Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Engenharia Agrícola]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0100-691620160006&lang=pt vol. 36 num. 6 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT AND GAS PRODUCTION IN DIFFERENT GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FACILITIES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000600953&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate gas levels and the acoustic environment (noise) of growing-finishing swine in different facilities, one composed of shallow pool (SP) and another of partially slatted floor (PSF). Sensors and a sound level meter were used to measure gas concentrations (CO2 and NH3) and noise at 1.50 meters above the ground and at animal height. Data on gas concentrations and noise levels were measured at 9am, 12pm, and 3 pm. Results showed differences (P&lt;0.05) between noise levels at animal height and gas concentrations measured in relation to stall type and data collection time. The highest noise values were found in the shallow pool stall, measured at animal level. The highest NH3 (13 ppm) and CO2 (1174.5 ppm) values were observed in the shallow pool stall at 3pm. The stall floor with shallow pool seems to provide greater welfare in relation to noise level for growing-finishing swine. <![CDATA[SPACIAL ILLUMINANCES VARIABILITY AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AVIARIES FOR LAYING HENS EQUIPED WITH COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND LIGHT EMITTING DIODE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000600962&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The spatial illuminance distribution interferes in the commercial production of eggs and electric energy consumption, being considered the second major source of costs in the production chain. Therefore, in this study the objective was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the illuminance level and electric energy consumption in two commercial aviaries for egg production. The first aviary was equipped with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and the second, with light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. The illuminances in the aviaries were analyzed using descriptive statistics and their spatial distribution through geostatistics. It was found that the aviary equipped with CFL showed better uniformity in the illuminances distribution and better results in attending the luminance levels of 5 lux. On the other hand, the one equipped with LED lamps showed electric energy consumption 43.52% less than the one equipped with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). <![CDATA[BASIC UNIT COST SIMULATION FROM FREE-STALL DESIGN TO DAIRY CATTLE CONFINEMENT USING DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000600972&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The ascendancy of milk production in Brazil is due to mainly to the adoption of confinement systems, however, construction quality of these systems impact on milk production. This study aimed to simulate the Basic Unit Cost (BUC m-2), referring to a free-stall design with capacity for 80 animals and different construction techniques, with a database for various budget analysis and investment plans. A budgetary spreadsheet was modeled, allowing simulating the BUC m-2 for different combinations of roof pillars (metallic, wood or reinforced concrete), covering structure (metallic or wood), coverage model (with or without ridge vent), roof tiles (aluminum, cement or ceramic) and masonry (concrete block, ceramic or solid brick). The techniques used were compositions generated by Price Compositions tables for Budgets (TCPO, 2014). The results relating to 2014 and expressed in unencumbered values showed the maximum variation of 29% in the BUC m-2, establishing a range of R$ 523.96 m-2 to R$ 675.98 m-2 for the free-stall construction. <![CDATA[PROTECTED ENVIRONMENTS AND SUBSTRATES FOR MANGABEIRA SEEDLINGS (<em>Hancornia Speciosa</em> Gomez) PRODUCTION]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000600984&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Mangabeira is a native fruit tree from Brazil, which provides a delicious fruit to taste and beneficial to health, whose information about the seedlings production will assist the entire productive chain of this important species. The aim of this research was to evaluate protected environments and substrates compositions in the formation of mangabeira seedlings. For this, two greenhouses with different screens were used, the first covered with aluminized thermo-reflective screen of 50% shading and the second with black screen of 50% shading. Inside the environments, were tested substrates derived from combinations of various proportions of bovine manure (M), soil (S), medium vermiculite (MV), super fine vermiculite (FV) and fine sand (FS). For each environment of cultivation was adopted a completely randomized design to evaluate the substrates, with five replicates of eight plants. The environments were compared by analysis of experiments groups. The results showed that both protected environments are suitable for mangabeira seedlings. In the aluminized screen is indicated for the formation of seedling in the substrate with 20% M + 30% S + 10% MV + 30% FV + 10% FS while in the black screen is indicated for seedlings in the substrate with 10% M + 30% S + 10% MV + 10% FV + 40% FS and with 10% M + 30% S + 40% MV + 10% FV + 10% FS. <![CDATA[SOWS AND PIGLETS THERMAL COMFORT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE TILES USED IN THE FARROWING HOUSING]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000600996&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The global animal production is increasing as expected to meet world demand for food, especially for meat products. This research aimed to investigate the effect of two types of roofs (clay and fiber-cement tiles) in a tropical area on the thermal comfort of farrowing sows and piglets. Twelve sows and forty-eight piglets were observed during summer in the Southeast region of Brazil. Climate variables, thermal comfort and surface temperature (sows and piglets) were assessed. The type of roofs clearly affected the piglets' surface temperature during all studied periods, but the results were not similar in the sows' surface temperature. Temperature and humidity index found was high in the building with fiber-cement tiles. The pen location in the housing also influenced the piglet surface temperature. Controlling temperature fluctuation in piglet housing is crucial; therefore, providing adequate rearing environment in tropical condition might help pig productivity as well as farmer profitability. <![CDATA[INFLUENCE OF LAND USE CHANGE ON SEDIMENT YIELD: A CASE STUDY OF THE SUB-MIDDLE OF THE SÃO Francisco River Basin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABTSRACT Erosion risk mapping and assessment are important for planning of natural resource management tool. The objective of this study was to simulate different scenarios of land use in the Sub-Middle of the São Francisco River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment (SWAT) model to analyze the effects of changes in sediment yield, making comparisons with the present land use classification. The scenario analysis was (i) vegetation type characteristic of the semiarid region, (ii) growing corn and (iii) bare soil. For calibration procedure, the first three years of time series from 1993 to 1994 were validated using data from 1995 to 2004. The SWAT model employs the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) to compute soil erosion data. The results of simulations for different land uses allowed the identification of areas with a high potential for erosion by water. The major impact produced by sediment inflow was in the bare soil scenario, corresponding to an increase of 93.7% over the current land use. The landscape management in river basins using SWAT model can help identify areas particularly susceptible to erosion process. <![CDATA[COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: AN APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES WITHIN AN EXPERIMENTAL BASIN IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration using an experimental basin in the Brazilian Cerrado, for water management purposes. For that, we estimated daily reference evapotranspiration over a certain period (time series between 1982 and 2012) through different empirical methods. These methods consisted of Blaney-Criddle (BC), Hargreaves &amp; Samani (HS), ASCE Penman-Monteith (ASCE- PM), Penman (1948/1963) (PO), Priestley-Taylor (PT), which were all compared to the standard Penman-Monteith FAO-56 (PM-FAO56). Based on statistics, ASCE- PM, P and BC methods should be recommended for cerrado areas, either in rainy or dry seasons. After these, the PT also stood out. Among the less complex methods, based on temperature and energy data, PT method is recommended whether climatological data are scarce either in rainy or dry seasons. Yet, HS reached the greatest errors, a broad data spread and low estimate accuracy, but showing better performance in dry periods, thus remaining under restricted use. <![CDATA[PERFORMANCE OF ANALYSIS METHODS OF SLOPE STABILITY FOR DIFFERENT GEOTECHNICAL CLASSES SOIL ON EARTH DAMS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of less accurate analysis methods of slope stability, in order to reduce the number of operations used by the most accurate methods available in the literature. The study evaluated four methods for calculating slope stability. Fellenius (FELLENIUS, 1936), Bishop (BISHOP, 1955), Simplified Bishop (BISHOP &amp; MORGENSTERN, 1960) and Simplified Janbu (JANBU, 1973) were compared with the Spencer method (SPENCER, 1967), which is considered an accurate method for calculating the factor of safety (FS). The procedure was performed in scenarios with different soil groups according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) (ASTM 2011), heights and slope inclinations, and under conditions of reservoir subject to fast and slow emptying. Thus, comparative analyses were made using the correlation index “r”, the accuracy index “d” (WILLMOTT et al, 1985) and the performance index “c” (CAMARGO &amp; SENTELHAS, 1997). The methods that had optimal performance for the analyzed conditions were the Simplified Bishop, the Simplified Janbu and the Bishop methods; the Simplified Bishop method obtained a correlation coefficient of 99%. Thus, they can be used as alternative methods to replace the Spencer method in the analysis of slope stability on earth dams. <![CDATA[Hydrological Modeling of Tributaries of Cantareira System, Southeast Brazil, with the Swat Model]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601037&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The lack of hydrological data in Brazil is the main limitation for structuring hydrological models, which are able to assist water resources management. Therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the performance of models without on-site calibration. Within this context, the aim of this study was to calibrate the SWAT hydrological model for the Camanducaia River Basin and to evaluate the performance of this calibration in a contiguous drainage basin, one of the Jaguarí River. For the calibration and validation steps, the SWAT-CUP program was utilized. Uncertainty analysis and calculation of efficiency indexes were carried out through the SUFI-2 algorithm. The SWAT adjustment in the Camanducaia River Basin obtained adequate results, with a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient higher than 0.80 in the monthly time step and of 0.64 for the daily time step. With the parametrical transfer of this model to the Jaguarí River Basin, simulations were classified as very good in the monthly time step and acceptable for the daily time step. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the parametric transfer is a promising technique to model ungauged catchments, and can contribute towards water resources management in the river basins of the Mantiqueira Range region, as well as in other regions with shortage of hydrological monitoring. <![CDATA[ONE- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECOHYDRAULIC MODELING OF FORMOSO RIVER (MG)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601050&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare ecohydrological simulations from a one-dimensional model (PHABSIM - Physical Habitat Simulation System) and a two-dimensional model (River2D) in order to indicate a reliable tool that could be used to determine public policies for the sustainable management of the water resources of the FormosoRiver basin(MG). The results from the calibration of hydraulic variables, namely, water depth and velocity, as well as habitat predictions for three fish species of the river were compared. The results showed that River 2D was best suited to simulate ecohydrological features for the studied river stretch. Although PHABSIM presented a better fit of the hydraulic variables at the calibration process, the use of only three monitoring cross sections to compose the biotic model database compromised its habitat modeling. PHABSIM model was not able to accurately assess the actual characteristics of the physical habitat in the segments of the river located between the monitoring cross sections. <![CDATA[CLAY AND PHOSPHORUS LOSSES BY EROSION IN OXISOL WITH SUGARCANE RESIDUES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601063&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Considering the importance of nutrients in the soil for the plants development and the soil quality conservation and the quantification relevance of them for proper soil management, the aims of this research were: (i) to quantify the clay loss, adsorbed and soluble P from interrill erosion influenced by the presence of sugarcane residues on the ground surface; (ii) to determine the minimum percentage of residues to be maintained on the soil surface to not enrich the eroded sediment by clay and soluble P (Psed) and adsorbed (Pads). The experimental area is located in Guariba - SP, with soil classified as Red Dystrophic Oxisol. The experiment was designed based on results of previous experiments with residue analysis of variance for 40 plots. These experiments were conducted by our research group, which provided field representation and the establishment of a minimum number of degrees of freedom necessary to ensure normal distribution of results and variance homoscedasticity. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, 5 treatments with straw sugarcane and 3 repetitions, totaling 15 plots. In the treatments, the straw was manually distributed across the surface of the soil in amounts of 0; 0.16; 0.35; 0.52 to 0.7 Kg by plot, giving 0% coverage (SC0), 25% (SC25), 50% (SC50), 75% (SC75) and 100% (SC100), respectively. The experimental plots were subjected to simulated rain with average intensity of 60 mm h−1 for 65 minutes. To avoid enrichment ratio (ER) of the sediment eroded by Psed, Pads and clay, a minimum soil surface coverage (SC) of 42% is necessary. <![CDATA[NUTRIENT CONTENTS IN ‘TOMMY ATKINS’ MANGO LEAVES AT FLOWERING AND FRUITING STAGES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601073&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient contents in ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango leaves at the flowering and fruiting stages under different strategies to reduce irrigation levels during flower induction. Five irrigation level reduction strategies, based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) were used in the plots: T1 (0% ETc), T2 (25% ETc), T3 (50% ETc), T4 (75% ETc) and T5 (100% ETc); two production cycles in the split-plots; and in two development stages, flowering and harvest, in the split-split plots. The content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, as well as B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Na was determined and leaf chlorophyll index was measured during the second cycle. The content of P, K, Mg, and Cu in the ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango trees leaves varied according to phases and cycles, regardless of the strategies to reduce irrigation levels in floral induction. The contents of N, Ca, B, Fe, Mn, and Na varied with stages and with the production cycles, in an independent manner. Foliar N contents were above the sufficiency range at the different development stages and cycles evaluated. The indices of a, b, and total chlorophyll varied independent of reading time. The nutrient contents with lower mobility in the plant, Ca, B, Fe and Mn increase in ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango trees leaves from flowering to fruiting, with the return of irrigation at 100% crop evapotranspiration, while the levels of N, P, K and Mg, nutrients with high mobility in plant decrease. <![CDATA[EVALUATION OF SELF COMPENSATING EMITTERS IRRIGATING WITH SALINE WATER: PART II: PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601086&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The use of tools such as process capability index for irrigation aims to observe how this irrigation is adequate in terms of quality. The aim of the study was analyzing the Christiansen uniformity coefficient and the flow of a drip irrigation system with self-compensating emitters under water different salt concentrations, using the process capability index. The research was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG). The experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial 5 x 2 with three replications, the factors consisted of five levels of irrigation water salinity (CEw) (0.6, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m−1 at 25°C) and two running times (0 and 350 hours of operation). The Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CUC) for new and used emitters was greater than 90%, in different salt concentrations studied. The flow of emitters is maintained within the statistical quality control, since management and maintenance operations are made after 350 hours of operation. The potential process capability index for the Christiansen uniformity coefficient was higher than recommended for new and used emitters, being the process within the required specifications. <![CDATA[IRRIGATION STRATEGIES WITH WATER DEFICIT IN ‘TOMMY ATKINS’ MANGO TREE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601096&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT With the limited availability of water in semi-arid regions, it is necessary that irrigation is accurate and there is high water use efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) in yield, water use efficiency and gas exchange of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango tree in semi-arid conditions. The experimental design was a randomized block with seven treatments for RDI under micro sprinkler and five treatments for the PRD under drip. Treatments were applied in phases PI - early blooming to early fruit expansion, PII - early expansion to early physiologic ripening and in phase III - physiologic ripening of fruits, with application of the RDI of 100, 75 and 50 % of ETc in different combinations of phases and application of PRD 100, 80, 60 and 40 % of ETc in three phases with the partial rootzone druing at 15 days. Photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency and quantum efficiency of photosynthesis are lower in PRD 40% ETc at 8 a.m. compared to full irrigation and PRD 80 % of ETc. Phases of expansion and fruit ripening are more appropriate for application of RDI with 50 % and 75% of ETc without loss to the crop yield of ‘Tommy Atkins’ mango tree and greater water use efficiency. The strategy of partial rootzone drying, PRD, every 15 days with 40 % of ETc, provides greater WUE. <![CDATA[ADJUVANTS IN FUNGICIDE SPRAYING IN WHEAT AND SOYBEAN CROPS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601110&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the combination of adjuvants to fungicides significantly alters the spray physicochemical characteristics, and potentiates the chemical control of foliar diseases, in that it may affect yield components in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max). The experimental design was completely randomized for the spray physicochemical characteristics, and randomized blocks for the culture variables analyzed, with four treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of control (no fungicide spraying in the shoot), with fungicides only in plant shoots, fungicides + 0.25% of the spray with adjuvant of methyl ester base of soybean oil, and fungicides + 0.05% of the spray with adjuvant lauryl ether sodium sulfate base. Treatments were applied with land boom sprayer in wheat (season 2012) and soybean (season 2013). The variables evaluated were spray physicochemical characteristics, incidence and severity of diseases and yield components. Adjuvants altered the spray surface tension. Adding lauryl ether sodium sulfate to spray significantly reduced the disease severity in wheat, and incidence in soybean cultivation. The addition of adjuvants to spray fungicide did not affect yield components in both cultures. <![CDATA[BLADE ANGLE EFFECT ON DROPLET SIZE SPECTRUM OF ROTARY ATOMIZERS USED IN BRAZIL]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601118&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The effect of blade angle on droplet size spectrum of five rotary cage atomizers and one rotary disc atomizer used in Brazil was evaluated in a high speed wind tunnel, with an air speed of 180 km h−1. This study included the characterization of the droplet size spectrum, via laser diffraction instrument, generated by three blades angles, of 45, 60 and 75 degrees. The spray solution was composed of Picoxystrobin+ Cyproconazole fungicide (SC), at 20 mL c.p. L−1, and at a flow rate of 6 L min−1. As the angle decreased from 75 to 45 degrees, the rotational speed of the atomizers increased and the volume median diameter (VMD) decreased. However, increasing the rotational speed also increased the percentage of droplets smaller than 100 µm (% &lt; 100 µm). At the blade angles of 45 and 60 degrees the atomizers showed that % &lt; 100 µm was higher than 20% and VMD was smaller than 198 µm. The disc type atomizer resulted in the lower values of relative span (RS). The use of 75 degrees blade angle produced the highest values of VMD and the lowest values of % &lt; 100 µm; these parameters were also affected by atomizer model and brand. <![CDATA[CONSTRUCTION AND PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF A CANOPY OPENER DEVICE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601126&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Accurate application of pesticides is difficult for crops with dense leaves, such as soybean crops. To improve spray deposits on the lower leaves of soybean plants, the aim of this study is to build a canopy opener (CO) from a previously developed prototype and to assess its practical application and efficiency on soybean crops. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the amount of spray deposits on the top and the lower leaves using a Brilliant Blue dye. The influence of the CO device on the number of flowers knocked down during spraying was also investigated. The data showed that the use of the CO attached to the spray boom enabled more spray deposit on the lower leaves and less spray depositson the upper leaves compared with conventional spraying. The CO device did not influence the falling of flowers or the damage to the soybean plants. The construction of the CO device proved to be a feasible alternative, which could be used primarily by small-scale soybean producers, with the goal of obtaining larger spray deposits on the lower leaves of soybean plants. <![CDATA[QUALITY OF SUGARCANE MECHANIZED PLANTING]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601136&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: The quality of the sugarcane plantation affects the plantation longevity, yield and production costs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of sugarcane mechanized planting in day and night shifts. The mechanized planting was carried out in Ivinhema, MS, Brazil. For the evaluation of pre-planting seedlings, were collected 40 billets in the seedling area with 10 repetitions for each shift. For the other variables, it was held sampling, totaling 60 points, 30 points assessed for each shift. The variables evaluated were: total of natural damage and total of mechanized damage in pre-planting, shoot per meter, viable shoots per meter, total of unviable shoots, seedlings consumption and failures percentage. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and statistical quality control. The attributes showed stable mechanized planting process, that is, with quality, except only for the seedlings consumption and failures for the day shift that presented unstable process or outside the proposed standards to achieve quality. To achieve the specific limits for the number of viable shoots m−1, it is necessary to increase the seedlings consumption, and an alternative would be to start the operators training to align the expected goals and qualify labor. <![CDATA[TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN OIL OBTAINED FROM STORED GRAIN UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601145&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Soybean oil has many important components, but for its maintenance it is essential that there is an appropriate storage, temperature, relative humidity and optimum grain moisture content, because the oxidation reactions occur by improper storage, causing product deterioration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the main changes in the quality of soybean crude oil, from grain storage in temperature of 30°C and different relative humidity (59.6%, 67.0% and 76.0%). Soybean grains were packaged in plastic recipients, where saturated salt solutions were added so the grains reached the desired moisture. The analyses of moisture content, lipid, acidity index, color, antioxidant capacity, specific extension by absorption in the ultraviolet region were realized during storage for 180 days, because they indicate the degree of oil oxidation. A completely randomized design was conducted, and analysis of variance and Tukey test were performed. The storage time caused changes in physical-chemical properties of the grains, indicating that the oil was degraded over time. <![CDATA[PROCESSING IN THE QUALITY OF TANZANIA GRASS SEEDS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601157&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The available research concerning the processing of grass seeds is scarce, despite its fundamental importance for national and international agribusiness. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of processing phases on the physical and physiological quality of tanzania grass seeds for commercialization purposes. Seeds were sampled before processing and after leaving the air and screen machine (upper and intermediate screens and bottom); first gravity table (drift, upper and intermediate spouts); treating machine; second gravity table (upper, intermediate, and lower spouts). Seeds were evaluated as to water content, physical quality (purity and 1,000 seeds weight) and physiological (germination, first count of germination, seedling vigor rating, seedlings length of primary roots and shoots, seedling emergence in the field, and emergence speed index). The processing of Tanzania grass seeds in the air screen cleaner machine and gravity table are efficient to improve the physical quality of the lot. The seed treatment with dye ink reduces the seedlings emergence speed in the field. The processing is not required to meet the national commercialization standards of the Tanzania grass seeds, but for the international. <![CDATA[EFFECT OF DRYING METHODS ON CRAMBE (<em>Crambe abyssinica</em> HOCHST) SEED COAT PIGMENTATION AND ON OIL AND BIODIESEL QUALITY]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601167&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on seed coat pigmentation and quality of oil and biodiesel extracted from crambe. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications, totaling 20 plots. The treatments consisted of drying with heated air, natural air, ground, in the shade and in the plant. Physical and chemical analyzes were performed to verify the quality of grain, oil and biodiesel. The largest amounts of chlorophyll a and b and green beans and the lowest oil content were found in artificial drying with heated air. It was concluded that the drying in the plant presented grains and oil of better quality, but do not interfering in the quality of biodiesel, which has met the standards required by the ANP. <![CDATA[SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE SYSTEM (SEBS) AND SATELLITE DATA FOR MONITORING WATER CONSUMPTION OF IRRIGATED SUGARCANE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601176&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the water consumption of irrigated sugarcane areas using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) driven by products derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), SPOT/VEGETATION, Terra/MODIS satellite data and meteorological observations data from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The actual evapotranspiration from SEBS model (ET-SEBS) was compared against crop evapotranspiration under standard conditions (ETc), which was obtained from weather data based on reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and the crop coefficient (Kc) values from FAO. Results showed that there was a good agreement between ET-SEBS and ETc when sugarcane was at maximum development stage under center pivot irrigation and the Kc value corresponded to 1.25. The ET-SEBS values seem to overestimate water use during sugarcane late stage in areas which the Kc value was 0.7. Increasing Kc to a value equals to 1.25 for sugarcane late stage, the differences between ETc and ET-SEBS decreased; Kc is not so high at that stage, reinforcing ET-SEBS overestimation. In conclusion, the estimation of evapotranspiration using satellite data and SEBS model approach was appropriated to monitor water usage of large sugarcane areas irrigated by center pivots in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. <![CDATA[EVOLUTION OF CERRADO VEGETAL COVER ON A RIVER ISLAND BASED ON ORBITAL IMAGING DATA]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601186&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess vegetal cover evolution on a river island within the Ecological Station of (EEP), by remote sensing. For this purpose, Normalized Difference Vegetation Indexes were generated for Landsat 1 (1973) and Landsat 5 (1984, 1990, 2000 and 2011) images. Five landscape units were identified in the field: bare soil, Rough savanna, Typical savanna, Forested savanna and Evergreen dry woods. Only Forested savanna and Evergreen dry woods showed poor spectral splitting, being thus considered as a forestry complex. Changes throughout time have occurred in all units, with decreasing in bare soil areas (-2.56 ha year−1), Rough savanna (-0.66 ha year−1) and Typical savanna (-0.94 ha year−1) and with an increase in the Forested savanna (5.97 ha year−1). Thus, the method used in this study was effective for sorting and assessing plant cover of the landscape units studied over time. <![CDATA[POTENTIAL OF REDUCTION IN THE EMISSION OF METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE FROM SWINE WASTEWATER AFTER TREATED BY TWO DIFFERENT SYSTEMS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601198&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Swine wastewater have high pollution load, requiring treatment before its disposal into the environment. Methane (CH4) potentially emitted for such waste is considered 21 times more polluting than Carbon dioxide (CO2), and the nitrous oxide (N2O) is considered 310 times. In this way, projects of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and energy use related to the CH4 are worldwide diffused. It was evaluated the potential greenhouse gas emissions in the influent and effluent from digesters and stabilization ponds used to treat the swine wastewaters in two commercial farms operating in full cycle, located in the municipality of Oratorios-MG, Brazil. Using the methodology “AM0006” to estimate the average potential of greenhouse gases, it was identified 55% and 23% of reduction in emissions from digesters and stabilization ponds, respectively. Thus, when comparing the two systems, in the conditions that they were operated, it can be concluded that the digestion treatment system was more suitable for the treatment of swine wastewater, when taking into account only the emission of the mentioned gases, subjects of this study. <![CDATA[COMPOSTING TIME REDUCTION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601206&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT The agro-industrialization of animal products has led to a significant waste generation, which has been stabilized by composting process in specialized plants. Waste stabilization time on composting depends on the handling used. 12 treatments were performed, three frequency turnings combined with two environmental conditions (with and without coverage of the composting area) and with and without commercial inoculant, whose results were submitted to multiple regression analysis. Windrows turned twice a week in the first month had adequate temperature control and stabilization time of 83.5 and 95.5 days for uncovered and covered windrows, respectively. Uncovered windrows have accelerated the process in 10 days on average, with the disadvantage of increasing nutrient losses. The weekly inoculation of Bacillus (subtilis, licheniformis and polymyxa) and Yarrowia lipolytica had no significant effect (p≥0.05). <![CDATA[ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC ZONING OF THE CITY OF ALTINÓPOLIS – SP, BRAZIL]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601218&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Since colonial times, Brazilian land use has been made under an extractivist model at the expense of deforestation, increasing soil and vegetation depletion, stream siltation, as well as loss of biodiversity. An ecological-economic zoning (EEZ) has been taken as feasible alternative to guide public policies aimed at city land-use planning. This study focused on designing an EZZ for the city of Altinópolis, in São Paulo state (Brazil), by means of geographical information systems (GIS). Information and maps delineated six land-use areas, in which 30% covered areas under environmental protection, 45% over areas with groundwater recharge potential, which should be intended to restoration. Furthermore, around 70% of the territory show potential to be grown with agroforestry systems due to soil, climate and relief conditions. These results point out demand for further public policies to encouraging preservation of existing forests and restoration of degraded areas, mainly those covering groundwater-recharge areas. <![CDATA[EFFECT OF TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE ON WEIGHT LOSSES IN PIGS FROM DEHYDRATION]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601229&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: The increasing of global demand for food has required more efficiency in the production process. Transportation represents a source of body dehydration for pigs transported from farm to slaughterhouses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the distances on the body dehydration of pigs transported to slaughter in tropical conditions. We analyzed 350 pigs shipments with a total of 68,588 heads using statistical software SAS by anova, means and corr procedures. The results showed a liveweight loss estimated at 12% which was increased gradually as the distance increased as pigs were deprived of water for a long time. The most cost-effective distance for the pigs' transportation under tropical condition is within the range below 100 km, where there were not detected weight losses (p&lt; 0.05). <![CDATA[CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF CS-CROPGRO MODEL FOR COMMON BEANS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601239&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Simulation models of crop growth enable estimating crop yield and water balance components with low cost and high precision. This study aimed to calibrate and evaluate the performance of the CS-CROPGRO model for common beans under the conditions of Jaboticabal city (SP), Brazil. The model was calibrated and tested with data previously collected from two experiments conducted in 2002 and 2003. In these experiments, treatments corresponded to two irrigation scheduling methods (tensiometers and class A pan evaporation) and two cropping systems (conventional and no-till). For calibration, data from the experiment carried out in 2002 were used. For testing, we used data from the experiment conducted in 2003. By using the genetic coefficients calibrated for cultivar IAC-Carioca, the model could correctly simulate phenology, leaf area, dry matter and grain yield during both, calibration and testing, under no-till and conventional systems, combined with tensiometer and class A pan irrigation scheduling methods. Conversely, the model did not show the same performance for soil moisture simulations. <![CDATA[MULTICRITERIA DECISION AID TO IMPLEMENT AN ON-FARM STORAGE SYSTEM FOR SOYBEANS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601250&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Implementing an on-farm storage system for agricultural products becomes a complex decision problem when considering risks, benefits, uncertainties and alternatives. This study aimed at applying the multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach to select the infrastructure to be implemented, taking into account variables and farmer's goals. As a result, we concluded that the adopted approach was useful since it allowed a better understanding of the problem and provided decision-making support. <![CDATA[QUALITY OF A DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL FOR SANTA CATARINA STATE]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69162016000601261&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT: Relief characterization using a digital terrain model (DTM) is widely applied in erosion, soil and vegetation modeling. However, factors, such as acquisition technology and the spatial resolution of the digital model, affect modeling results. The aim of this study was to characterize noises in a DTM of the entire state of Santa Catarina recently made available through the state's Sustainable Economic Development Secretary and to evaluate different methods of interpolation and smoothing of the original 1 m resolution to a new digital model with a spatial resolution of 15 m. Using the SAGA GIS program, spurious data that appeared as peaks and sinks were removed from the digital model. Of five processing procedures, the following three were used for smoothing: a Gaussian filter, a Lee filter, and mesh denoising. The remaining two were for interpolation: nearest-neighbor, and ordinary kriging. Altimetric reference data were collected in the study area of 11,597 km2 with two dual-frequency GPS RTK receivers located in the Celso Ramos community in the municipality of Frei Rogério (SC). The root mean square error showed that the documented values of the aerial survey report were consistent with the findings of this study. However, the GPS RTK data showed a difference of 1.07 m compared with the original DTM with 1 m spatial resolution. There were pixels with peaks and sinks in the digital model of the Santa Catarina State.