Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 38 num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[ENCAPSULATION OF L-ASCORBIC ACID WITHIN THE NATURAL BIOPOLYMER—GALACTOMANNAN—USING THE SPRAY-DRYING METHOD: PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY]]> AbstractIn this study, the spray drying technique was used to prepare L-ascorbic acid (AA) microparticles encapsulated with galactomannan-an extract from the seeds of the Delonix regia species. The physico-chemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, and encapsulation efficiency of the AA microparticles were evaluated and characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The free-radical scavenging activity of the AA microparticles was determined at different environmental conditions using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated a loss of crystallinity in AA after the encapsulation process, and a DSC scan also showed the loss of the compound's melting peak. Thermogravimetric analysis showed small differences in the thermal stability of galactomannan before and after the incorporation of AA. The mean diameters of the obtained spherical microspheres were in the range of 1.39 ± 0.77 µm. The encapsulation efficiency of AA microparticles in different environmental conditions varied from 95.40 to 97.92, and the antioxidant activity showed values ranging from 0.487 to 0.550 mg mL-1. <![CDATA[EVALUATION OF A BUFFERED SOLID PHASE DISPERSION PROCEDURE ADAPTED FOR PESTICIDE ANALYSES IN THE SOIL MATRIX]]> An evaluation of the pesticides extracted from the soil matrix was conducted using a citrate-buffered solid phase dispersion sample preparation method (QuEChERS). The identification and quantitation of pesticide compounds was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Because of the occurrence of the matrix effect in 87% of the analyzed pesticides, the quantification was performed using matrix-matched calibration. The method's quantification limits were between 0.01 and 0.5 mg kg-1. Repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation percentage, were less than 20%. The recoveries in general ranged between 62% and 99%, with a relative standard deviation &lt; 20%. All the responses were linear, with a correlation coefficient (r) ≥0.99. <![CDATA[KINETIC STUDY OF SELECTIVE GAS-PHASE OXIDATION OF ISOPROPANOL TO ACETONE USING MONOCLINIC ZRO<sub>2</sub> AS A CATALYST]]> Zirconia was prepared by a precipitation method and calcined at 723 K, 1023 K, and 1253 K in order to obtain monoclinic zirconia. The prepared zirconia was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Monoclinic ZrO2 as a catalyst was used for the gas-phase oxidation of isopropanol to acetone in a Pyrex-glass-flow-type reactor with a temperature range of 443 K - 473 K. It was found that monoclinic ZrO2 shows remarkable catalytic activity (68%) and selectivity (100%) for the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone. This kinetic study reveals that the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone follows the L-H mechanism. <![CDATA[SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROTOCATECHUIC ALDEHYDE AND PROTOCATECHUIC ACID USING THE LOCALIZED SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE PEAK OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND CHEMOMETRIC METHODS]]> A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of protocatechuic acid and protocatechuic aldehyde. The method is based on the difference in the kinetic rates of the reactions of analytes with [Ag(NH3)2]+ in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone to produce silver nanoparticles. The data obtained were processed by chemometric methods using principal component analysis artificial neural network and partial least squares. Excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration ranges of 1.23-58.56 µg mL-1 and 0.08-30.39 µg mL-1 for PAC and PAH, respectively. The limits of detection for PAC and PAH were 0.039 and 0.025 µg mL-1, respectively. <![CDATA[PRELIMINARILY DEVELOPMENT OF A MOISTURE-ACTIVATED BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC PLATFORM FOR DRUG DELIVERY]]> Bioresorbable polymeric films were prepared by solvent casting using a tyrosine-derived polycarbonate and metronidazole (MDZ) as the model drug at 2.5%, 5% and 10% (w/w). Drug loading did not affect the water uptake, drug release, polymer degradation or erosion profiles. All devices released approximately 85% (w/w) of the drug within a 1.5 h period. This may be attributed to the rapid water uptake of the polymer. An increase in the water uptake correlated with a linear rate increase of the polymer degradation (0.968 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.999). Moreover, MDZ presented a remarkable plasticizing effect for the polymer and drug loading exerted a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the obtained films. The results obtained can be used to further the development of novel biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric platforms for the delivery of metronidazole and other drugs in a broad range of pharmaceutical applications. <![CDATA[THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF STARCH-POLYVINYL ALCOHOL-ALGINATE FILMS WITH COPAIBA AND LEMONGRASS OILS]]> AbstractFilms obtained by blends between starch and other polymers and films developed with the addition of an oil can show higher water vapor barriers and improved mechanical properties. Films with starch/PVOH/alginate were obtained by adding copaiba and lemongrass essential oils (EOs). Films without oil served as the control. The microstructure, water vapor permeability (PVA), mechanical properties, and antifungal activity were determined for the films. The effects of the addition of the EOs on the properties of the films were dependent of the concentration and type of oil. The films with 0.5% lemongrass EO were similar to the control films. These films showed a 2.02 × 10-12 g s-1Pa m-1 PVA, 11.43 MPa tensile stress, 13.23% elongation, and 247.95 MPa/mm resistance at perforation. The addition of 1% of copaiba EO increased the PVA from 0.5 × 10-12 to 12.1 × 10-12 g s-1 Pa m-1 and the diffusion coefficient from 0.17 × 10-8 to 7.15 × 10-8m2/day. Films with quantities of EOs displayed fissures and micropores; the control films developed micropores with smaller diameters than films with EOs. The addition of EOs did not change the resulting infrared spectrum of the films. The films with oil displayed a diminished development of the Fusarium sp. culture, and the film without EOs did not display notable differences in the development of the culture. The starch/PVOH/alginate films with 0.5% lemongrass EO were the most suited for the development of a packaging active system. <![CDATA[THE SYNTHESIS OF GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS FOR USE AS A BOOSTER BIOCIDE IN ANTIFOULING COATINGS]]> AbstractThis paper presents a technological innovation that uses a subclass of glycerophospholipids as a booster biocide in antifouling paint. These glycerophospholipid PAF-analogs are economically and environmentally viable compounds because they are synthesized from a metal-free raw material source-soybean lecithin. The synthesis, which involves transesterification followed by an alkylation reaction, produced a mixture of glycerophospholipids that were characterized by mass spectrometry. Evaluation of the antifouling performance with field tests showed that the replacement of ordinary halogenated booster biocide with the synthesized product gave a better efficiency and an exceptional antifouling activity with a significant reduction in the coverage of the fouling macro-organisms. <![CDATA[AN ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSOR BASED ON THE TYROSINASE ENZYME FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENOL IN WASTEWATER]]> AbstractThis work describes the development of a biosensor based on the tyrosinase enzyme (Tyr) for the determination of phenol (PHEN) in laboratory effluent samples derived from ammoniacal nitrogen analysis of the water samples from the Muquém dam in the city of Cariús, CE, using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). The electrode modification consisted of the immobilization of gold nanoparticles, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, cobalt phthalocyanine, and Tyr on a glassy carbon electrode. The electrolyte, pH, enzyme quantity, and voltammetric parameters were optimized to detect PHEN. The analytical curves presented a linear range from 4.97 × 10-6 mol L-1 to 6.10 × 10-5 mol L-1, and the detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) values were 4.81 × 10-6 mol L-1 and 4.97 × 10-6mol L-1, respectively. The repetition of measurements with the same biosensor and repetition for three other prepared biosensors exhibited a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.50 and 1.75%, respectively. The percentage recovery of PHEN in effluent samples varied from 86.40 to 105.04%. The stability of the biosensor was evaluated (at 21 days) with satisfactory results, showing 97.86% of the initial response. Moreover, the DL and recovery percentages agreed with the established values from CONAMA and ABNT, respectively. Thus, the electrode configuration developed seems a promising tool in the detection and quantification of PHEN in complex samples. <![CDATA[CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, AND FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF <em>Guettarda viburnoides</em> CHAM. & SCHLTDL. (RUBIACEAE)]]> Chemical investigation of Guettarda viburnoides (leaves) led to the isolation of ursolic acid, uncaric acid, secoxyloganin, and grandifloroside, along with a mixture of quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their NMR data. The crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, aqueous-methanol fraction, and grandifloroside showed significant DPPH free-radical scavenging activities with IC50 ranging from 18.92 to 26.47 µg mL-1. The topical administration of the crude extract and fractions markedly reduced the croton oil-induced mice ear edema in 67.0%-99.0%. Inhibition of tissue MPO activity was also observed, which demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect of the G. viburnoides species. <![CDATA[EMISSION OF NITROUS OXIDE AND METHANE IN SOIL FROM PASTURE RECOVERY AREAS IN THE AMAZON MATOGROSSENSE]]> AbstractThis study evaluates the chemical processes responsible for the nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes in the managed pasture (PM) and unmanaged pasture (PNM). In addition, the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the N2O and CH4 fluxes was assessed. The experiments were conducted on three farms in Alta Floresta city in the state of Mato Grosso. Both regular and intensive samples were collected from PM, PNM, and forest areas for each of the properties. The gases were sampled using static chambers in the morning. Higher N2O fluxes were recorded in the PMs, whereas the CH4 fluxes showed no influence of nitrogen fertilization in both regular and intensive samples. Low fertilizer levels resulted in low N2O emissions. <![CDATA[ASYMMETRIC SULFOXIDATION OF ALBENDAZOLE TO RICOBENDAZOLE BY FUNGI: EFFECT OF pH]]> Albendazole (ABZ) is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX). ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+)-ABZSOX and (-)-ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+)-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%). <![CDATA[EVALUATION OF THE RADICAL <em>N,N</em>-DIETHYL-1,4-FENILENEDIANIME (DEPD<sup>•+</sup>) AS A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC PROBE FOR DETERMINING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITIES IN BEVEREGES]]> AbstractMany well-established methods for determining the antioxidant capacities in several samples have been described in literature. However, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) are the main two methods that utilize radicals as spectrophotometric probes for analysis. Nevertheless, these methods have certain limitations because of their slower kinetics, solvent polarity effects, the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the compounds, chemical costs, etc. In this study, a spectrophotometric method for determining the antioxidant capacity in beverages was developed based on an exploration of the cation radical derived from DEPD. This method was based on the oxidation of aromatic amines with Fe(III) ions at pH 4.0, which leads to their corresponding purple cation radicals (DEPD•+) with λmax values at 500 and 540 nm. The addition of an antioxidant after the formation of the radical leads to a reduction in color intensity that is proportional to the antioxidant concentration in the medium. Results obtained using this method were compared with the Folin-Ciocalteau, ABTS and DPPH methods in terms of applications in wines, teas, and infusions samples. Linear correlation analysis at a 95% confidence level was employed to compare the results, which were in good agreement with a correlation coefficient of r &gt; 0.9000. Thus, the developed method was simple, accurate, and consistent with other assays for the determination of the total amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. <![CDATA[BIOMATERIALS: TYPES, APPLICATIONS, AND MARKET]]> AbstractThe types of compounds used in the production of biomaterials, namely metals, ceramics, synthetic and natural polymers, as well as composite materials, are discussed in the present work, together with details of their application and evolution from biocompatible to bioactive, biodegradable, and biomimetic clinical products. The chemical structure, the three-dimensional structure, and the molecular organization of compounds frequently used in the manufacture of relevant classes of biomaterials are discussed, along with their advantages and some of their major limitations in specific clinical applications. The main chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological requirements of biomaterials categories are presented, as well as typical tissular responses to implanted biomaterials. Reasons for the recent economic growth of the biomaterials market segment are addressed, and the most successful biomaterial categories are discussed, emphasizing areas such as orthopedic and cardiovascular implants, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and controlled drug release devices. Finally, the need for the development of innovative and more accessible biomaterials, due to the expected increase in the number of elderly people and the growing trend of personalized medical procedures, is pointed out. <![CDATA[SILICON OXYCARBIDE GLASSES FROM POLYSILOXANES]]> AbstractSilicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC) are a class of amorphous materials with a similar silica glass structure, in which oxygen atoms are partially replaced by tetracoordenated carbon atoms. The presence of carbon atoms covalently bound to the silicon atoms creates a more interconnected structure with better strength, and excellent chemical stability than conventional silica. SiOCs are easily prepared by the pyrolysis of polysiloxanes and can potentially be implemented in several technological applications that require high temperatures. This paper mainly addresses the preparation, structure, and properties of SiOC. Furthermore, potential applications of SiOC are also introduced. <![CDATA[EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS Na, Ca, Mg, Sr AND Fe IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CRUDE OIL, DETERMINED BY ICP OES, AFTER OPTIMIZATION BY EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN]]> AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the best operating conditions of ICP OES for the determination of Na, Ca, Mg, Sr and Fe in aqueous extract of crude oil obtained after hot extraction with organic solvents (ASTM D 6470-99 modified). Thus, the full factorial design and central composite design were used to optimize the best conditions for the flow of nebulization gas, the flow of auxiliary gas, and radio frequency power. After optimization of variables, a study to obtain correct classification of the 18 samples of aqueous extract of crude oils (E1 to E18) from three production and refining fields was carried out. Exploratory analysis of these extracts was performed by principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), using the original variables as the concentration of the metals Na, Ca, Mg, Sr and Fe determined by ICP OES. <![CDATA[A FACTORIAL DESIGN APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF CHROMIUM TOXICITY ON THE GLUTATHIONE LEVELS OF <em>Brachiaria brizantha</em> AND <em>Brachiaria ruziziensis</em> SEEDLINGS]]> Chromium toxicity affects redox reactions within plant cells, generating detrimental reactive oxygen species. Glutathione is an antioxidant peptide and also a substrate for the production of phytochelatins, which are chelating peptides reported to mitigate Cr3+ toxicity in plants. In this study, Brachiaria brizantha (B. brizantha) and Brachiaria ruziziensis (B. ruziziensis) seedlings were evaluated for physiological responses and glutathione production following the addition of zero or 5 mg L-1 Cr3+ to the nutrient solution. Glutathione levels were determined by colorimetric analysis at 412 nm using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a chromophore reagent and recovery with glutathione reductase (with evaluations at days 10 and 20 of continuous growth). The assessments were carried out in a completely randomized design with 2 authentic replications, and arranged in a 23 factorial. Cr3+ caused an average increase of 0.76 mg g-1 in the initial glutathione content. However, by day 20 there was an average reduction of 3.63 mg g-1. Chromium-affected physiological detrimental responses, albeit detected in both species, were less-pronounced in B. ruziziensis, along with a much higher level of glutathione. This study indicates that B. ruziziensis has a greater tolerance for chromium toxicity than B. brizantha, and that glutathione is likely to be involved in the mitigation of chromium stress in B. ruziziensis. <![CDATA[A NEW DEVICE FOR FLOW-BASED LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTIONS]]> AbstractA device comprising a lab-made chamber with mechanical stirring and computer-controlled solenoid valves is proposed for the mechanization of liquid-liquid extractions. The performance was demonstrated by the extraction of ethanol from biodiesel as a model of the extraction of analytes from organic immiscible samples to an aqueous medium. The volumes of the sample and extractant were precisely defined by the flow-rates and switching times of the valves, while the mechanic stirring increased interaction between the phases. Stirring was stopped for phase separation, and a precise time-control also allowed a successful phase separation (i.e., the absence of the organic phase in the aqueous extract). In the model system, a linear response between the analytical response and the number of extractions was observed, indicating the potential for analyte preconcentration in the extract. The efficiency and reproducibility of the extractions were demonstrated by recoveries of ethanol spiked to biodiesel samples within 96% and 100% with coefficients of variation lower than 3.0%. <![CDATA[A SIMPLIFIED ROUTE TO OBTAIN THE HARTREE AND HARTREE-FOCK EQUATIONS]]> AbstractAlternative considerably simpler ways of obtaining the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations are presented. These alternatives do not replace the formal demonstrations, which should be introduced in undergraduate or graduate courses according to the required level of student training. However, the use of the present approaches allows a student-friendlier introduction of the basic principles of electronic structure calculations as a prior teaching resource to the formal demonstrations. General implications and comparisons between the Hartree and Hartree-Fock energies are discussed. <![CDATA[THOMÉ RODRIGUES SOBRAL (1759–1829) AND THE FEBRIFUGE POWER OF A GREAT NUMBER OF PERUVIAN AND BRAZILIAN BARKS]]> AbstractIn the beginning of the 19th century, Portugal received from Brazil several barks that were used as cure for fevers for the purpose of chemical analysis. These analyses were intended to determine the principle compositional components responsible for the febrifuge power of these barks. At the University of Coimbra, the samples were analyzed under the supervision of Thomé Rodrigues Sobral, the Director of the university's Chemical Laboratory. In the interpretation of the obtained results, Sobral put forward his own ideas about the febrifuge principles of the analyzed barks in relation to their chemical composition. Here, we refer to both Rodrigues Sobral's reported results and his ideas about the febrifuge principle.