Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Química Nova]]> vol. 35 num. 8 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Greve nas Universidades Federais</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of oat-reinforced polypropylene composite properties</b>]]> The preparation of oat-reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites with different fiber contents by means of melt-processing was investigated. Composite properties were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Flexural Modulus, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Findings confirmed that the oat composite properties were affected by fiber type and content. Improvements in mechanical properties were obtained using fiber contents < 20% w.t. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of moisture content in the steam treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse</b>]]> The effect of moisture content in the steam treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was evaluated. Steam treatment was perfomed at 195-210 ºC for 4-8 min using cane bagasse with moisture contents in the range 16-100 wt% (dry basis). Increased moisture contents not only had a positive influence in recovery of main cane biomass components but also resulted in better substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis. As a result, drying is not required for optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse, which can be processed into second generation ethanol immediately after crushing and hot water washing. <![CDATA[<b>Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid</b>]]> This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles. <![CDATA[<b>Development of Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>|Cu composite as AISI 1020 steel thermal spray coating for protection against corrosion by soil in buried structures</b>]]> An Nb2O|Cu corrosion-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 steel substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two corrosively aggressive and two less aggressive). Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density) focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure protection. <![CDATA[<b>UDP-<i>N</i>-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvyl transferase</b>: <b>determination of protonation state of active site aminoacid residues by PM6 method</b>]]> UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) catalyzes the reaction between phosphoenol pyruvate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. We present a theoretical approach using the semiempirical PM6 method for defining protonation state of three active site residues, K22, H125, and K160. Prior comparison with neutron diffraction data showed that PM6 accurately predicted protonation states of active site residues of b-trypsin and D-xylose isomerase. Using the same methodology with MurA crystallographic data, we conclude that when reaction intermediate is located at the active site, H125 and K22 are in protonated form and K160 in neutral form. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis and characterization of copolymers 4,5-dihydroisoxazole and (-)-menthyl acrylates</b>]]> Five monomers 5-[4-(5-cyano-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)phenoxy]undecyl acrylate (7a); n-alkyl 3-{4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl)oxyphenyl]}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (7b,c for n-butyl and n-hexyl, respectively); 3-{4-[5-(acryloyloxyundecyl) oxyphenyl]}-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylic acid (7d) and (1R,2S,5R)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl acrylate (9) and the corresponding copolymers 10a-d,11 and homopolymers 12 from 7a and 13 from 9 were designed and synthesized. Except for acrylate 9 which is derived from (-)-menthol, all of the monomers belong to the series containing the isoxazoline ring linked to the acrylate unit by a flexible spacer chain of eleven methylene units. They presented low glass temperature and despite birefringence behavior, these copolymers showed no mesomorphic properties. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from corn waste (DDGS)</b>]]> The world's largest ethanol producer (USA) uses corn as feedstock. DDGS (distillers dried grains with solubles) is the main waste generated from this process (around 32 million t/year). DDGS samples were pyrolyzed at 1000 ºC in a furnace with controlled atmosphere. The effluent was channeled to a second furnace, in which catalyst substrates were placed. Chromatographic analysis was used to evaluate the gaseous effluents, showing that the catalyst reduced hydrocarbon emissions. The solid products formed were analyzed by SEM and TEM. Graphitic structures and carbon nanofibers, 50 µm in length and with diameters of 80-200 nm, were formed. <![CDATA[<b>Epoxidation of soybean oil with [MoO<sub>2</sub>(acac)<sub>2</sub>]/TBHP CAtalytic system in [bmim][PF<sub>6</sub>]</b>]]> Epoxidation of soybean oil was investigated using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF6] ionic liquid as biphasic medium with molybdenum(VI) acetylacetonate complex and tert-butyl hydroperoxide TBHP as oxidizing agent. Reaction conditions were molar ratio TBHP:number of double bonds of oil:catalyst of 100:100:1, reaction temperature of 60 ºC and reaction time between 2 and 24 h. The proposed system showed catalytic activity for epoxidation reactions under tested conditions. Reuse of ionic liquid/catalyst system for epoxidation reactions was also investigated. Evaluation of epoxidation observed in this catalytic system was done by quantitative ¹H NMR data. <![CDATA[<b>Isolation and partial chemical analysis of exopolysaccharides from cultivated marine diatom <i>Coscinodiscus wailesii</i> (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta)</b>]]> The marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii has attracted ecological interest because their blooms affect fishing areas. The aim of this work was the isolation, extraction and partial chemical characterization of soluble exopolysaccharide and bound exopolysaccharide from C. wailesii. Cultures were grown in Guillards f/2 medium under controlled conditions of temperature, aeration, photoperiod and light intensity. Percentage of carbohydrate, uronic acids, sulfates groups and cellular lipids was determined. Ion exchange chromatography of exopolysaccharides produced three fractions whose partial chemical structures were disclosed using 13C NMR and methylation techniques. <![CDATA[<b></b><b>Nitrous oxide fluxes in Montane Tropical Rainforest Soil in Serra dos Órgãos, RJ</b>]]> Soil fluxes of N2O were determined over one year in montane tropical rainforest of southeastern Brazil with average annual rainfall of 2.8 m. Annual mean (± standard deviation) and median N2O fluxes were 3.0 ± 1.4 and 2.7 µg N m-2 h-1, respectively, is 5-10 times lower than mean values reported in literature for tropical rainforest soils in the Amazon basin. N2O fluxes varied spatially and seasonally, were about twice as high during summer as in winter, and significantly influenced by both monthly precipitation and soil temperature. <![CDATA[<b>Mesopore generation in ZSM-5 zeolites and their effects on conversion of ethanol to olefins</b>]]> Developing mesoporosity in HZSM-5 zeolites is an alternative for improving their catalytic performance on chemical reactions. In this work, alkaline and thermal treatments were used to produce mesoporosity. These treatments increased mesoporous area and volume. They also influenced the acid properties of the samples. Concerning catalytic performance, treatments modified reaction product distribution. Whereas alkaline treatment favored formation of olefins and increased propene ratio in the beginning of the reaction, thermal treatment resulted in formation of only ethylene due to the low acidity of the sample. <![CDATA[<b>Nitrogen-doped TiO<sub>2</sub> nanotubes</b>: <b>comparison of photocatalytic activities of materials obtained using different techniques</b>]]> TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method and doped with three nitrogen compounds to enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and specific surface area and pore volume determined by BET and BJH methods, respectively. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible and UV radiations. Results showed doped-nanotubes were more efficient under visible light. The best photocatalytic activity was for sample NTT-7-600/NH3I, being 30% higher than the non-doped sample. <![CDATA[<b>Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of <i>N</i>-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents</b>]]> We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC50 values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 µM), C. krusei (34 µM) and C. tropicalis (17 µM). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. <![CDATA[<b><i>Ent</i></b><b>-kaurane diterpenoids and other constituents from the stem of <i>Xylopia laevigata</i> (Annonaceae)</b>]]> Phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract from the stem of Xylopia laevigata led to the isolation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 4-epi-kaurenic acid, ent-16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-kauran-19-al, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-16β,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, as well as spathulenol and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The identification of the compounds was performed on the basis of spectrometric methods including GC-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR. Potent larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC50 of 62.7 µg mL-1 was found for ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. This compound also showed significant antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis with MIC values of 62.5 µg mL-1. <![CDATA[<b>Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of urinary <i>trans-trans</i> muconic acid and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry</b>]]> This paper describes selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of ttMA from urine samples followed by derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analytical calibration curve ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 mg L-1 (r = 0.999) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.3 mg L-1. The method was applied for the determination of ttMA in urine samples from smokers and concentrations detected ranged from < LOQ to 1.64 mg L-1. Thus, the proposed method proved adequate for the determination of urinary ttMA in the biomonitoring of occupational exposure to low levels of benzene. <![CDATA[<b>Identification of the defensive compounds in metathoracic and dorsal abdominal glands of the stink bugs <i>Loxa deducta</i> and <i>Pellaea stictica</i> (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)</b>]]> The dorsal abdominal glands (DAGs) contents in nymphs and the metathoracic glands (MTG) in adult males and females (10, 20 and 30 days old) were characterized and quantified for Loxa deducta and Pellaea stictica. The major component for nymphs and adults was tridecane, with lesser amounts of other aliphatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, oxo-alkenals and esters. The five nymphal instars showed significant differences in compounds proportion. No significant differences was detected in MTG components proportion between sexes. However (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-decenyl acetate was significantly lower in adults from 10 to 20 days. <![CDATA[<b>Enzymatic activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase produced by <i>Gordonia polyisoprenivorans</i></b>]]> This study aimed to evaluate the environmental conditions for enzyme activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C1,2O) and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C2,3O) produced by Gordonia polyisoprenivorans in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The optimum conditions of pH, temperature, time course and effect of ions for enzyme activity were determined. Peak activity of C1,2O occurred at pH 8.0. The isolate exhibited the highest activity of C2,3O at pH 7.0 and 8.0 for the cell-free extract and immobilized extract, respectively. This isolate exhibited important characteristics such as broad range of pH, temperature and time course for enzyme activity. <![CDATA[<b>Study by mass spectrometry of solutions of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene</b>: <b>proposed disproportionation mechanisms</b>]]> Solutions of [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene (HTIB or Koser's reagent) in acetonitrile were analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under different conditions. Several species were characterized in these analyses. Based on these data, mechanisms were proposed for the disproportionation of the iodine(III) compounds in iodine(V) and iodine(I) species. <![CDATA[<b>Cloud point extraction/preconcentration of copper ions exploiting the formation of complexes with DMTI [4,5-dimercapto-1,3-dithyol-2-thionate]</b>]]> The present study proposes a method for cloud point preconcentration of copper ions at pH 2.0 based on complexes formed with [4,5-dimercapto-1,3-dithyol-2-thionate] and subsequent determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Under optimal analytical conditions, the method provided limits of detection of 0.84 and 0.45 µg L-1, by preconcentrating 12.0 and 24.0 mL of sample, respectively. The method was applied for copper determination in water samples, synthetic saliva, guarana powder, tea samples and soft drinks and the accuracy was assessed by analyzing the certified reference materials Dogfish Liver (DOLT-4) and Lobster Hepatopancreas (TORT-2). <![CDATA[<b>Highly improved chromium (III) uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments</b>]]> The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III) uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III) maximum adsorption capacity (MAC) value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1) giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1) than for raw sugarcane bagasse. <![CDATA[<b>Chemical composition of sugar cane spirits fermented by different <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> yeast strains</b>]]> The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of sugar cane spirits, fermented by different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and double distilled by pot still. Sugar cane juices were separately fermented by yeasts CA-11, Y-904, BG-1, PE-2, SA-1 and CAT-1 and distilled by pot still according to the methodology used for whisky production. The alcoholic liquids from first and second distillations were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, furfural, higher alcohols and methanol. The sugar cane spirits derived from fermentation by the different yeast strains presented distinct chemical compositions. <![CDATA[<b>The chemistry of life as we do not know it</b>]]> It has been widely suggested that life based on carbon and water is the only plausible biochemistry, and specifically that terrestrial biochemistry of nucleic acids, proteins, and sugars is likely to be universal. However, according to our current knowledge of physics and chemistry, this may be just a geocentric concept. In recent decades, laboratory experiments and theoretical studies have indicated that life could be based on molecular structures substantially different from those we know. In this work, these studies are discussed in order to improve our knowledge on the fundamental nature of life. <![CDATA[<b>Natural processes of petroleum biodegradation in reservoirs</b>]]> Petroleum biodegradation in reservoirs is a process caused by different microorganisms affecting many oil deposits which modifies the oil composition in a quasi-stepwise process starting from n-alkanes and isoprenoids through to diasteranes. This causes oil souring and increased viscosity, sulfur and metal content, having a direct impact on oil production and refining costs. <![CDATA[<b>The use of ethanol in solid oxide fuel cells</b>]]> This work reports a review on the status and technical feasibility of the application of ethanol as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), presenting both external reform and cell with direct utilization of ethanol. Based on this survey, both experimental results and mathematical modeling indicated the technical feasibility of power generation by ethanol SOFC, with cell units producing 450 mW/cm², sufficient for scale up to large stationary plants. The quantitative assessments in the literature show this field to be promising for researchers and private sector investment as well being a strategic technology for government policy in the short and long term. <![CDATA[<b>Carbonyl and carboxyl compounds determination in petroleum products</b>]]> Although metals and nitrogen/sulfur compounds have been the main concern of the petroleum industry, issues concerning the harmful effects on catalysts poisoning and product contamination by other contaminants such as oxygen-containing compounds have been raised. Trace amounts of carbonyl and carboxyl compounds in petroleum products can lead to catalyst poisoning. Additionally, oxygenates may be present in final polyethylene and polypropylene resins, affecting the quality of food packaging. In this work, we reviewed potential analytical approaches for oxygenates determination in petroleum products and report the features of each potential technique. <![CDATA[<b>Development and validation of a method for analysis of organophosphate residues in milk using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection</b>]]> This paper regards the implementation of the QuEChERS method for the analysis by GC-FPD of 53 different pesticides from the organophosphate class, in whole UHT and pasteurized milk. Selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery and limits of detection and quantification were evaluated. Of all pesticide recoveries, 51 were considered satisfactory since the values ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD < 20%. The quantification limits ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg kg-1. The QuEChERS method was suitable for determination of 52 pesticides, presenting several advantages - quick, cheap, easy, effective, rugged and safe - with regard to other traditional methodologies. <![CDATA[<b>Estimation of measurement uncertainty</b>: <b>a case study of the migration test of </b><b>ε</b><b>-caprolactam with determination by GC-FID</b>]]> The estimation of measurement uncertainty of an analytical result is an important tool to be applied for compliance to ISO IEC 17025. Through the available guides it is possible to establish procedures and criteria for the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents a case study on the estimation of measurement uncertainty in migration the test of ε-caprolactam from the polyamide 6 packages to fatty foods with determination by GC-FID. The calculation methodology used for the estimation of measurement uncertainty for the migration test was developed based on the guides EURACHEM / CITAC and ISO GUM, taking into account relevant aspects of the migration test. The expanded uncertainty estimated was approximately 23% of the concentration of migration. <![CDATA[<b>Indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of captopril using Cr(VI) and diphenylcarbazide</b>]]> A spectrophotometric method for the indirect determination of captopril (CP) in pharmaceutical formulations is proposed. The proposed procedure is based on the oxidation of captopril by potassium dichromate and the determination excess oxidant on the basis of its reaction with diphenylcarbazide (DPC). Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship (r = 0.9997) was obtained in the range of 0.08-3.5 µg mL-1. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.024 and 0.08 µg mL-1, respectively. The results obtained for captopril determination in pharmaceuticals using the proposed method and those obtained with the US Pharmacopoeia method were in good agreement at the 95% confidence level. <![CDATA[<b>Anthocyanins in natural extracts</b>: <b>application in acid-base titration and identification by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry</b>]]> Anthocyanins extracted from picao, quaresmeira, petunia, flamboyant, purple ipe, lobeira, pata de vaca, jaboticaba, purple cabbage and jambul were evaluated as natural acid-base indicators. Anthocyanins in extracts were identified using HPLC/MS. Clear, rapid change in color at final-point titration was observed for extracts but only picao showed strong change in pH. Indirect determination of carbonate in limestone using a natural indicator was performed and results compared with phenolphthalein indicator and potentiometer titration. Optimal results were obtained with picao but other extracts showed good accuracy and precision. <![CDATA[<b>Resolution of ibuprofen</b>: <b>a project for an experimental organic chemistry course</b>]]> A practical and didactic sequence of experiments was proposed to illustrate the stereochemistry concept, optically active compounds, resolution of racemates, and use of the NMR technique, including 2D-COSY for identification of organic compounds, on a laboratory course for undergraduate students. The sequence was: extractions of racemic ibuprofen and chiral naproxen from commercial tablets; syntheses of diastereoisomeric amides reacting chiral (S)-(-)-α-methylbenzylamine with (±)-ibuprofen; separation and determination of absolute configuration of amides by ¹H NMR spectroscopy and GC analysis, and hydrolysis of amides to obtain (+)- and (-)-ibuprofen. <![CDATA[<b>Mini-project on fermentation of sugarcane juice for practical general chemistry courses</b>]]> This paper describes a five-week mini-project for a general chemistry laboratory course. Activities are included preparations of ethanol and sucrose solutions, calculation of concentrations, determination of densities with densimeters, sugarcane juice fermentation with CO2 capture in alkaline solution, distillation, and determination of amounts of ethanol and CO2 formed. Abilities and concepts normally present in practical general chemistry courses are covered: use of balances, volumetric glassware and densimeters, preparation of solutions, performing of dilutions, determination of solution densities, observation of chemical reactions, stoichiometric calculations, separation of mixtures, and titration. <![CDATA[<b>Quantum state tuning</b>: <b>numerical study of the quantum harmonic oscillator</b>]]> The quantum harmonic oscillator is described by the Hermite equation.¹ The asymptotic solution is predominantly used to obtain its analytical solutions. Wave functions (solutions) are quadratically integrable if taken as the product of the convergent asymptotic solution (Gaussian function) and Hermite polynomial,¹ whose degree provides the associated quantum number. Solving it numerically, quantization is observed when a control real variable is "tuned" to integer values. This can be interpreted by graphical reading of Y(x) and |Y(x)|², without other mathematical analysis, and prove useful for teaching fundamentals of quantum chemistry to undergraduates. <![CDATA[<b>Biginelli and Mannich multicomponent reactions in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory</b>: <b>a didactic approach to green chemistry principles</b>]]> The introduction of Mannich and Biginelli multicomponent reactions in a practical Organic Chemistry course is presented in this article. Procedures described in the literature were adapted for use under the simple conditions available in undergraduate laboratories and were selected on the basis of Green Chemistry principles and practicality of synthesis. The reactions are easy to carry out and all products are readily isolated as crystalline solids with yields ranging from moderate to high. <![CDATA[<b>Desmystifying patent protection in universities</b>]]> Brazilian universities and research institutions still fail to protect the knowledge and technology produced by their community of students, staff and professors while Intellectual Property (IP) issues along with the role of patents and their strategic management in educational and research institutions remain taboo or misunderstood. The focus of this work was to demystify these subjects, including IP, patents and their requirements, the decision to patent as well as tips for successful patenting. Any student, professor or researcher of an educational or research institution can invent and protect their technology. This paper shows how to make such a patent application.