Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 38 num. 8 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[OXIDACIÓN ELECTROQUÍMICA DE LAMBDACIALOTRINA SOBRE ELECTRODOS DE PBO<sub>2</sub>-BI]]> The electrochemical oxidation of lambdacyhalotrin in a triton X-100 water solution on a PbO2-Bi electrode has been studied. It was discovered that electrocatalytic degradation proceeded through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. The Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of the organic compound on the PbO2-Bi surface (0.67 (±0.02) mg-1L) and the L-H maximum reaction rate for lambdacyhalotrin oxidation (0.040 (±0.002) mg L-1 min-1) was also determined on the basis of kinetic data. Oxidation/mineralization was tested at electrode potential higher than 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, in this conditions the higher degradation percent of 85 (±4) % has been obtained. <![CDATA[HYDROLYTIC DEGRADATION BEHAVIOR OF PLLA NANOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH MODIFIED CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS]]> Bionanocomposites derived from poly(L-Lactide) (PLLA) were reinforced with chemically modified cellulose nanocrystals (m-CNCs). The effects of these modified cellulose nanoparticles on the mechanical and hydrolytic degradation behavior of polylactide were studied. The m-CNCs were prepared by a method in which hydrolysis of cellulose chains is performed simultaneously with the esterification of hydroxyl groups to produce modified nanocrystals with ester groups. FTIR, elemental analysis, TEM, XRD and contact angle measurements were used to confirm and characterize the chemical modifications of the m-CNCs. These bionanocomposites gave considerably better mechanical properties than neat PLLA based on an approximately 100% increase in tensile strength. Due to the hydrophobic properties of the esterified nanocrystals incorporated into a polymer matrix, it was also demonstrated that a small amount of m-CNCs could lead to a remarkable decrease in the hydrolytic degradation rate of the biopolymer. In addition, the m-CNCs considerably delay the degradation of the nanocomposite by providing a physical barrier that prevents the permeation of water, which thus hinders the overall absorption of water into the matrix. The results obtained in this study show the nanocrystals can be used to reinforce polylactides and fine-tune their degradation rates in moist or physiological environments. <![CDATA[ESTUDIO TEÓRICO DE LA REACTIVIDAD QUÍMICA DEL CARBÓN ACTIVO]]> We used conceptual DFT to study global and local reactivity of both nonfunctionalized and functionalized activated carbons, with groups -OH,-CHO, -NH2, -COOH, and -CONH2. Electron-withdrawing groups were observed to increase the reactive surface, while electro-donating groups increase stability as reactivity of the activated carbon decreases. Descriptor groups were used to study the reactivity of structural fragments of activated carbons. The electrophilic and nucleophilic sites indicate that the carbon surface has an amphiphilic behavior that allows it to be used as an adsorbent material for a variety of molecules. <![CDATA[DIRECT INFUSION ESI-MS APPLIED IN THE DETECTION OF BYPRODUCTS DUE TO REDUCTIVE DEGRADATION OF ACETAMIPRID BY ZERO-VALENT IRON]]> This study investigated the reductive degradation of acetamiprid (5 mg L-1) in aqueous medium (at pH 2.0) induced by zero-valent iron (50 mg). The process was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the degradation rate as a function of reaction time, and direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) to search for (and potentially characterize) any possible byproducts formed during degradation. The results obtained via HPLC showed that after 60 min, the degradation of the substrate reached nearly 100% in an acidic medium, whereas the mineralization rate (as determined by total organic carbon measurements) was as low as 3%. Data obtained by DI-ESI-MS showed that byproducts were formed mainly by insertions of hydrogen atoms into the nitrile, imine, and pyridine ring moieties, in addition to the observation of chlorine substitution by hydrogen replacement (hydrodechlorination) reactions. <![CDATA[A NOVEL POLYACRYLAMIDE-BASED HYDROGEL CROSSLINKED WITH CELLULOSE ACETATE AND PREPARED BY PRECIPITATION POLYMERIZATION]]> The synthesis of polyacrylamide-cellulose acetate hydrogels by precipitation polymerization in acetone solution is reported herein. These hydrogels exhibit smaller swelling ratios and larger compression moduli than homo polyacrylamide hydrogels. For cellulose acetate concentrations above 20 wt.%, hydrogels with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker exhibit swelling ratios and compression moduli similar to those of the hydrogels without the crosslinker. A possible explanation for this behavior is that cellulose acetate crosslinks polyacrylamide via free-radical reaction. The hydrogels obtained without the N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide crosslinker exhibit compression moduli up to 1.7 MPa, making them suitable for tissue engineering applications such as cartilage replacement. <![CDATA[USE OF SIO<sub>2</sub>/TIO<sub>2</sub> NANOSTRUCTURED COMPOSITES IN TEXTILE DYES AND THEIR PHOTODEGRADATION IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL SUNLIGHT]]> SiO2/TiO2 nanostructured composites with three different ratios of Si:Ti were prepared using the sol-gel method. These materials were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, Raman with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the specific surface area. The band gaps of materials were determined by diffuse reflectance spectra, and the values of 3.20 ± 0.01, 2.92 ± 0.02, and 2.85 ± 0.01 eV were obtained as a result of the proportional increases in the amount of Ti within the composite. The materials exhibit only the anatase (TiO2) crystalline phase and have crystalline domains ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The photodegradation process of methylene blue, royal blue GRL, and golden yellow GL dyes were studied with respect to their contact times, pH variations within the solution, and the variations in the dye concentration of the solution in response to only sunlight. The maximum amount of time for the mineralization of dyes was 90 min. The kinetics of the process follows an apparently first order model, in which the obtained rate constant values were 5.72 × 10-2 min-1 for methylene blue, 6.44 × 10-2min-1 for royal blue GRL, and 1.07 × 10-1min-1 for golden yellow. <![CDATA[SYNTHESIS OF D-GLUCOSE- AND <em>N</em>-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE-BASED <em>N</em>-GLYCOSYLSULFONAMIDES]]> Herein, we report the synthesis of β-N-glycosylsulfonamides derivatives of D-glucose and N-acetylglucosamine using conventional methods. We also describe a procedure that allows the preparation of these compounds in good yields without the anomerization of the intermediate glycosylamines. This method includes the intermediates obtained from the less reactive 1- and 2-naphthalenesulfonyl chlorides. <![CDATA[CONDENSATION REACTION OF GLYCEROL AND CARBONYL COMPOUNDS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DERIVATIZATION FOR LIQUID CRYSTALS]]> Condensation reactions of glycerol with aldehydes and ketones were performed under thermal heating and microwave irradiation regimes. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts were tested in both conditions. A silica sulfated (SiO2-SO3H) heterogeneous catalyst demonstrated the best performance relative to a selectivity of &gt;95% in favor of 5-membered ketals. For acetals, preference in favor of 5-membered or 6-membered functional groups depends on the nature of the catalyst. Homogenous catalysts favor the more stable 6-membered acetals, whereas heterogeneous catalysts favor the less stable 5-membered acetals. However, the isomer ratios in the acetalization reaction are too low, and hence the reaction cannot be used in a synthetic plan for functional materials. Ketalization processes mediated by SiO2-SO3H show a high selectivity in favor of a 5-membered ring (1,3-dioxolane). The scope of condensation was tested with different ketones. A mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis related to the selectivity in the cyclization process is presented herein. Solketal, a commercial product, was also obtained by a condensation reaction of glycerol and propanone, and showed a high selectivity in favor of 1,3-dioxolane. It was transformed to potential allylic and chiral intermediates. A mesogenic core was connected to the organic framework of glycerol to produce a monomer liquid crystal material with a stable smectic-C mesophase. <![CDATA[OBTENTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SILICA AND CYCLODEXTRIN HYBRID MATERIAL]]> The obtention of silica and cyclodextrin hybrid materials was accomplished by refluxing them in xylol using citric acid as a binding agent. The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. Evidence for the docking of cyclodextrins α and γ was substantiated based on the variation in band intensity for groups such as ≡Si-OH. Additional docking evidence includes the displacement of some of the bands that are related to cyclodextrin such as the deformation of the C-H axial bond. The α and γ-CDSi materials were characterized as amorphous compounds. The products obtained in the synthesis showed changes in the decomposition temperatures of their isolated constituents, in which the mass of α and γ-CD docked to the silica surface gave the estimated values of 41% and 47%, respectively. The elemental constituents were shown to be consistent and close to their relative theoretical values. ​Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a reduction in the percentage of the hybrids was proportional to the amount of lost mass. This new material is an improvement over synthesized organosilane materials because the operator and the environment benefit from a less toxic methodology. In addition, the material has several potential applications in complexation systems with cyclodextrin. <![CDATA[PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM <em>ACACIA MEARNSII</em> DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS]]> Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle) is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact. <![CDATA[<em>STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS</em> BIOFILM FORMATION ON POLYPYRROLE: AN ELECTRICAL OVERVIEW]]> The development of organic devices based on conducting polymers for biofilm detection requires the combination of superior electrical response and high surface area for biofilm incorporation. Polypyrrole is a potential candidate for application in biofilm detection and control due to its characteristic superior electrical response and strong interaction with bacteria, which enables the use of the bioelectric effect in resulting devices. In this study, chemically synthesized polypyrrole was applied as a support for biofilm growth of S. aureus. Modifications in the electrical response of the polymeric template were explored to identify general mechanisms established during the deposition of the biofilm. <![CDATA[RECENT APPLICATIONS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS OF VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOREDOX CATALYSIS]]> In the past few years, photoredox catalysis has become a powerful tool in the field of organic synthesis. Using this efficient method, it is possible to excite organic compounds from visible light and attain alternative mechanistic pathways for the formation of chemical bonds, a result which is not obtainable by classical methods. The rapid growth of work in the area of photoredox catalysis is due to its low cost, broad chemical utility protocols, and, especially, its relevancy from the green and sustainable chemistry viewpoints. Thus, this study proposes a brief theoretical discussion of and highlights recent advances in visible-light-induced photoredox catalysis through the analysis of catalytic cycles and intermediates. <![CDATA[SAMPLE PREPARATION ASSISTED BY ELECTRIC FIELDS: FUNDAMENTALS, ADVANCES, APPLICATIONS, AND TRENDS]]> Sample preparation is commonly considered a key step to achieve selective, sensitive, and reliable chemical analyses, particularly those involving complex matrices. Although the application of electric fields to improve the speed and efficiency of sample preparation methods has been proven, this approach is still considered to be state-of-the-art; hence, further development is necessary to improve future applications. This review describes the fundamentals, advances, applications, and perspectives of using electric fields to enhance sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extractions in conventional and microscale devices. <![CDATA[SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF METHYLDOPA IN A DISSOLUTION TEST OF TABLETS USING AN EXTRACT OF RADISH AS A SOURCE OF PEROXIDASE]]> An enzymatic spectrophotometric method for the determination of methyldopa in a dissolution test of tablets was developed using peroxidase from radish (Raphanus sativus). The enzyme was extracted from radish roots using a phosphate buffer of pH 6.5 and partially purified through centrifugation. The supernatant was used as a source of peroxidase. The methyldopachrome resulting from the oxidation of methyldopa catalyzed by peroxidase was monitored at 480 nm. The enzymatic activity was stable for a period of at least 25 days when the extract was stored at 4 or -20 ºC. The method was validated according to RDC 899 and ICH guidelines. The calibration graph was linear in the range 200-800 µg mL-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limits of detection and quantification in the dissolution medium were 36 and 120 µg mL-1, respectively. Recovery was greater than 98.9%. This method can be applied for the determination of methyldopa in dissolution tests of tablets without interference from the excipients. <![CDATA[COMPARISON AND CONSTRUCTION OF "MILD" AND "HARD" ANODISATION REACTORS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF POROUS ALUMINA]]> The mild anodization (MA) reactor is exemplified for its operational simplicity and its excellent control over the experimental parameters that are involved in the anodization process. This method provides porous anodic alumina films with a regular cell-arrangement structure. This offers a better cost-benefit ratio than the other equipment configurations that are used to fabricate nanoporous structures (i.e., ion beam lithography). Conversely, the hard anodization (HA) reactor produces oxides at a rate that is 25 to 35 times faster than the MA reactor. The produced oxides also have greater layer thicknesses and interpore distance, and with a uniform nanopore spatial order (&gt; 1000). In contrast to MA reactors, the construction of an HA reactor requires special components to maintain anodisation at a high potential regime. Herein, we describe and compare both reactors from a technical viewpoint. <![CDATA[DRUG-RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS: <em>IN SILICO</em> APPROACHES APPLIED TO EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS]]> Teaching classes and events regarding the molecular aspects of drug-receptor interactions is not an easy task. The ligand stereochemistry and the spatial arrangement of the macromolecular targets highly increase the complexity of the process. In this context, the use of alternative and more playful approaches could allow students to gain a more thorough understanding of this important topic in medicinal chemistry. Herein, we describe a practical teaching approach that uses computational strategies as a tool for drug-receptor interaction studies performed for angiotencsin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). Firstly, the students learn how to find the crystallographic structure (enzyme-ligand complex). Then, they proceed to the treatment of crude crystallographic data. Thereafter, they learn how to analyze the positioning of the drug on the active site of the enzyme, looking for regions related to the molecular recognition. At the end of the study, students can summarize the molecular requirements for the interaction and the structure-activity relationships of the studied drugs. <![CDATA[SYNTHESIS OF 3-COUMARIN-CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF AIAPIN, COUMARIN, AND UMBELIFERONE]]> The synthesis of 3-coumarin-carboxylic acids and their application to the total synthesis of the natural products ayapin, coumarin, and umbeliferone in undergraduate organic chemistry experiments is described herein. The synthetic approach consists of a one-pot cyclization between salyciladehydes and Meldrum's acid in water to produce the above mentioned acids, followed by decarboxylation under basic or radical conditions. <![CDATA[TECHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION SEARCHING BASED ON PATENT DATABANK: CASE STUDY OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN BRAZIL]]> This study describes the application of the Art of Scientific and Technological Search to strategically analyze areas of technological and industrial development. Application of scientific search strategies such as the creation of Patent Landscape has been shown to be useful for writing research projects, earning grants, publishing papers, drafting patent applications, and analyzing the market and economic potentials of a previous determined subject. The Patent Landscape regards a simplified analysis of technologies concerning ionic liquids patents applied in Brazil and published by Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial(INPI). A total of 93 patent applications using the keywords "ionic liquids" were found in the INPI database. Among these, 75% were nonresident applications and 25% were Brazilian resident applications. Interestingly, BASF, Chevron Industries, and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) were discovered as higher patent applicant assignees. Differences in the patent application areas were also observed between these applicants, with new solvents and petrochemical applications as the areas of focus for the industrial applications (BASF and Chevron Industries), and energy production, catalysis, and chemical reaction media as the focus for the university applications.