Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences]]> vol. 22 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Effect of different surface roughnesses on a turbulent boundary layer</b>]]> The classical treatment of rough wall turbulent boundary layers consists in determining the effect the roughness has on the mean velocity profile. This effect is usually described in terms of the roughness function delta U+. The general implication is that different roughness geometries with the same delta U+ will have similar turbulence characteristics, at least at a sufficient distance from the roughness elements. Measurements over two different surface geometries (a mesh roughness and spanwise circular rods regularly spaced in the streamwise direction) with nominally the same delta U+ indicate significant differences in the Reynolds stresses, especially those involving the wall-normal velocity fluctuation, over the outer region. The differences are such that the Reynolds stress anisotropy is smaller over the mesh roughness than the rod roughness. The Reynolds stress anisotropy is largest for a smooth wall. The small-scale anisotropy and interniittency exhibit much smaller differences when the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and the Kolmogorov-normalized mean shear are nominally the same. There is nonetheless evidence that the small-scale structure over the three-dimensional mesh roughness conforms more closely with isotropy than that over the rod-roughened and smooth walls. <![CDATA[<B>The pulsed wire anemometer</B>: <B>review and further developments</B>]]> The purpose of the present paper is to review work that has been done on the pulsed wire anemometer technique and also suggest further developments that could be made in its range of application. The aper discusses the three types of probes that have been used in pulsed wire anemometry: the crossed wire velocity probe, the parallel wire wall shear stress probe and the parallel wire velocity probe. The work shows that the crossed wire and the parallel wire techniques can be used to make velocity, turbulence and wall shear stress measurements in highly turbulent flows without any upper restriction on turbulence level. Comments are also made on the potential of a parallel wire probe for use in highly turbulent flows that would enable higher order velocity cross-product terms to be measured. <![CDATA[<B>Modeling of turbulent flow through radial diffuser</B>]]> The work considers the modeling of turbulent flow in radial diffuser with axial feeding. Due to its claimed capability to predict flow including features such as separation, curvature and adverse pressure gradient, the RNG k-epsilon model of Orzag et al. (1993) is applied in the present analysis. The governing equations are numerically solved using the finite volume methodology. Experiments were conducted to assess the turbulence model. Numerical results of pressure distribution on the front disk surface for different flow conditions when compared to the experimental data indicated that the RNG k-epsilon model is adequate to predict this class of flow. <![CDATA[<B>A law of the wall formulation for recirculating flows</B>]]> This work presents a new law of the wall formulation for recirculating turbulent flows. An alternative expression for the internal length which can be applied in the separated region is also presented. The formulation is implemented in a numerical code which solves the k-epsilon model through a finite volume method. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data of Vogel and Eaton (J. of Heat Transfer, Transactions of ASME, vol.107, pp. 922-929, 1985). The paper shows that the present formulation furnishes better results than the standard k-epsilon formulation. <![CDATA[<B>Dynamics of coherent vortices in mixing layers using direct numerical and large-eddy simulations</B>]]> Coherent vortices in turbulent mixing layers are investigated by means of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). Subgrid-scale models defined in spectral and physical spaces are reviewed. The new "spectral-dynamic viscosity model", that allows to account for non-developed turbulence in the subgrid-scales, is discussed. Pseudo-spectral methods, combined with sixth-order compact finite differences schemes (when periodic boundary conditions cannot be established), are used to solve the Navier- Stokes equations. Simulations in temporal and spatial mixing layers show two types of pairing of primary Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices depending on initial conditions (or upstream conditions): quasi-2D and helical pairings. In both cases, secondary streamwise vortices are stretched in between the KH vortices at an angle of 45° with the horizontal plane. These streamwise vortices are not only identified in the early transitional stage of the mixing layer but also in self-similar turbulence conditions. The Re dependence of the "diameter" of these vortices is analyzed. Results obtained in spatial growing mixing layers show some evidences of pairing of secondary vortices; after a pairing of the primary Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices, the streamwise vortices are less numerous and their diameter has increased than before the pairing of KH vortices. <![CDATA[<B>Effect of wave frequency on the nonlinear interaction between Görtler vortices and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves</B>]]> The nonlinear interaction between Görtler vortices (GV) and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves nonlinear interaction is studied with a spatial, nonparallel model based on the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE). In this investigation the effect of TS wave frequency on the nonlinear interaction is studied. As verified in previous investigations using the same numerical model, the relative amplitudes and growth rates are the dominant parameters in GV/TS wave interaction. In this sense, the wave frequency influence is important in defining the streamwise distance traveled by the disturbances in the unstable region of the stability diagram and in defining the amplification rates that they go through. <![CDATA[<B>Turbulent shallow-water model for orographic subgrid-scale perturbations</B>]]> A parallel pseudo-spectral method for the simulation in distributed memory computers of the shallow-water equations in primitive form was developed and used on the study of turbulent shallow-waters LES models for orographic subgrid-scale perturbations. The main characteristics of the code are: momentum equations integrated in time using an accurate pseudo-spectral technique; Eulerian treatment of advective terms; and parallelization of the code based on a domain decomposition technique. The parallel pseudo-spectral code is efficient on various architectures. It gives high performance onvector computers and good speedup on distributed memory systems. The code is being used for the study of the interaction mechanisms in shallow-water ows with regular as well as random orography with a prescribed spectrum of elevations. Simulations show the evolution of small scale vortical motions from the interaction of the large scale flow and the small-scale orographic perturbations. These interactions transfer energy from the large-scale motions to the small (usually unresolved) scales. The possibility of including the parametrization of this effects in turbulent LES subgrid-stress models for the shallow-water equations is addressed. <![CDATA[<B>An experimental/numerical study of the turbulent boundary layer development along a surface with a sudden change in roughness</B>]]> A theory for the description of turbulent boundary layer flows over surfaces with a sudden change in roughness is considered. The theory resorts to the concept of displacement in origin to specify a wall function boundary condition for a kappa-epsilon model. An approximate algebraic expression for the displacement in origin is obtained from the experimental data by using the chart method of Perry and Joubert(J.F.M., vol. 17, pp. 193-122, 1963). This expression is subsequently included in the near wall logarithmic velocity profile, which is then adopted as a boundary condition for a kappa-epsilon modelling of the external flow. The results are compared with the lower atmospheric observations made by Bradley(Q. J. Roy. Meteo. Soc., vol. 94, pp. 361-379, 1968) as well as with velocity profiles extracted from a set of wind tunnel experiments carried out by Avelino et al.( 7th ENCIT, 1998). The measurements are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical computations. The skin-friction coefficient was calculated according to the chart method of Perry and Joubert(J.F.M., vol. 17, pp. 193-122, 1963) and to a balance of the integral momentum equation. In particular, the growth of the internal boundary layer thickness obtained from the numerical simulation is compared with predictions of the experimental data calculated by two methods, the "knee" point method and the "merge" point method. <![CDATA[<B>Application of a non isotropic turbulence model to stable atmospheric flows and dispersion over 3D topography</B>]]> A non isotropic turbulence model is extended and applied to three dimensional stably stratified flows and dispersion calculations. The model is derived from the algebraic stress model (including wall proximity effects), but it retains the simplicity of the "eddy viscosity" concept of first order models. The "modified k-epsilon" is implemented in a three dimensional numerical code. Once the flow is resolved, the predicted velocity and turbulence fields are interpolated into a second grid and used to solve the concentration equation. To evaluate the model, various steady state numerical solutions are compared with small scale dispersion experiments which were conducted at the wind tunnel of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, in Japan. Stably stratified flows and plume dispersion over three distinct idealized complex topographies (flat and hilly terrain) are studied. Vertical profiles of velocity and pollutant concentration are shown and discussed. Also, comparisons are made against the results obtained with the standard k-epsilon model. <![CDATA[<B>Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop in pinned annular regions</B>]]> Experiments were performed to determine average heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for turbulent flow through annular ducts with pin fins. The measurements were carried out by means of a double-pipe heat exchanger. The total number of pins attached to the inner wall of the annular region was 560. The working fluids were air, flowing in the annular channel, and water through the inner circular tube. The average heat transfer coefficients of the pinned air-side were obtained from the experimental determination of the overall heat transfer coefficients of the heat exchanger and from the knowledge of the average heat transfer coefficients of the circular pipe (water-side), which could be found in the pertinent literature. To attain fully developed conditions, the heat exchanger was built with additional lengths before and after the test section. The inner circular duct of the heat exchanger and the pin fins were made of brass. Due to the high thermal conductivity of the brass, the small tube thickness and water temperature variation, the surface of the internal tube was practically isothermal. The external tube was made of an industrial plastic which was insulated from the environment by means of a glass wool batt. In this manner, the outer surface of the annular channel can be considered adiabatic. The results are presented in dimensionless forms, in terms of average Nusselt numbers and friction factors as functions of the flow Reynolds number, ranging from 13,000 to 80,000. The pin fin efficiency, which depends on the heat transfer coefficient, is also determined as a function of dimensionless parameters. A comparison of the present results with those for smooth sections (without pins) is also presented. The purpose of such a comparison is to study the influence of the presence of the pins on the pressure drop and heat transfer rate.