Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0100-699120010005&lang=en vol. 28 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>A importância de ser membro do CBC</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Follicular thyroid carcinoma</b>: <b>retrospective study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVOS: Abordar o diagnóstico, tratamento e evolução do carcinoma folicular da tireóide. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos dados de 38 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia por carcinoma folicular puro, num período de 10 anos no HC-FMUSP. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de três anos e três meses. Nove pacientes eram do sexo masculino (23,7%) e 29 do sexo feminino (76,3%), com idades entre 19 e 87 anos (média=49,5). RESULTADOS: Em 17 (58,6%) dos doentes, observou-se nódulo único à ultra-sonografia, e 23 (79,3%) tinham nódulos frios à cintilografia. Sintomatologia esteve presente em 33 pacientes (86,8%). A punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF), realizada em 27 pacientes, revelou padrão folicular em 24 (88,9%), carcinoma papilífero em 2 (7,4%) e bócio em 1 (3,7%). Tireoidectomia total foi o tratamento final em 34 pacientes e esvaziamento cervical foi realizado em três casos. Apenas 5 (13,1%) obtiveram confirmação diagnóstica ao exame de congelação intra-operatória. Houve 2 (5,2%) óbitos pela doença e 5 (13,1%) pacientes apresentam-se vivos com doença. O aumento da tireoglobulina (TG) correlacionou-se com o aparecimento de metástase em 100% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Concluímos que pacientes com carcinoma folicular de tireóide geralmente apresentam-se com nódulo único ou predominante ao primeiro exame, cuja PAAF é de padrão folicular. O exame de congelação raramente confirma o diagnóstico. Em nosso serviço, o tratamento de escolha é a tireoidectomia total, permitindo um seguimento mais adequado e confiável do paciente e prevenindo o crescimento de lesões subclínicas no lobo contralateral. A evolução geralmente é favorável.<hr/>BACKGROUND: Unlike papillary carcinoma, there are limited data regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on 38 patients submitted to thyroidectomy for exclusive follicular carcinoma over a 10 years period. Mean follow-up was 39 months (114 months the longest). Nine patients were males (23,7%) and 29 females (76,3%). Mean age was 49.5 (19 to 87 years). RESULTS: Thirty-three (86,8%) patients presented at least one symptom such as dyspnea, dysphagia or hoarseness. Seventeen (58,6%) patients had a solitary nodule shown by ultrasonography and 23 (79,3%) had "cold" nodules by scintigraphy. Twenty-seven patients underwent were submitted to fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA), which revealed a follicular neoplasm (benign or malignant) in 24 (88,9%) patients, goiter in 1(3,7%) and papillary carcinoma in 2 cases (7,4%). Total thyroidectomy was the final treatment in 34 patients and neck dissection operation was required in 3 cases. Only 13,1% of the patients were diagnosed as having follicular carcinoma by intraoperative frozen section. Two patients died from the tumor and 5 patients remain alive with the tumor all of them with distant metastasis. Elevation of serum levels of thyroglobulin correlated with metastasis in 100% of those cases. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that follicular thyroid carcinoma usually presents as a solitary nodule diagnosed as a follicular neoplasm by FNA biopsy. Intra-operatory frozen section rarely confirms the diagnosis. O treatment of choice for thyroid follicular cancer total thyroidectomy followed by complementary therapy (radioiodine therapy) if necessary. We advocate total thyroidectomy because it is assumited with a better follow-up and avoids growth of subclinical lesions on the opposite lobe. Outcome is good in the majority of cases. <![CDATA[<b>Carotid evaluation of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Como a doença carotídea é a principal causa isolada de acidente vascular cerebral de origem tromboembólica, acredita-se ser imprescindível o seu diagnóstico precoce. O presente estudo tem por objetivo realizá-lo, mantendo os conceitos de praticidade e viabilidade econômica, adequando-se às condições socioeconômicas desfavoráveis locais. MÉTODO: No período de 18 meses foram avaliados 50 doentes, sendo 35 homens e 15 mulheres, com média de idade de 67,2 anos. Todos apresentavam indicação de revascularização miocárdica, considerados coronariopatas graves. Avaliou-se a incidência e o grau de estenose carotídea com base no mapeamento dúplex. Da mesma forma, foi avaliada a relação com possíveis fatores de risco: diabetes melito, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo, sintomatologia neurológica focal prévia, doença arterial troncular dos membros inferiores e presença de sopro carotídeo. RESULTADOS: A incidência de estenose carotídea hemodinamicamente significativa (>50%) foi de 48%, e crítica (>70%) de 32%. Mostraram-se fatores de risco estatisticamente significativos, antecedentes de diabetes melito, sintomatologia neurológica focal prévia, presença de sopro carotídeo e presença de alterações arteriais tronculares dos membros inferiores. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que no grupo estudado houve aumento significativo de risco para estenose carotídea hemodinamicamente significativa e crítica, em relação à população geral. Desta forma, justifica-se o rastreamento ultra-sonográfico para doença carotídea em doentes coronariopatas, principalmente quando os fatores de risco significativos se fizerem presentes.<hr/>PURPOSE: Carotid disease is known as the main individual cause of stroke. It is necessary to develop means to achive an early diagnosis using economically viable methods. METHOD: During 18 months, 50 patients with coronary disease and were indication for coronary artery bypass evaluated (35 male, 15 female; mean age of 67.2 years). The presence and degree of carotid artery stenosis was determined with duplex ultrasonography. The association of carotid artery disease and diabetes mellitus, arterial systemic hypertension, smoking, previous focal neurologic symptoms, lower extremity arterial disease and cervical bruit, was also determined. RESULTS: It was found that 48% of the patients presented hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis (>50%) and 32% of showed critic carotid stenosis (>70%). Diabetes mellitus, previous focal neurological symptoms, cervical bruit and lower extremity arterial disease were considered significant risk factors. These results clearly showed that there was a significant increase in the risk of presenting hemodynamically significant or critical carotid stenosis in these group of patients compared to the rest of the population. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the use of ultrasonographic screening for carotid disease, in patients suffering from coronary artery disease, is very justified, mainly when significant risk factors are present. <![CDATA[<b>Schistosomal portal hypertension. Assessment of portal bood flow before and after surgical treatment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Avaliar o fluxo sangüíneo portal na esquistossomose hepato-esplênica e o efeito tardio do tratamento cirúrgico na hemodinâmica portal. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 64 pacientes por Doppler dúplex: grupo I (pacientes com hipertensão portal esquistossomótica); grupo II (pacientes submetidos a desconexão ázigo-portal com esplenectomia) e grupo III (pacientes submetidos derivação esplenorrenal distal). RESULTADOS: O fluxo da veia porta foi maior no grupo I (1954,46 ± 693,73ml/min) e foi menor no grupo III (639,55 ± 285,86ml/min), neste correlacionou-se com o tempo pós-operatório (r=-0,67, p=0,0005). O fluxo sangüíneo portal do grupo II (1097,18 ± 342,12ml/min) foi semelhante ao de indivíduos normais. As mesmas alterações foram verificadas com relação ao diâmetro da veia porta nos grupos I, II, e III (cm): 1,46 ± 0,23; 1,12 ± 0,22; 0,93 ± 0,20, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Estes dados sugerem que: 1) Existe hiperfluxo portal na fisiopatologia da hipertensão portal esquistossomótica; 2) o tratamento cirúrgico interferiu na hemodinâmica portal, diminuindo o fluxo sangüíneo da veia porta; 3) Esta redução do fluxo sangüíneo portal correlacionou-se com o tempo de seguimento pós-operatório no grupo III mas não no grupo II.<hr/>BACKGROUND: Assessment of the portal blood flow in hepatoesplenic schistosomosis and the late effect of surgical treatment on portal hemodynamics. METHOD: Were studied 64 patients by duplex scan: group I (patients with schistosomal portal hypertension); group II (patients who underwent esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy); group III (patients who underwent distal splenorenal shunt). RESULTS: Portal vein blood flow was the highest in group I (1954.46 ± 693.73 ml/min) and the lowest in group III (639.55 ± 285.86 ml/min) which correlated with follow-up time (r=-0.67, p=0.0005). Group II portal flow (1097.18 ± 342.12 ml/min) was similar to control. The same changes were seen in portal vein diameter in groups I, II, III (cm): 1.46 ± 0.23, 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.93 ± 0.20, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that: 1) there is portal overflow in the physiopathology of schistosomal portal hypertension; 2) surgical treatment has interfered in hemodynamic reducing portal venous blood flow; 3) portal venous blood flow reduction correlated with follow-up time in group III but not in group II. <![CDATA[<b>Severe blunt head trauma</b>: <b>the relevance of associated abdominal lesions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Analisar as lesões abdominais dos politraumatizados com trauma craniencefálico (TCE) grave. MÉTODO: Realizou-se avaliação retrospectiva dos prontuários das vítimas de TCE no período de 1996 a 1997. Foram selecionados para o estudo os com Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG) < 8 à admissão. Cinquenta e dois politraumatizados foram incluídos, com média etária de 37 anos, sendo 44 do sexo masculino. Avaliamos os dados demográficos, índices de trauma (RTS, ISS), exames complementares, tratamento e evolução. A análise estatística foi realizada com os testes qui quadrado, t de Student, exato de Fisher e cálculo do odds ratio, considerando-se p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significante. RESULTADOS: A média do RTS foi 5,18 e do ISS foi 27. O mecanismo de trauma mais freqüente foi o atropelamento, em 25 casos. Nenhum destes doentes teve diagnóstico de lesão abdominal apenas pelo exame físico. Quarenta e quatro doentes foram avaliados por lavagem peritoneal diagnóstica e 8 por ultra-sonografia ou tomografia computadorizada abdominal. Oito doentes (15%) apresentaram lesões abdominais, havendo 5 lesões hepáticas, 4 esplênicas e uma em cólon. Realizou-se 17 craniotomias e 8 laparotomias (4 não terapêuticas). As lesões abdominais estiveram relacionadas à pressão arterial sistólica menor que 90mmHg (p=0,05) à admissão e à presença de lesões ortopédicas de tratamento operatório (p<0,001). A letalidade foi 71%. CONCLUSÃO: Uma parcela considerável dos traumatizados com TCE grave apresenta lesões abdominais e o exame físico contribui pouco para o seu diagnóstico. Justifica-se a investigação objetiva do abdome com métodos complementares em todos estes casos.<hr/>BACKGROUND: The present study was carried out to analyze the abdominal lesions in victims of multiple trauma sustaining severe blunt head trauma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts and trauma protocols of patients admitted from January 1996 to July 1997, who sustained blunt head trauma and underwent head CT Scan. Those admitted with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < 8 were selected for this study. There were 52 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 44 male and 8 female, with a mean age of 37 years. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, trauma indices (RTS and ISS), diagnostic exams, treatment and evolution were evaluated. We employed the X² test, Student - t test, and Fisher exact test for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Pedestrian versus auto was the most frequent mechanism of trauma, occurring in 25 cases. The mean RTS and ISS were 5.18 and 27 respectively. None of these patients had the diagnosis of abdominal lesion based only in physical examination. Forty four were assessed with diagnostic peritoneal lavage and 8 with abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography. Eight (15%) patients sustained abdominal lesions, including 5 hepatic, 4 splenic and one colonic injury. There were 17 craniotomies and 8 laparotomies (4 non therapeutic). A higher incidence of abdominal lesions was observed in patients sustaining either shock on admission or orthopedic lesions requiring surgical repair. The mortality was 71%. CONCLUSION: Considering the incidence of abdominal lesions and the difficulties for their diagnosis in those patients sustaining severe head trauma, the objective assessment of abdomen by complementary methods is advisable in all cases. <![CDATA[<b>Small bowell tumors</b>: <b>a five-years review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Analisar a experiência do Serviço de Cirurgia Geral - HC/UFPE com os tumores do intestino delgado, na tentativa de colaborar com a definição de metas para o manejo dessas lesões. MÉTODO: Constitui-se este estudo em uma análise retrospectiva de12 pacientes portadores de neoplasias intestinais atendidos no SCG-HC/UFPE, no período de cinco anos (1994-1999). Sete eram do sexo masculino (58%). A média de idade à admissão foi de 52 anos. A principal queixa referida foi dor abdominal (83%), seguida por sangramento digestivo e perda ponderal (42%). Massa abdominal palpável foi evidenciada em 50% dos casos. Sete (58%) apresentavam lesões malignas. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, quatro eram leiomiomas. Uma paciente, portadora de síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers, apresentou um hamartoma. Dez foram submetidos a tratamento operatório. Em seis, enterectomia com enteroanastomose foi empregada. Três foram operados em caráter de urgência (um por perfuração intestinal, um por enterorragia maciça e um por obstrução intestinal). RESULTADOS: A mortalidade relacionada à operação foi de 17%. Todos os pacientes que evoluíram para óbito apresentavam neoplasias malignas avançadas e perda ponderal superior a15% de seu peso. CONCLUSÕES: Tumores do intestino delgado são lesões incomuns, mesmo em serviços de referência. Um alto grau de suspeição deve ser mantido visando o diagnóstico precoce.<hr/>BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to identify the behaviour of small bowel tumours treated at the General Surgery Department of Hospital das Clínicas-UFPE. METHODS: From 1994 to 1999, 12 patients with small intestine tumours were retrospectively selected from the files of the General Surgery Department - Hospital das Clínicas/UFPE. Seven patients were male. The mean age at admission was 52 years. The most frequent complaint was abdominal pain (83%), followed by bleeding and loss of weight (42%). The tumour could be felt at the abdominal examination in 50% of the patients. Seven patients harboured malignant lesions (58%). Among benign tumours, four patients had leiomiomas. One female patient, with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, presented with hammartomas. Ten patients were submitted to surgical treatment. Three, in an urgent basis. RESULTS: The mortality related to the surgery was 17%. All patients that eventually progressed to death had malignant lesions, and were admitted with marked loss of weight (> 15% of the ideal body weight). CONCLUSIONS: Small intestine tumours are rare lesions even in major treatment centers. Those treating these patients should keep a high clinical suspicion. Earlier diagnosis, particularly in patients with malignant lesions, can improve prognosis. <![CDATA[<b>Hepatic resection with afferent vascular occlusion</b>: <b>analysis of risk factors</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: O controle da perda sangüínea nas cirurgias de ressecção hepática está associado à diminuição dos índices de morbimortalidade. As técnicas para minimizar a hemorragia transoperatória são aquelas associadas à redução do fluxo sangüíneo ao fígado, através da oclusão vascular aferente (manobra de Pringle) ou exclusão vascular total do órgão. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar uma série de hepatectomias parciais com oclusão do fluxo sangüíneo aferente, em pacientes portadores de doenças benignas e malignas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 60 hepatectomias em 59 pacientes com clampeamento do pedículo hepático quanto a possíveis fatores de risco para morbidade e mortalidade, a relação entre o tempo de isquemia hepática e a variação das transaminases, tempo de protrombina e bilirrubinas, e destes, com a evolução pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de complicações pós-operatórias foi de 43,3% e a mortalidade de 6,7%. O fator de risco significativo para mortalidade foi tempo cirúrgico mais prolongado. Para a morbidade pós-operatória, os fatores de risco foram idade acima de 60 anos, cirurgia por neoplasia maligna, parênquima hepático anormal, perda sangüínea necessitando reposição de mais de uma unidade de sangue e outra cirurgia abdominal concomitante. Na análise multivariada por regressão logística, estes fatores de risco foram reduzidos para parênquima hepático anormal. CONCLUSÕES: O tempo de isquemia não apresentou relação com a morbimortalidade pós-operatória. A variação das transaminases foi mais acentuada nos casos com maior tempo de isquemia, porém essas retornaram aos níveis pré-operatórios em aproximadamente uma semana. A variação das transaminases não foi diferente entre os pacientes com e sem morbidade pós-operatória.<hr/>BACKGROUND: The control of blood loss during liver resection has been related to lower rates of perioperative mortality and morbidity. Techniques to minimize intraoperative bleeding are associated with blood flow interruption to the liver, either through an afferent vascular occlusion (Pringle maneuver) or by total vascular isolation of the organ. The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of partial hepatectomies with afferent blood flow occlusion, in patients with benign or malignant diseases. METHOD: Sixty hepatic resections with inflow occlusion, in 59 patients, were analyzed in order to search possible risk factors for morbidity and mortality, the connection between the hepatic ischemic time and the transaminases variation, the prothrombin time and bilirrubins and the postoperative evolution. RESULTS: The prevalence of postoperative complications was 43% and the mortality rate was 6.7%. The significant risk factor for mortality was the long lasting operative time when compared to patients who did not die. For the postoperative morbidity, the identified risk factors were age over sixty years old, surgery for malign neoplasm, abnormal liver parenchyma, blood loss demanding replacement of more than one unity of blood transfusion and another concomitant abdominal surgery. In a multiple regression analysis, those risk factors were reduced only to abnormal hepatic parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: The ischemia time did not have any connection with the postoperative morbidity or mortality. The transaminases levels were higher in cases of longer ischemic time, however they returned to the preoperative levels in about a week. The transaminases variations were not different amongst patients who had postoperative morbidity or not. <![CDATA[<b>Efficacy of colonic valves confection after anorectal resection in rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Testar a eficácia da construção de válvulas colônicas após a ressecção retoanal em ratos, para se obter retardo do fluxo intestinal. MÉTODO: Análise clínico-evolutiva, radiológica e anatomopatológica de 31 ratos submetidos a duas seromiotomias circunferenciais transversais no cólon com invaginação sero-serosa e ressecção retoanal, com colostomia perineal. RESULTADOS: Sete ratos morreram no pós-operatório e, necropsiados, apresentavam impactação fecal. Houve redução do peso corporal e fecal no pós-operatório imediato (estatisticamente não significante), seguida de aparente normalização dos valores. Fecalitos aderidos uns aos outros foram freqüentes. Dos 24 animais radiografados, em oito, ao menos uma das válvulas estava visível. Após a necropsia de 21 ratos, constatou-se o predomínio absoluto de fezes a montante das válvulas. Macroscopicamente, nem sempre as válvulas foram identificadas. Na microscopia, encontrou-se hipertrofia das fibras musculares e interrupção da camada muscular com alteração na disposição das fibras e fibrose nos locais da seromiotomia. CONCLUSÕES: A operação foi tecnicamente viável. A presença das fezes a montante das válvulas, a eliminação de fezes aderidas, a hipertrofia e a interrupção da camada muscular reforçam a hipótese de que a seromiotomia age como mecanismo frenador, retardando o trânsito intestinal. O modelo experimental não permite aferir sobre continência fecal.<hr/>BACKGROUND: The present study intend to test the efficacy of colonic valves construction after the anorectal resection in rats, in order to obtain retardation of the intestinal flow. METHOD: Clinical, radiological and anatomopathological analysis, ranging from 31 rats, submited to a series of two colonic transversal-circunferential seromiotomies, followed by serous-serous invagination and anorectal resection, and a perineal colostomy. RESULTS: Seven rats have died in the post-operatorium and, when necropsied, they presented faecal impactation. There was reduction in both body and faecal weight in the immediate post-operatorium period (statistically not significant), followed by an apparent normalization of the values. Small stool were found frequently joined together. In eight animals, from twenty-four which underwent radiograph, at least one valve was visible. After the necropsy of 21 rats, there was a major predominance of faeces above the valves. Macroscopically, the valves were not identified quite often. Microscopically, hipertroph in muscle fibers and interruption in muscle lay with alteration in fibers disposition and fibrosis in the places of seromiotomy, were commomly found. CONCLUSIONS: The operation can be considered as being tecnically viable. The presence of faeces above the valves, the elimination of joined stools, the hipertrophy and interruption of muscle layer, all emphasize the hypothesis that seromiotomy acts as a braking mechanism, retarding the intestinal flow. The experimental model adopted does not allow us to make any gauging regarding to faecal continence. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of barium sulphate in rats pleural cavity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do sulfato de bário na cavidade pleural de ratos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados, experimentalmente, os efeitos do sulfato de bário a 100% na cavidade pleural de 43 ratos. Sob anestesia inalatória com éter, foi realizada injeção de contraste radiológico (1ml) na cavidade pleural direita após punção com agulha romba pela via subxifóide. Os ratos, divididos em três grupos, foram mortos em câmara fechada com éter, após 24h (13 ratos), 48h (16 ratos) e 21 dias (14 ratos), respectivamente. Através de esternotomia longitudinal e laparotomia alta, foram retiradas a pleura parietal e visceral, juntas com o gradil costal e o pulmão direito. No grupo-controle, de 22 ratos, foi injetado 1ml de soro fisiológico a 0,9% na cavidade pleural direita. RESULTADOS: Não houve mortes entre os 43 ratos em que foi injetado sulfato de bário e no grupo-controle. As alterações encontradas na cavidade pleural dos grupos injetados com sulfato de bário e mortos com 24h e 48h foram semelhantes: leve e difusa hiperemia na pleura parietal, sulfato de bário livre, derrame pleural inflamatório com predomínio de polimorfonucleares; macrófagos na pleura fagocitando sulfato de bário e pleura com infiltrado predominantemente polimorfonuclear. Com 21 dias, o sulfato de bário estava localizado e bloqueado na região retroesternal e havia formação de sínfises pleurais intensas. No exame histopatológico das pleuras havia grande quantidade de macrófagos repletos de sulfato de bário, raros pigmentos de sulfato de bário no meio extracelular, importante proliferação fibroblástica em 13/14 (92%) casos e não ocorreu formação de granulomas. No grupo-controle (22 ratos), o exame histopatológico foi normal em todas as fases do experimento. CONCLUSÕES: a) o sulfato de bário causou derrame pleural inflamatório em todos os casos; b) com 21 dias ocorreu formação de sínfises pleurais em 100% dos casos; c) não houve formação de granuloma; d) em todas as fases do experimento não ocorreram óbitos.<hr/>BACKGROUND: Evaluate the effects of barium sulphate in rats pleural cavity. METHOD: The effects due to the presence of 100% barium sulphate in the pleural cavity of 43 rats were experimentally assessed. After inhaled ether anesthesia, 1 ml of radiological contrast was injected via subxiphoid through a blunt needle into the right pleural cavity. The animals were divided into 3 groups and were killed with in a closed chamber with ether after 24 hs (13 rats), 48 hs (16 rats) and 21 days (14 rats), respectively. Through a longitudinal sternotomy and laparatomy, both parietal and visceral pleura were extracted along with the rib cage and right lung. Control group was composed of 22 rats which underwent an injection of 1 ml saline 0,9% into the right pleural cavity. RESULTS: No death occurred in 43 rats injected with barium sulphate nor in the control group. There were similar findings in the pleural cavity of animals (barium sulphate) killed at 24h and 48h such as diffuse mild hyperemia in right pleura, free barium sulphate, inflammatory pleural effusion with polymorphonuclears predominating, macrophages phagocyting barium sulphate in the pleura, which presented a polymorphonuclear predominant infiltrate. At 21 days, barium sulphate was found localized and blocked in the retrosternal region with, intense formation of pleural symphises. Pleural histopathology revealed large numbers of barium sulphate filled macrophages, scant extra-cellular barium sulphate pigments, important fibroelastic proliferation in 13/14(92%) cases, without granuloma formation. Histopathology of 22 rats of the control group was considered normal throughout the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Barium sulphate caused inflammatory pleural effusion in all cases; with no granuloma formation; and no deaths troughout the experiment. <![CDATA[<b>The surgeon facing new therapies for cancer treatment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The cancer treatement has been subjected to substantial changes, mainly concerning clinical specialities. The advances on tumours study, especially related to genetics and molecular biology, greatly increased our understanding about many aspects of carcinogenesis, neoplasic growth and metastasizing process, untill now obscure. In this context, surgery seems to be attained its limits in trying to erradicate completely the disease, and although the great resections made, this aim has not been succeeded in many cases. New treatments are emerging each year and between the most promising we can highlight tumour angiogenesis chemical blocking agents, with highly promising experimental results. At the same time of the beginning of clinical researchs about these drugs, the authors present a review work, with the objective of presenting a general survey of the knowledge achieved about these recently discovered drugs in tumours control. <![CDATA[<b>Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is an uncommon but important problem in the patient with multiple injuries. Since diaphragmatic injuries are difficult to diagnose, those that are missed may present with latent symptoms of bowel obstruction and strangulation. The same may occur in the patients with stab wounds to the lower chest. Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia should be suspected on the basis of an abnormal chest radiograph in the trauma victim with multiple injuries. This article discuss about history, epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic modalities, treatment and complications. <![CDATA[<b>Hypervolemia and triple vessel occlusion in the treatment of traumatic retrohepatic vena and hepatic vein injuries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Liver vascular isolation is essential for the treatment of the retrohepatic vena cava and hepatic veins. Triple vessel occlusion (TVO - occlusion of the portal triad, the inferior vena cava above the renal veins and within the pericardium) is the easiest isolation method for the surgeon. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be applied to hypovolemic and/or shock (cardiac arrest) patients as it compromises venous return. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to demonstrate that in the above mentioned patients, establishing a previous hypervolemic state allows the safe use of TVO. METHODS: The method includes efficient injury tamponade with aggressive fluid replacement until normal blood volume is reached (resuscitation). Normal blood volume is recognized by a return of arterial blood pressure to normal levels, inferior vena cava filling and an increase in aortic wall tension. Following this procedure, hypervolemia is obtained by the rapid additional infusion of 1.500 to 2.000 ml of fluids. TVO in this situation does not alter the heart rhythm and maintains a clear operative field which is essential for hepatotomy, venorrhaphy and or venous ligation. RESULTS: Three patients were successfully operated. <![CDATA[<b>Pneumatosis intestinales</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pneumatosis Intestinalis (PI) is the presence of gas-filled cysts within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is a clinical and/or radiological sign associated with a wide spectrum of diseases, so that it has a variable clinical significance. Probably, its prevalence is increasing. The nature of the diseases causing PI is been modifying in last decades. Peptic ulcers were its main cause in the past. Nowadays, probably, immunosuppressive conditions and states of increased permeability of the GIT mucosa (AIDS, transplanted patients or in chemotherapy, etc) are more common causes. PI can be shown on simple abdominal roentgenograms and computed tomographic scans obtained with lung windows. Its diagnosis include definition of the cause in addition to its presence. The treatment should be directed to the cause of the PI, fluctuating from expectant to emergency laparotomy. The present report is a contribution to the limited literature experience in this topic and calls attention to the importance of recognizing PI and its clinical significance in order to define the right conduct. <![CDATA[<b>Lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to metastatic malignant melanoma</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A case of lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to metastatic malignant melanoma in a man, in which the final diagnosis was made only on surgery, is reported. The patient underwent a segmentary enterectomy with primary anastomosis and he was discharged on tenth postoperative day. <![CDATA[<b>Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma metastasis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The authors describe a case of a 52 years-old woman who presented recurrent and metastatic pheochromocytoma from a primary lesion ressected from the right adrenal, who was treated by surgical ressection with good results. <![CDATA[<b>Appendicecal carcinoma</b>: <b>report of two cases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The authors report two cases of patients with appendix adenocarcinoma, manifested as a syndrome of abdominal tumor of unknown origin. It was not possible to perform etiological diagnosis in the preoperative period for any of them. Literature data show that large locoregional tumor is a manifestation of appendix adenocarcinoma, although acute appendicites is the most frequent clinical manifestation. Preoperative diagnosis is rare and usually performed during laparotomy or through histopathological examination of the specimen. In large tumors, total mass resection including hemicolectomy should be carried out whenever possible. Whenever diagnosis of appendix adenocarcinoma is performed by the histopathological examination of the acute appendicites specimen, re-intervention is indicated for a right hemicolectomy. <![CDATA[<b>Errata</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-69912001000500017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The authors report two cases of patients with appendix adenocarcinoma, manifested as a syndrome of abdominal tumor of unknown origin. It was not possible to perform etiological diagnosis in the preoperative period for any of them. Literature data show that large locoregional tumor is a manifestation of appendix adenocarcinoma, although acute appendicites is the most frequent clinical manifestation. Preoperative diagnosis is rare and usually performed during laparotomy or through histopathological examination of the specimen. In large tumors, total mass resection including hemicolectomy should be carried out whenever possible. Whenever diagnosis of appendix adenocarcinoma is performed by the histopathological examination of the acute appendicites specimen, re-intervention is indicated for a right hemicolectomy.