Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 37 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Influence of different solvents used in film deposition of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) in OLED devices</b>]]> This work studies the influence of the film deposition process on light emission performance and on threshold voltage of OLEDs, with architecture glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The commercial PVK was dissolved in different solvents such as: chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and trimethylpentane. OLEDs were characterized by current-voltage and revealed a significant influence of the solvents, although all devices emitted green electroluminescence. A difference in threshold voltage up to 10 V was observed among OLEDs prepared from different solvents. The 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene showed best performance, presenting lowest treshold voltage (≈ 6 V), followed by tetrahydrofuran (≈ 8 V), trimethylpentane (≈ 14 V) and chloroform (≈ 16 V). <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of rice sample mineralization using a reflux system for determination of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn by FAAS</b>]]> This paper describes the evaluation of a new method of sample preparation using a cold finger system with continuous water flow for rice analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of detection for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn for the proposed method were 0.36, 1.84, 2.12 and 0.16 mg kg-1, respectively. The RSDs were lower than 6.0% for all elements and the CRM analyzed showed values with 95% agreement. The proposed method is simple and safe for the proposed objective and does not require the use of mixtures of acid or special equipment for sample preparation. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of oil content and oil quality in oilseeds by low-field nmr</b>]]> To choose among the variety of oleaginous plants for biodiesel production, the oil content of several matrices was determined through different low-field ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with varied pulse sequences, namely single-pulse, spin-echo, CPMG, and CWFP. The experiments that involved the first three sequences showed high correlation with each other and with the solvent extraction method. The quality of the vegetable oils was also evaluated on the basis of the existing correlation between the T2 values of the oils and their properties, such as viscosity, iodine index, and cetane index. These analyses were performed using HCA and PCA chemometric tools. The results were sufficiently significant to allow separation of the oleaginous matrices according to their quality. Thus, the low-field ¹H NMR technique was confirmed as an important tool to aid in the selection of oleaginous matrices for biodiesel production. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt nanocomposites</b>]]> Polystyrene/layered hydroxide salt (LHS) modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate was synthesized by in situ polymerization. The materials synthesized were characterized by gravimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the flammability test (FT). XRD demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites in all compositions studied showed poor global dispersion of LHS in polystyrene. TGA showed a slight decrease in thermal stability. DSC curves showed that the glass transition temperature of polystyrene and nanocomposites were similar. The FT showed that the nanocomposite with low load of LHS exhibited good results. <![CDATA[<b>Hydrometallurgical method for recycling rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries</b>]]> A hydrometallurgical method for the recovery of rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from the negative electrodes of spent Ni - MH mobile phone batteries was developed. The rare earth compounds were obtained by chemical precipitation at pH 1.5, with sodium cerium sulfate (NaCe(SO4)2.H2O) and lanthanum sulfate (La2(SO4)3.H2O) as the major recovered components. Iron was recovered as Fe(OH)3 and FeO. Manganese was obtained as Mn3O4.The recovered Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were subsequently used to synthesize LiCoO2, LiNiO2 and CoO, for use as cathodes in ion-Li batteries. The anodes and recycled materials were characterized by analytical techniques. <![CDATA[<b>Accumulation of electric charges in hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene based composite solid propellant</b>]]> Composite solid propellants prepared with HTPB prepolymer - Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene, AP - Ammonium Perchlorate as oxidizer and aluminum particles as an additive metal, have characteristics of high electrical resistivity. The loading process of the polymer matrix did not obtain homogeneity, resulting in clusters, mainly of metal particles. The effect of clustering in the composite was studied and observed experimentally, and this effect was one of the factors explaining the phenomenon of electrical charging of the composite. This electrical potential, when discharged abruptly, can generate an electric spark with sufficient energy for sustained ignition of a solid rocket motor. <![CDATA[<b>Study of type A gasoline quality and its chemical composition using principal component analysis</b>]]> The type A gasoline samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) which allowed quantifying and classifying of the various compounds into different classes of hydrocarbons. Several physicochemical parameters were evaluated according to the official methods in order to compare the results obtained against the limits established by the Agência Nacional de Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP, 2011). Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to discriminate the samples studied, which revealed the separation of four groups according to their chemical composition determined in samples collected from the eight fuel distributors in the State of Pará. <![CDATA[<b>Solvent effects on extraction of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline in <i>Coffea arabica</i></b>]]> In this research work the effects of four solvents and their mixtures on the extraction of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline in crude extracts of four coffee cultivars, traditional red bourbon, IAPAR59, IPR101 and IPR108 cultivars, were investigated by UV spectrophotometry and UV spectra obtained from RP-HPLC-DAD. The experimental results and the principal component analysis of UV spectra showed that the effect of solvent extraction of the metabolites does not depend on cultivars, because the spectral characteristics are similar, but the concentrations are different. The UV and UV-DAD spectra for four simplex centroid design mixtures were also similar but the concentrations of caffeine, trigonelline and the chlorogenic acids are different and depend on the solvent used in the extraction. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of flocculation and lipid extraction of <i>Chlorella</i> sp. cultivated in concentrated desalination</b>]]> Chlorella sp. was used to assess algal lipid production with concentrated desalination. In order to investigate the action of the flocculating agent calcium chloride and pH, a Box-Behnken Design and a Central Composite Design (CCD) were carried out. Also, Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), with and without sonication lipid extraction methods, were examined. The optimal flocculation conditions were pH 10.0 and 2.0 g/L of calcium chloride concentration. The highest lipid content of Chlorella sp. was obtained using the Soxhlet extraction method. The most abundant fatty acid extracted by Soxhlet and SFE, with and without sonication, was palmitic acid, whose proportions were 57.4%, 35.3% and 25.5%, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Preparation and characterization of the inclusion complex essential oil of <i>Croton zehntneri</i> with </b><b>β</b><b>-cyclodextrin</b>]]> Croton zehntneri, a plant native to northeastern Brazil, is widely used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems and has rich essential oil content. The essential oil of C. Zehntneri was analyzed by GC-MS, and its inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was characterized by both vibrational spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Estragol was the major component identified in the essential oil by the study. IR spectra indicated an interaction of β-CD with essential oil from C. zehntneri, a finding corroborated by the stability constant and scanning calorimetry. Microencapsulation within β-CD has the potential to mask sensory attributes and increase aqueous solubility of oils, thereby improving their applicability as drugs. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of cane sugar straw for cellulosic ethanol production</b>]]> The sugarcane industry has huge potential for biorefinery concept application, given its development in recent years. In this context, cane sugar straw has become an attractive raw material for biofuel production. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of cane sugar straw from different regions of Brazil, and to optimize a hydrothermal pretreatment stage for cellulosic ethanol production. Results of chemical characterization of the cane sugar straw for the regions assessed indicated little influence of place on straw chemical composition. Hydrothermal pretreatment showed high efficiency in hemicellulose removal. Hydrothermal pretreatments operating with temperatures of 190 and 210 ºC presented satisfactory results, reaching values close to 100% hydrolysis. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis, characterization and application of ion imprinted poly(vinylimidazole) for zinc ion extraction/preconcentration with faas determination</b>]]> In this paper, we describe the synthesis of an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) by homogeneous polymerization and its use in solid-phase to extract and preconcentrate zinc ions. Under optimal conditions (pH 5.0, preconcentration flow rate of 12.0 mL min-1, and eluted with 1.0 mol L-1 HNO3) this procedure allows the determination of zinc with an enrichment factor of 10.2, and with limits of detection and quantification of 1.5 and 5.0 µg L-1, respectively. The accuracy of our results was confirmed by analysis of tap water and certified reference materials: NIST 1570a (Spinach leaves) and NIST 1515 (Apple leaves). <![CDATA[<b>The influence of piperine on the bioavailability of drugs</b>: <b>a molecular approach</b>]]> Piperine is the major alkaloid of Piper nigrum Linn., used as a spice and in folk medicine. We present a molecular docking study supporting experimental data on the enhancement in bioavailability of propranolol, theophylline, phenytoin, nevirapine, nimesulide, pyrazinamide, carbamazepine, and spartein in the presence of piperine. The complex formed with piperine and CYP3A4 was shown to be the most stable of all, with a binding energy of -8.60 kcal/mol. This explains the related mechanism of drug-herb interaction, since the better anchoring of piperine in the active site of CYP3A4 can hinder the drug-enzyme interaction, thereby increasing the bioavailability of the drugs studied. <![CDATA[<b>Dft theoretical study of energetic nitrogen-rich C<sub>4</sub>N<sub>6</sub>H<sub>8-<i>n</i></sub>(NO<sub>2</sub>)<sub><i>n</i></sub> derivatives</b>]]> Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** theoretical level were performed for a series of guanidine-fused bicyclic skeleton derivatives C4N6H8-n(NO2)n (n = 1 - 6). The heats of formation (HOFs) were calculated by isodesmic reactions, and the detonation properties were evaluated using the Kamlet - Jacobs equations. The bond dissociation energies were also analyzed to investigate the thermal stability and sensitivity of the compounds. The results show that all of the derivatives have high positive HOFs, compound G has the highest theoretical density, and compound F1 has the highest detonation velocity and detonation pressure. Considering both the detonation properties and thermal stabilities, compounds D1 and D4 (3 nitro substituents), E1 - E6 (4 nitro substituents), and G (6 nitro substituents) can be regarded as potential candidates for high-energy density materials. <![CDATA[<b>Interaction of naproxen with calcium carbonate</b>: <b>physicochemical characterization and <i>in vitro</i> drug release studies</b>]]> Interaction and physicochemical characterization of dispersions of naproxen in calcium carbonate after freeze-drying the wet-state equilibrated mixture have been investigated by analytical methods. The FT-IR study revealed the acid-base reaction between naproxen and calcium carbonate. The DSC study indicated physical interaction and significantly diminished crystallinity of naproxen in the formulation containing higher quantities of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, the SEM study showed the reduced particle size and loss of crystalline morphology in the same sample. Drug release increased with the increase of calcium carbonate in the formulations. Formulation of naproxen with calcium carbonate in 1:2 ratio allowed its dissolution to the greatest extent (94.96%) while other compositions, 1:0.5 and 1:1, showed 80.86% and 78.30% release, respectively. <![CDATA[<b>Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of <i>Maytenus phyllanthoides</i> Benth. (Celastraceae)</b>]]> Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC50 17.57 µM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. <![CDATA[<b>Flavonoid profiles and evaluation of antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of Amazonian</b>]]> Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae). Plants of the Bauhinia species (Fabaceae) are used in the treatment of several infections and diseases, especially diabetes. In this paper, with an aim to contribute to the knowledge of the chemistry and therapeutic potential of the Amazonian species of the genus Bauhinia, flavonoid profiles in the leaves and branches of Bauhinia purpurea collected in Manaus and São Gabriel da Cachoeira/AM were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and ESIMS. Differences in the flavonoid profiles were detected along with the presence of rutin and isoquercitrin in the leaves collected in Manaus. All samples showed antioxidant activity, however, no cytotoxic activity against cell lines MDA-MB435 (breast), HCT-8 (colon), and SF-295 (glioblastoma) could be detected. <![CDATA[<b>Terpenes from <i>Nasutitermes</i> genus termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae)</b>]]> The chemical composition of the front gland of termites has been studied for over 40 years. The genus Nasutitermes, considered the most evolved of the Termitidae family, has a peculiarity that sets it apart from the others: a caste of soldiers that carry a terpenic mixture used in defense. This secretion is formed by mono, sesqui and diterpenes from trinervitane, kempane and rippertane skeletons, only found in termites. This article sought to review the scientific literature and contribute to the knowledge on the chemical composition of the secretion of the Nasutitermes soldiers from the interesting aspects of its behavior. <![CDATA[<b>Treatment of censored data in environmental studies</b>]]> Due to the inherent limitations of the analytical methods of measurement, environmental exposure data often present observations described as below a certain detection limit, also called left-censored data. Censored data directly interferes in almost all types of statistical analyzes, including descriptive parameters, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, correlations and regressions. In this work, we investigated the performance of the main classes of methods from major publications available in the literature, considering their advantages and limitations. Some criteria for selecting the best method of dealing with censored data are presented. <![CDATA[<b>Veterinary drug residues in milk and eggs</b>]]> The use of veterinary drugs in food producing animals may result in the presence of residues in foods, including milk and eggs. Immunoassay or microbiological tests are used to screen for residues, but chromatographic methods are needed to confirm positive results. In most methods, the sample is extracted with acetonitrile, submitted to clean up or directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Results of the Brazilian governmental monitoring programs from 2006 to 2011 have shown that the antiparasitic ivermectin was the drug most frequently found in milk. Residues in eggs are only monitored by one of the programs, and few studies have reported the incidence of veterinary drugs in this matrix in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Metal-organic frameworks and their applications in catalysis</b>]]> Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) form a new class of materials with well-defined yet tunable properties. These are crystalline, highly porous and exhibit strong metal-ligand interactions. Importantly, their physical and chemical properties, including pore size, pore structure, acidity, and magnetic and optical characteristics, can be tailored by choosing the appropriate ligands and metal precursors. Here we review the key aspects of synthesis and characterization of MOFs, focusing on lanthanide-based and vanadium-based materials. We also outline some of their applications in catalysis and materials science. <![CDATA[<b>Shadow masks by electrochemical corrosion for electro-optic devices</b>]]> Shadow masks are used in manufacturing processes for electro-optic devices to transfer patterns with different shapes and dimensions. For fabrication of organic based devices, shadow masks should be made of materials stable against organic solvents, high temperature, and robust, remaining unchanged after multiple cycles of use and fixation. Thus, stainless steel is suitable for shadow masks. A simple, cheap and quick method of obtaining shadow masks by electrochemical corrosion of stainless steel is reported. The shadow mask was used to evaporate cathode material to obtain an organic light emitting diode with active area of 9 mm². This device exhibited a turn-on voltage of 5 V and luminance of 14 cd/m². <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in water by SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS</b>]]> A method was developed for the analysis of 31 pharmaceutical compounds in Lisbon's drinking water system, using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated through estimation of the linearity range, method detection and quantification limits, matrix effects, precision and accuracy. The method detection and quantification limit ranges were 0.009-10 and 0.03-33 ng/L, respectively. Analytes were quantified in water samples collected from the EPAL (Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres S.A.) supply system. Carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, caffeine and erythromycin were quantified in the analysed samples. <![CDATA[<b>Low cost solid phase extraction apparatus for aqueous samples of large volume using N<sub>2</sub> positive pressure</b>]]> Extraction/concentration is a crucial step for the analysis of organic compounds at trace level concentrations and dispersed in complex matrices. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is one of the techniques used for this purpose. In this work, a low cost apparatus for SPE was developed that uses nitrogen under positive pressure and ensures the maintenance of the sample flow, while also allows the simultaneous extraction of different samples without cross-contamination and sample contact with plastic materials. For the system set up, easily accessible materials were used such as hypodermic needles, stainless steel tubes, rubber stoppers, and 3-way valves from serum delivery apparatus. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization, validation and application of a method for determination of difenoconazole residues in strawberries after multiple applications</b>]]> Difenoconazole residues in strawberry fruit cultivated in pots were estimated using the solid-liquid extraction with low temperature partition (SLE/LTP) method for sample preparation and gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for analysis. The optimized method presented excellent recovery values from fortified samples and reproducibility (average recovery values ≥ 98%; CV values < 15%). Linearity of response was demonstrated (r = 0.995) with a detection limit of 9 µg kg-1. The method was successfully applied for the determination of difenoconazole residues in strawberries. Based on these results, the fungicide dissipates quickly, but the residual concentration increases after multiple applications. <![CDATA[<b>Optimization of solvent mixtures for extraction from bark of <i>Schinus terebinthifolius</i> by a statistical mixture-design technique and development of a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols in the extract</b>]]> A statistical mixture-design technique was used to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on the yield, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of the crude extracts from the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae). The experimental results and their response-surface models showed that ternary mixtures with equal portions of all the three solvents (water, ethanol and acetone) were better than the binary mixtures in generating crude extracts with the highest yield (22.04 ± 0.48%), total polyphenol content (29.39 ± 0.39%), and antioxidant capacity (6.38 ± 0.21). An analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of total polyphenols in the extracts. Optimal conditions for the various parameters in this analytical method, namely, the time for the chromophoric reaction to stabilize, wavelength of the absorption maxima to be monitored, the reference standard and the concentration of sodium carbonate were determined to be 5 min, 780 nm, pyrogallol, and 14.06% w v-1, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometric monitoring of the reaction under these conditions proved the method to be linear, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform. <![CDATA[<b>A cheap and efficient photochemical reactor for chemical experiments</b>]]> In this work, we present an efficient and inexpensive device for undergraduate chemistry classes aimed at teaching and learning the photolytic synthesis concepts. A photochemical reactor was tested for the synthesis of the organometallic compound enneacarbonyldiiron from iron pentacarbonyl in acetic acid, and its formation evidenced by FTIR analysis. Although similar devices have been described in other studies, none of these offered the simplicity, low cost, class-compatible reaction times and good yields afforded by the procedure reported herein. <![CDATA[<b>Nanoporous materials</b>: <b>pillared clays and regular silicas as an example of synthesis and their porosity characterization by X-ray diffraction</b>]]> Because of their practical applications, porous materials attract the attention of undergraduate students in a way that can be used to teach techniques and concepts in various chemistry disciplines. Porous materials are studied in various chemistry disciplines, including inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. In this work, the syntheses of a microporous material and a mesoporous material are presented. The porosity of the synthesized materials is characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. We show that this technique can be used to determine the pore dimensions of the synthesized materials. <![CDATA[<b>Pearson's theory for organic chemistry courses</b>: <b>a practical and theoretical exercise applied in the classroom</b>]]> We report a didactic experience in teaching Pearson's theory (HSAB) to graduate students in organic chemistry. This approach was based on teaching students how to use computer programs to calculate frontier orbitals (HOMO-LUMO). The suggested level of calculation was a semi-empiric PM3, proving to be efficient for obtaining robust and fast numerical results that can be performed easily in the classroom. We described a practical computational exercise and asked students to compare these numerical data with qualitative analysis using valence bond theory. A comprehensive solution of this exercise is presented, aiming to support teachers in their lessons. <![CDATA[<b>Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microwave-assisted derivatization for identification of glucose isomers</b>: <b>experience for post-graduate teaching of analysis and characterization of organic compounds</b>]]> This work reports a practical case based on the use of microwave-assisted derivatization and GC-MS for the analysis of glucose. Using two different methods for derivatization, one reference compound and the calculated dipole moment, all the isomers of glucose were identified. Identification was corroborated for the assignment of structures using the mass spectra. With this work, students are expected to associate different types of information to solve the complex problem of the analysis of glucose. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene</b>: <b>a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes</b>]]> We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. <![CDATA[<b>The occult chemists and their extraordinary journey into the world of atoms</b>]]> At the end of the XIX century, a group of chemists and theosophists called the Occult Chemists suggested it would be possible "to see" atoms by clairvoyance. In a meditative situation, a skilled person in contact with a substance would thus be able to see magnified atoms and molecules, as well as its internal structure. Annie Besant was the leader of this group and, together with Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa, Charles Leadbeater and Bertram Keightley, they devised an extraordinary atomic theory in which atoms consisted of smaller, indivisible units of energy called anu. In this paper, we present the fundamental principles of this unusual theory. <![CDATA[<b>The use of rich and suter diagrams to explain the electron configurations of transition elements</b>]]> At the end of the XIX century, a group of chemists and theosophists called the Occult Chemists suggested it would be possible "to see" atoms by clairvoyance. In a meditative situation, a skilled person in contact with a substance would thus be able to see magnified atoms and molecules, as well as its internal structure. Annie Besant was the leader of this group and, together with Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa, Charles Leadbeater and Bertram Keightley, they devised an extraordinary atomic theory in which atoms consisted of smaller, indivisible units of energy called anu. In this paper, we present the fundamental principles of this unusual theory.