Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 24 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <link></link> <description/> </item> <item> <title><![CDATA[<b>A robust calculation approach applied to the evaluation of hydrogen ion concentrations through potentiometric measurements in aqueous solutions</b>]]> The data analyzed in this work were generated following the methodology developed by Molina et al.(J. Electroanal. Chem., 1979) for the calibration of a potentiometric system of measurement of hydrogen-ion concentrations resulting from neutralizations, at 25 ºC, of acidic or alkaline solutions at constant ionic strength (0.1 mol.l-1) held with NaClO4. The observed data present a serious deviation in relation to the mathematical model derived from the Nernst equation, for pH values ranging from 3 to 11, where pH=-log[H+]. We show that the minimization of the sum of the absolute values of the residuals gives estimates that are not influenced by outlying values. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of the alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds in fusel oil samples</b>]]> Analysis of alcohols, esters and carbonyl compounds were performed using HRGC and HPLC techniques in samples of fusel oils from three different Brazilian alcohol distilleries. High content of isoamyl alcohol (390 g.L-1), isobutyl alcohol (158 g.L-1), ethyl alcohol (28,4 g.L-1), methyl alcohol (16,6 g.L-1) and n-propyl alcohol (11,9 g.L-1) were found. These compounds represent 77 ± 8 % of the approximated weight of a liter of fusel oils. The obtained results show the feasibility of using fusel oils as low-cost raw material for the synthesis of chemicals. <![CDATA[<B>Characterization of chitosan by Gel Permeation Chromatography - Influence of preparation method and solvent</B>]]> In this work, samples of chitosan obtained in different conditions were characterized by molecular weight distribution, using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), in two different solvents. It was observed that the increase in the number of deacetylation steps promotes a increase in the degree of deacetylation followed by a decrease in the average of molecular weight and polydispersion. The GPC curves obtained for chitosan samples in the two solvents used (CH3COOH 0.30 mol/dm³ - CH3CONa 0.20 mol/dm³ and CH3COOH 0.10 mol/dm³ <FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> NaCl 0.20 mol/dm³) showed small difference in elution volume, but significant changes in the average molecular weight (Mn and Mw) and polydispersion that, in agree with the values of Huggins constant, present evidences of chitosan aggregates formation in the second solvent. <![CDATA[<B>Chemical and physical characterization of coastal peat and evaluation of competitive adsorption of copper and zinc</B>]]> The chemical and physical characterization of coastal peat has been studied. It was examined the pH, organic matter content and elementary and XRD analyses, among other characteristics. The peat was then applied to the retention and competition of metal micronutrients (Cu and Zn) from metal nitrate solutions. The retention was affected by both the pH and time of adsorption, while the competitive character of these metals for the substrate was relevant to each pH examined. <![CDATA[<B>Diterpenes, triterpenes and steroids from flowers<I> of Wedelia paludosa</B></I>]]> Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Wedelia paludosa afforded two diterpenes, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid, three acylated triterpenes, 3beta-O-hexa-decanoylolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3beta-O-pentadecanoylolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 3beta-O-tetradecanoylolean-12-en-28-oic acid, and three steroids, stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-D-glycopyranosyl sitosterol and 3beta-O-beta-D-glycopyrano-sylstigmasterol. The substances were identified by their spectral data. <![CDATA[<B>Aquatic environment contamination by pesticides. Case study</B>: <B>water used for human consumption in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso - preliminary analyses</B>]]> A preliminary analyses of the possible contamination of superficial and underground water by the active ingredients of the pesticide products used in the surroundings of the urban area of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was carried out. A description of the study region and of its environmental characteristics, which can favor the contamination of the local aquatic environment, was presented. The EPA screening criteria, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) and the criteria proposed by Goss were used to evaluate which pesticides might contaminate the local waters. Among the active ingredients studied, several present risks to the local aquatic environment. <![CDATA[<b>The identification of sewage addition to Guanabara Bay surficial sediments as indicated by coprostanol (5<FONT FACE="Symbol">b</FONT>(H)-cholestan-3<FONT FACE="Symbol">b</FONT>-ol) distribution</b>]]> A critical evaluation is presented on the use of faecal sterols for the identification of sewage contamination in Guanabara Bay. Sediments were collected from 8 stations in the bay selected as representative of different contamination levels. GC/MS determination of faecal sterols gave: coprostanol, 335 - 40000 ng g-1; coprostanone, 112-4136 ng g-1; cholesterol, 1407-7800 ng g-1; cholestanol, 2011 - 10900 ng g-1 and cholestanone, 655-7954 ng g-1. The observed concentration is in accordance with the presence of known pollution sources, however, concentration ratios of different sterols species produced unclear results evidently influenced by primary production and microbial processes. <![CDATA[<b>Electro-oxidation of ethanol in Ti/IrO<sub>2</sub></b>]]> It has been carried out an investigation of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ti/IrO2 electrodes. The experimental results show a high selectivity towards acetaldehyde formation thus, offering potential advantages in cost and availability of raw material. It has been observed that the electrode is partially blocked by a film formed after the oxidation of the starting material which can be removed by pulse technique between RDO and RDH onset. The mechanism and the selectivity of the product formed is presented. <![CDATA[<B>Surfactant/hydrotrope interaction in aqueous systems by nuclear magnetic resonance oxide), hydrotropy, nuclear magnetic resonance</B>]]> In this work, it was studied the behavior of the nonionic surfactant aqueous solutions, containing or not a hydrotropic agent, by resonance magnetic nuclear (NMR). We have studied monofunctional diblock copolymers of poly(propylene oxide-ethylene oxide) (R-PPO-PEO-OH, where R length is linear C4) as nonionic surfactant and sodium p-toluenesulfonate (NaPTS) as hydrotropic agent. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the aqueous copolymer solution was obtained from ¹H-NMR. The preliminary study of the interaction between the copolymer, under the unimer and micelle forms, and the hydrotrope, in aqueous solutions, was evaluated by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR. <![CDATA[<B>Characterization of Cu/CeO<SUB>2</SUB>/Al<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> catalysts by temperature programmed reduction and activity for CO oxidation</B>]]> The kinetic parameters for the CO oxidation reaction using copper/alumina-modified ceria as catalysts were determined. The catalysts with different concentrations of the metals were prepared using impregnation methods. In addition, the reduction-oxidation behaviour of the catalysts were investigated by temperature-programmed reduction. The activity results show that the mechanism for CO oxidation is bifunctional : oxygen is activated on the anionic vacancies of ceria surface, while carbon monoxide is adsorbed preferentially on the higher oxidation copper site. Therefore, the reaction occurs on the interfacial active centers. Temperatures-programmed Reduction patterns show a higher disperdion when cerium oxide is present. <![CDATA[<B>Origin and implication of carboxylic acids in the atmosphere</B>]]> A general overview about the ambient levels of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and their possible emission sources, as well as the implication of them in the atmosphere is presented. Carboxylic acids are considered to be one of the dominant classes of organic compounds found in the atmosphere in a variety of phases, such as in rainwater, snow and ice, on aerosol particles and gas phase. They may be originated from biogenic and anthropogenic direct emissions and by photochemical reaction in situ. Emission sources and formation mechanisms of organic acids in the atmosphere are discussed. <![CDATA[<B>Methods of extraction and/or concentration of compounds found in biological fluids for subsequent chromatographic determination</B>]]> When organic compounds present in biological fluids are analysed by chromatographic methods, it is generally necessary to carry out a prior sample preparation due the high complexity of this type of sample, especially when the compounds to be determinated are found in very low concentrations. This article describes some of the principal methods for sample preparation in analyses of substances present in biological fluids. The methods include liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and extraction using solid and liquid membranes. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. <![CDATA[<B>Amperometric biosensors for phenolic compounds determination in the environmental interess samples</B>]]> Phenols are widely used in many areas and commonly found as industrial by-products. A great number of agricultural and industrial activities realise phenolic compounds in the environmental. Waste phenols are produced mainly by the wood-pulp industry and during production of synthetic polymers, drugs, plastics, dyes, pesticides and others. Phenols are also released into the environmental by the degradation of pesticides with phenolic skeleton. The phenols level control is very important for the environmental protection. Amperometric biosensor has shown the feasibility to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for the determination of phenolic compounds, providing alternatives to conventional methods which have many disadvantages. This brief review considers the evolution of an approach to amperometric measurement using the catalytic properties of some enzymes for phenolic compounds monitoring. <![CDATA[<B>Micellar media in analytical chemistry</B>]]> This review deals with the general use of the surfactants in Analytical Chemistry. Principal characteristic of the micelle is the improvement in selectivity and/or sensitivity of the analytical determination with emphasis on the catalytic reaction and "cloud point" extraction. <![CDATA[<B>Introduction to the specular reflection and reflection-absorption techniques in the infrared</B>: <B>(1) specular reflection</B>]]> This paper is the first part of an article aimed to present theoretical basis as well as some applications of two infrared reflection techniques: specular reflection and reflection-absorption. It is emphasyzed how the Kramers-Krönig analysis of reflection data can be useful in both retrieving optical constants and making spectral analysis possible. Examples of vitreous, powdered and liquid samples are given. <![CDATA[<B>Introduction to the specular reflection and reflection-absorption techniques in the infrared</B>: <B>(1) reflection-absorption</B>]]> This paper is the second part of an article aimed to present theoretical basis as well as some applications of two infrared reflection techniques: specular reflection and reflection-absorption. It is emphasyzed how much spectral simulation can aid spectral analysis. The usefulness of reflection-absorption spectroscopy as a thin film caracterization technique is stressed. Optical effects such as LO-TO splittings and their observation as Berreman effect are also addressed. <![CDATA[<B>Drug design based on natural products</B>]]> In the area of drug discovery, natural products represent a myriad of templates for new lead discovery. It is, however, most unlikely that the bioactive principle itself shall become a drug; it is much more likely that a medicinal chemistry project needs to be initiated as soon the potency or selectivity or specificity of the new natural product candidate has been disclosed. Brazil has an enormous biodiversity where just a few has been disclosed. Nevertheless, it urges to initiate a joint collaboration in order to circumvent a major breakdown linking between natural products and medicinal chemistry in this country. This paper is intended to encourage people to follow up one of the most pushing forward enterprise that needs to be settled: the pharmaceutical industry. <![CDATA[<b>Antioxidant system involving the glutathione metabolic cycle associated to electroanalytical methods in the oxidative stress evaluation</b>]]> The most relevant advances on the analytical applications of glutathione determination based on glutathione redox cycle and the antioxidant system are given. The main enzymes that participate of the glutathione metabolism are the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The glutathione peroxidase has a major role in the removal of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides from the cells. These enzymes, operating in tandem with catalase and superoxide dismutase promote a scavenging of oxyradical products in tissues minimizing damages caused by these species. Reduced glutathione is the major intracellular thiol found in mammals and changes in the glutathione concentration in biological fluids or tissues may provide a useful marker in certain disorders like hemolytic anemia, myocardial oxidative stress and in the investigation of some kinds of cancers. Particular attention is devoted to the main advantages supplied by biosensors in which there is an incorporation of bioactive materials for the glutathione determination. The correlation between stability and sensitivity of some reduced glutathione electrochemical sensors is discussed. <![CDATA[<B>Ion-selective electrodes</B>: <B>historical, mechanism of response, selectivity and concept review</B>]]> This paper presents a review of the concepts involved in the working mechanism of the ion-selective electrodes, searching a historical overview, moreover to describe the new advances in the area. <![CDATA[<b>Increase resolution of solution <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectra of humic acids by previous treatment with 0,03 mol L<sup>-1</sup> KCl</b>]]> High levels of Fe and Mn present in some soils and compost organic matter decrease the resolution of 13C NMR spectra of humic substances. Addition of KCl up to a concentration of 0,03 mol L-1 to humic substances extracts followed by centrifugation is an efficient method of eliminating clays and minerals containing high levels of paramagnetic metals such as Fe and Mn thus increasing the resolution of 13C NMR spectra. <![CDATA[<B>An alternative way to the Appel's synthesis of PPh<SUB>2</SUB>Si(CH<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>3</SUB>; preparation and purification of PPh<SUB>2</SUB>H (Ph = phenyl)</B>]]> The unexpected low yield in the Appel's synthesis of PPh2Si(CH3)3 can be attributed to the presence of phenyllithium and its interfering reactions. The method was carried out with hydrolysis of the products formed by the reaction of PPh3 with metallic lithium, phenyllithium and lithiumdiphenylphosphide. PPh2Si(CH3)3 was obtained by subsequent reaction of the resulting diphenylphosphin with elemental lithium and ClSi(CH3)3. <![CDATA[<B>The professional profile of chemists and the new reality of industrial organizations</B>]]> The objective of this paper is to reflect about the professional profile required of chemists by the chemical industry employing new management practices. This paper includes: a) historical synthesis of the appropriation of chemical knowledge by the industrial sector, b) a discussion of today's industrial organization and a comparison between the professional profile of chemists as expected by the taylorist and fordist standards of production and that expected in the context of flexibilization and globalization of production. <![CDATA[<B>Writing in chemistry courses</B>]]> There is no question that students majoring in chemistry graduate with underdeveloped writing skills. Many educators have expressed concern about the obvious deficiencies in student writing. This article is designed to aid professors interested in teaching writing skills in their classrooms and laboratories. <![CDATA[<B>Pharmaceutics and phytotherapics: the need for development of the industry of phytopharmaceutics and phytotherapics in Brazil</B>]]> We discuss briefly the development and the present status of medicinal chemistry. In this context, we consider the therapeutic possibilities of the phytotherapy. On the basis of this analysis, the development of the phytopharmaceutical industry in Brazil is shown to be of essential importance for both the university and the Country due to the human and technological resources involved. <![CDATA[<b>Medicinal chemistry in the development of societies. Biodiversity and natural products</b>]]> This document here has been elaborated by the IUPAC Medicinal Chemistry section and is backed by a large number of scientists, many of whom have had direct involvement and whose names appear at the end of the article. This work discusses the role that the discovery of new medicinal agents has in the development of societies as well as in the conservation of biodiversity in terms of the work carried out on natural products. Also included are several recommendations for countries which are presently in search of their own scientific and technological development in medicinal agents. The IUPAC Medicinal Chemistry section would appreciate the collaboration of the scientific societies in every country to aid in the diffusion of this document.