated by inadequately discarding this effluent. The primary treatment of vinasse by adsorption was evaluated. Adsorbents were prepared from sugar cane bagasse and their efficiency evaluated in relation to the treatment of vinasse. The process of preparation of activated carbon consisted of carbonizing bagasse at different temperatures followed by chemical activation with NaOH. The carbon samples obtained by solely carbonizing sugar cane bagasse were more efficient for removing turbidity of vinasse than samples activated with NaOH. The sample carbonized at 800 °C was the most efficient for removing turbidity of wastewater (83%). During a process of adsorption of vinasse in two stages, it was possible to obtain color removal, turbidity and COD of approximately 76, 85 and 69%, respectively. After the adsorption step of vinasse, the solid waste generated in the second stage of adsorption can be burned in the boilers of the power plant itself, affording an energy of 4606 cal g-1. <![CDATA[ASSESSMENT OF BIOACCUMULATION OF METALS IN <em>Cyprinus carpio</em> BY INTERACTION WITH SEDIMENT AND WATER IN A RESERVOIR]]> Bioaccumulation of Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the gills and liver of Cyprinus carpio and related to concentrations in the sediment and water of the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa/Paraná. Cd and Fe exceeded the legal limit for water. Fe was the most abundant metal in the reservoir's water and sediment. The metals in the sediment were below the level of probable adverse effects on biota. There were no significant differences between sampling sites for water and sediment. Liver and gills had higher concentrations of Al, Fe and Zn, with a significant increase in Al (P &gt; 0.05) compared to the increase in weight and size of the specimens. Statistically, gills showed higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn and Zn and liver higher concentrations of Cu and Fe. Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn showed significant differences (P &lt; 0.01) between the organs. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) showed that the interaction of water with gills promotes greater accumulation of metals in this organ. Despite the low concentrations in the reservoir, bioaccumulation of metals in gills and liver of C. carpio occurs by its interaction with contaminated water and sediment, respectively. <![CDATA[CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ROOT BARKS AND FLOWERS OF<em>Poincianella pyramidalis</em> (FABACEAE)]]> Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of root barks of P. pyramidallis (Tul.) L. P. Queiroz resulted in the isolation of 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid and 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'-O-β-D-xyloside. Lupeol, β-sitosterol/stigmasterol and the mixture of fatty acid methyl ester derivatives were also obtained. Chromatographic procedures of the MeOH extract of the flowers of this species led to obtain an unusual mixture of fatty alcohols, β-sitosterol/stigmasterol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and methyl gallate. The structures of the isolates were established by spectral data analysis. This is the first occurrence of 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid, 3,3'-dimethylellagic acid-4'- O-β-D-xyloside and free fatty alcohols in the Fabaceae family. <![CDATA[AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL]]> The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), bacuri (Platonia insignis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa), cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), guarana (Paullinia cupana), mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum), murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru), patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua), pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba), rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), and ucuuba (Virola sebifera). Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited. <![CDATA[HYDROPHILIC INTERACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY (HILIC): STATE OF THE ART AND APPLICATIONS]]> Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has been gaining increased attention for its effective separation of highly polar compounds, which include carbohydrates, amino acids, pharmaceutical compounds, proteins, glycoproteins, nucleosides, etc. Polar compounds are usually poorly retained on reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) columns or have poor solubility in the apolar mobile phase of normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC). Since HILIC uses organic solvents such as ACN or MeOH ( &gt; 70%), also used in RP-HPLC and polar stationary phases similar to NP-HPLC (bare silica, diol, amino, amide, saccharide, zwitterionic stationary phases, etc.), it represents a hybrid of the two separation modes. The high organic content in the MP leads to good compatibility with mass spectrometry (MS), increasing the detectivity. This review describes the fundamentals of HILIC and highlights some interesting applications. <![CDATA[USE OF EXPERIMENTAL PLANNING FOR OPTIMIZATION OF A PROCEDURE FOR SIMULTANEOUS VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF METALS Zn, Cd, Pb AND Cu FREE IN COCONUT WATER]]> Optimization of the main parameters of SWASV using boron-doped diamond electrode was described for the simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu free in coconut water. The values of electroanalytical parameters studied were optimized with the factorial design and center composite design. The optimized parameters for the preconcentration of metals were -1.50 V for potential, and 240 s for deposition time. For SWV, the optimized value was 11.56 mV for step potential. In addition, frequency and pulse height were defined at 100 Hz and 55 mV, respectively. Furthermore, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte (acetate buffer, pH 4.7) was optimized in 0.206 mol L-1. The optimized procedure was applied in two samples of coconut water: natural and processed. The limits of detection (LOD) obtained for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu were 7.2; 4.4; 3.3 and 1.5 µg L-1, respectively. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were not detected. On the other hand, the values found for the concentrations of Zn and Cu were: &lt; LOD (29 µg L-1) and (6.8 ± 0.9) µg L-1 for the natural sample; and (85.8 ± 4.2) µg L-1 and (7.7 ± 0.6) µg L-1 for the processed sample, respectively. <![CDATA[2-(4-IODINE-2,5-DIMETHOXYPHENYL)-N-[(2-METHOXYPHENYL)METHYL]ETAMINE OR 25I-NBOMe: CHEMICAL CHRACTERIZATION OF A DESIGNER DRUG]]> Drug trafficking and the introduction of new drugs onto the illicit market are one of the main challenges of the forensic community. In this study, the chemical profile of a new designer drug, 2-(4-iodine-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-n-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]etamine or 25I-NBOMe was explored using thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), attenuated total reflection with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS). First, the TLC technique was effective for identifying spots related to 25C-, 25B- and 25I-NBOMe compounds, all with the same retention factor, Rf ≈ 0.50. No spot was detected for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine or lysergic acid diethylamide compounds. ATR-FTIR preserved the physical-chemical properties of the material, whereas GC-MS and ESI-MS showed better analytical selectivity. ESI(+)FT-ICR MS was used to identify the exact mass (m/z428.1706 for the [M + H]+ ion), molecular formula (M = C18H22INO3), degree of unsaturation (DBE = 8) and the chemical structure (from collision induced dissociation, CID, experiments) of the 25I-NBOMe compound. Furthermore, the ATR-FTIR and CID results suggested the presence of isomers, where a second structure is proposed as an isomer of the 25I-NBOMe molecule. <![CDATA[UNDERGRADUATE CHEMISTRY STUDENTS AND TECHNOLOGY: AN ANALYSIS OF BLOG COMMENTS FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION COURSE]]> Blogs and other technology tools are commonly used in our society. Although we are familiar with the use of technology for social interaction, its application in the classroom environment is still not fully appreciated by the teaching community as a useful learning tool. This paper sheds light on this use by presenting the analysis of the comments posted on a blog used by undergraduate chemistry students for a scientific communication undergraduate course. On the course, students used the blog to ask questions and discuss assignments. All the comments were monitored by the professor and her teaching assistant, who also posted their comments. We analyzed the content of these comments using the model proposed by Henri and adapted by McKenzie and Murphy. The results show a predominance of administrative comments, followed by course content comments. The findings also indicated that this tool complements classroom discussions, supports the participation of students who would otherwise not take part, and allows a continuous learning process for all the students. We concluded that the use of blogs improved the classroom experience and supported the instructional classroom activities. <![CDATA[PROPOSAL OF A DIDACTIC EXPERIMENT TO TEACH PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS]]> Principal component analysis (PCA) is a chemometric method that allows for the extraction of chemical information that would otherwise be impossible to determine. Teaching chemometrics to undergraduates can contribute to the overall professional development and training of new teachers, whose profiles have been gaining attention due to the current demand for data interpretation. In this study, a didactic experiment involving PCA is proposed. Spectrophotometry was used in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region to assess the behavior of anthocyanins extracted from red cabbage at different pH values. The results suggest the possible separation of anthocyanin structures into three distinct groups, according to their chemical characteristics displayed in acid, neutral, and basic media. The objective is to develop educational materials targeted to undergraduate courses, which encompass a larger number of concepts and introduce instrumental techniques currently being employed in both academic research and the industrial sector. Specifically, the proposed experiment introduces concepts related to spectrophotometry in the UV-Vis range and the PCA chemometric method. The materials used are easily accessible, and UV-Vis spectroscopy equipment is less expensive in comparison with other spectroscopy methods. <![CDATA[PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHER EDUCATION: TEACHER IDENTITY BUILDING]]> This paper presents results of a content analysis of the formative professional profile of undergraduates within the context of Brazil's expansion of its federal education system and implementing of teacher training policies. The analysis focuses on the conceptions of undergraduates regarding elements of their initial training and professional perspectives, as recorded in narratives, interviews, and questionnaires. Based on the relationships identified between the recorded content and the Educational Course Project, we identified three categories of analysis that point to tensions generated during the professional development of chemistry teachers: 1) The relationship between pedagogical knowledge and chemical knowledge; 2) the conceptual aspects of science education, as represented by the different ways that students understand the "ionization process"; and 3) teaching identity, including the elements indicative of the identity construction of future teachers. The results indicate that the educational and professional profile of undergraduates is marked by a particular tension between chemical content knowledge and pedagogical content, as well as a lack of objectivity and focus on the course's original intent. This situation has produced a multifaceted training context in which there is confusion regarding aspects relating to the licensing, teaching modalities, and preparation of the chemistry education professional.