Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0100-879X20180010&lang=en vol. 51 num. 10 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Omphaloceles in combination with a self-made hemispherical cushion: a report of 12 cases]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000501&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to discuss the curative effect of applying “capsule-reserved normal saline bag and self-made hemi-spherical cushion oppression” for treating giant omphaloceles. Twelve patients with giant omphaloceles who were admitted to our hospital between January 2008 and June 2016 were selected for treatment as follows: a capsule-reserved normal saline bag was used to promote the gradual return of the abdominal contents into the abdominal cavity in phase I, and a self-made hemi-spherical cushion was used for compression combined with a local dressing change in phase II to treat the giant omphaloceles without surgical treatment. All 12 patients in this group were cured, and after follow-up visits for &gt;10 months, they had no abdominal infections, wound disruption, intestinal obstruction, or other complications, and their growth was normal. Two patients had abdominal hernias, and they recovered after herniorrhaphies. Giant omphaloceles in newborns were treated in stages, and in phase II, non-surgical treatment was applied, which was easily performed with a smaller wound, low cost, an obvious curative effect, and higher safety and effectiveness. <![CDATA[Transcriptomic differential lncRNA expression is involved in neuropathic pain in rat dorsal root ganglion after spared sciatic nerve injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000601&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons regenerate spontaneously after traumatic or surgical injury. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological regulation processes. Conditions of lncRNAs in DRG neuron injury deserve to be further investigated. Transcriptomic analysis was performed by high-throughput Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing to profile the differential genes in L4–L6 DRGs following rat sciatic nerve tying. A total of 1,228 genes were up-regulated and 1,415 down-regulated. By comparing to rat lncRNA database, 86 known and 26 novel lncRNA genes were found to be differential. The 86 known lncRNA genes modulated 866 target genes subject to gene ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analysis. The genes involved in the neurotransmitter status of neurons were downregulated and those involved in a neuronal regeneration were upregulated. Known lncRNA gene rno-Cntnap2 was downregulated. There were 13 credible GO terms for the rno-Cntnap2 gene, which had a putative function in cell component of voltage-gated potassium channel complex on the cell surface for neurites. In 26 novel lncRNA genes, 4 were related to 21 mRNA genes. A novel lncRNA gene AC111653.1 improved rno-Hypm synthesizing huntingtin during sciatic nerve regeneration. Real time qPCR results attested the down-regulation of rno-Cntnap lncRNA gene and the upregulation of AC111653.1 lncRNA gene. A total of 26 novel lncRNAs were found. Known lncRNA gene rno-Cntnap2 and novel lncRNA AC111653.1 were involved in neuropathic pain of DRGs after spared sciatic nerve injury. They contributed to peripheral nerve regeneration via the putative mechanisms. <![CDATA[Intestinal cell migration damage induced by enteropathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> strains]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000602&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Epithelial cell migration is an essential response to enteric pathogens such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). This study aimed to investigate the effects of EPEC infection on intestinal epithelial cell migration in vitro, as well as the involvement of type III secretion system (T3SS) and Rho GTPases. Crypt intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were infected with EPEC strains (E2348/69, ΔescF, and the LDI001 strain isolated from a malnourished Brazilian child) and commensal E. coli HS. Wound migration and cell death assays were performed at different time-points. Transcription and expression of Rho GTPases were evaluated using real-time PCR and western blotting. Overall, EPEC E2348/69 reduced migration and increased apoptosis and necrosis levels compared to EPEC LDI001 and E. coli HS strains. Moreover, EPEC LDI001 impaired cell migration at a higher level than E. coli HS and increased necrosis after 24 hours compared to the control group. The different profiles of virulence genes between the two wild-type EPEC strains, characterized by the absence of espL and nleE genes in the LDI001, might explain the phenotypic results, playing significant roles on cell migration impairment and cell death-related events. Moreover, the type III secretion system is determinant for the inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell migration by EPEC 2348/69, as its deletion prevented the effect. Active Rac1 concentrations were increased in E2348/69 and LDI001-infected cells, while the T3SS-deficient strain did not demonstrate this activation. This study contributes with valuable insight to characterize the mechanisms involved in the impairment of intestinal cell migration induced by EPEC. <![CDATA[Transplantation of rat-derived microglial cells promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000603&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study evaluated the effect of microglia transplantation on neurological functional recovery in rats subjected to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The rat model of SCI was established using a weight drop device. Forty SCI rats were randomly divided into the microglia group and the saline group. Then, rat-derived microglial cells or normal saline was injected into the injured site 7 days after surgery. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score, inclined plate test, and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were applied to assess the recovery of motor function. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) staining was used to assess the therapeutic effect. Microglia transplantation significantly improved BBB scores and functional scores at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after surgery compared to saline injection (P&lt;0.05). Meanwhile, a prolonged MEP latency and decreased MEP amplitude were observed at 4 and 8 weeks in the microglia group (P&lt;0.05). Histological analysis showed less damage and better prognosis in SCI rats of the microglia group. BrdU+ cell tracing experiments showed that microglia were recruited to the injured area of the spinal cord at 7 and 14 days after transplantation. The intensity of immunofluorescence was increased in CD68+ and OX42+ microglia at 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks, and then decreased at 3 and 4 weeks after transplantation in the microglia group. The transplantation of activated microglia played a key role in promoting the recovery of spinal cord function in a rat model of SCI. <![CDATA[Comparison of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial biogenesis responses after 12 weeks of treadmill running and ladder climbing exercises in the cardiac muscle of middle-aged obese rats]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000604&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of aerobic exercise (AE) lasting 12 weeks to that of resistance exercise (RE) of the same duration on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cardiac muscle of middle-aged obese rats. Obesity was induced in thirty 50-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats over 6 weeks by administration of a high-fat diet. The rats were then subjected to treadmill-running (AE) and ladder-climbing (RE) exercises 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Rats in the AE group showed significantly lower increases in body weight and intraperitoneal fat than those in the sedentary control (SC) group (P&lt;0.05). The 12-week exercise regimes resulted in a significant increase in expression of mitochondrial biogenesis markers and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α in the cardiac muscle (P&lt;0.05). Phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase, an ER stress marker, decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) after the exercise training. Although a trend for decreased C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression was observed in both exercise groups, only the AE group had a statistically significant decrease (P&lt;0.05). Levels of GRP78, an ER stress marker that protects cardiac muscle, did not significantly differ among the groups. Although only the AE group decreased body weight and fat mass, the two exercise regimes had similar effects on cardiac muscle with the exception of CHOP. Therefore, we suggest that both AE, which results in weight loss, and high-intensity RE, though not accompanied by weight loss, protect obese cardiac muscle effectively. <![CDATA[Icariin reduces human colon carcinoma cell growth and metastasis by enhancing p53 activities]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000605&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Icariin has been reported to possess high anticancer activity. Colon carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here, the anticancer activity of icariin against HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and the possible underlying mechanism were studied. The trypan blue staining assay, wound healing assay, clonogenic assay, CCK-8 assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method were carried out to determine the changes of HCT116 cell growth and migration. mRNA and protein expressions were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmid was used to examine the role of p53 in icariin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Icariin significantly suppressed colon carcinoma HCT116 cells by decreasing migration and viability, and simultaneously promoting apoptosis. Icariin exerted the anti-tumor effect in a dose-dependent manner by up-regulating p53. During treatment of icariin, p-p53, p21, and Bax levels increased, and Bcl-2 level decreased. Short time treatment with icariin induced DNA damage in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of icariin was decreased after p53 knockdown or by using caspase inhibitors. p53 was involved in activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Icariin repressed colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 by enhancing p53 expression and activating p53 functions possibly through Bcl-2/Bax imbalance and caspase-9 and -3 regulation. Icariin treatment also induced DNA damage in HCT116 cells. <![CDATA[Baicalein alleviates tubular-interstitial nephritis <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> by down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK pathways]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000606&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Tubular-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is characterized by tubular cell damage and inflammatory lesions of kidneys. Baicalein (BAI) is a flavonoid compound found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of BAI on TIN patients and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TIN cell model. The expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α in serum samples of TIN patients and culture supernatants of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Creatinine clearance was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Activities of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Viability and apoptosis of RPTECs were measured using MTT assay and Guava Nexin assay, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, nuclear factor kappa B (IκBα), and p65. Protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2, IκBα, p65, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular regulated protein kinases, and p38 were analyzed using western blotting. We found that BAI reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, BAI alleviated the LPS-induced RPTECs viability inhibition and apoptosis enhancement, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Phorbol ester, an activator of NF-κB, attenuated the effects of BAI on LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine expressions in RPTECs. In conclusion, BAI had anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on TIN patients and LPS-induced RPTECs by down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK pathways. <![CDATA[Adrenergic receptor β<sub>3</sub> is involved in the memory consolidation process in mice]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000607&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Attention and emotion have a positive impact on memory formation, which is related to the activation of the noradrenergic system in the brain. The hippocampus and amygdala are fundamental structures in memory acquisition, which is modulated by noradrenaline through the noradrenergic receptors. Pharmacological studies suggest that memory acquisition depends on the action of both the β3 (β3-AR) and β2 (β2-AR) receptor subtypes. However, the use of animal models with specific knockout for the β3-AR receptor only (β3-ARKO) allows researchers to more accurately assess its role in memory formation processes. In the present study, we evaluated short- and long-term memory acquisition capacity in β3-ARKO mice and wild-type mice at approximately 60 days of age. The animals were submitted to the open field test, the elevated plus maze, object recognition, and social preference. The results showed that the absence of the β3-AR receptor caused no impairment in locomotion and did not cause anxious behavior, but it caused significant impairment of short- and long-term memory compared to wild-type animals. We also evaluated the expression of genes involved in memory consolidation. The mRNA levels for GLUT3, a glucose transporter expressed in the central nervous system, were significantly reduced in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus of the β3-ARKO animals. Our results showed that β3-AR was involved in the process of acquisition of declarative memory, and its action may be due to the facilitation of glucose absorption in the amygdala. <![CDATA[Saquinavir plus methylprednisolone ameliorates experimental acute lung injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000608&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Glucocorticoid insensitivity is an important barrier to the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Saquinavir (SQV) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus protease, and the therapeutic effects of SQV in ALI accompanied with glucocorticoid insensitivity have not been previously investigated. In this study, the effects of SQV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated injury in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), and alveolar macrophages were determined. In addition, the effects of SQV on an LPS-induced ALI model with or without methylprednisolone (MPS) were studied. In LPS-stimulated HPMECs, SQV treatment resulted in a decrease of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), phospho-NF-κB (p-NF-κB), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and an increase of VE-cadherin. Compared to MPS alone, MPS plus SQV attenuated the decrease of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) and IκBα in LPS-stimulated HPMECs. HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression were also lessened in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages with SQV treatment. In addition, SQV reduced the injury in human AT I with a decrease of HMGB1 and p-NF-κB, and with an increase of aquaporin 5 (AQP 5). SQV ameliorated the lung injury caused by LPS in rats with reductions in vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and histopathological scores, and with lowered HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression, but with enhanced VE-cadherin expression. By comparison, SQV plus MPS increased GRα and IκBα in lung tissues of rats with ALI. This study demonstrated that SQV prevented experimental ALI and improved glucocorticoid insensitivity by modulating the HMGB1/TLR4 pathway. <![CDATA[Knockdown of long non-coding RNA ANRIL inhibits tumorigenesis in human gastric cancer cells via microRNA-99a-mediated down-regulation of BMI1]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000609&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Long non-coding RNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been reported to promote tumorigenesis via regulating microRNA (miR)-99a in gastric cancer cells. However, the role of each component involved in it is still not well understood. This study aimed to verify the role of ANRIL in gastric cancer as well as the underlying mechanisms. ANRIL levels in clinical gastric cancer tissues and cell lines were tested by qPCR. Effects of ANRIL silence on cell viability, migration and invasion, apoptosis, and miR-99a expression in MKN-45 and SGC-7901 cells were measured using CCK-8, Transwell assay, flow cytometry, and qPCR assays, respectively. Then, effects of miR-99a inhibition on ANRIL-silenced cells were evaluated. B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (BMI1) expression, after abnormal expression of ANRIL and miR-99a, was determined. Finally, expression of key proteins in the apoptotic, Notch, and mTOR pathways was assessed. ANRIL level was elevated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of ANRIL suppressed cell viability, migration, and invasion, and increased apoptosis through up-regulating miR-99a. Furthermore, ANRIL silence down-regulated BMI1 via up-regulating miR-99a. BMI1 silence down-regulated Bcl-2 and key kinases in the Notch and mTOR pathways and up-regulated p16 and cleaved caspases. We verified the tumor suppressive effects of ANRIL knockdown in gastric cancer cells via crosstalk with miR-99a. Together, we provided a novel regulatory mechanism for ANRIL in gastric cancer, in which ANRIL silence down-regulated BMI1 via miR-99a, along with activation of the apoptotic pathway and inhibition of the Notch and mTOR pathways. <![CDATA[The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is able to alter metabolic activity and morphology of MDCK-C11 cells: a cell model of intercalated cells]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000610&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is well known that the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is capable of causing damage to kidney cells. Given the known involvement of Ca2+ in the nephrotoxic action of gentamicin, the purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and cellular cytotoxicity using MDCK-C11 cells, a clone that has several properties that resemble those of intercalated cells of the distal nephron. Changes in [Ca2+]i was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability was evaluated by the neutral red method, and cell cytotoxicity by the MTT method. The [Ca2+]i gradually increased when cells were exposed to 0.1 mM gentamicin for 10, 20, and 30 min. The presence of extracellular Ca2+ was found to be necessary to stimulate the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by gentamicin, since this stimulus disappeared by using 1.8 mM EGTA (a Ca2+ chelator). Morphological changes were observed with scanning electron microscopy in epithelial cells exposed to the antibiotic. Furthermore, with the MTT method, a decrease in metabolic activity induced by gentamicin was observed, which indicates a cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, gentamicin was able to alter [Ca2+]i, change the morphology of MDCK-C11 cells, and promote cytotoxicity. <![CDATA[Gastrodin induced HO-1 and Nrf2 up-regulation to alleviate H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through p38 MAPK phosphorylation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000611&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been implicated in several detoxifying and antioxidant defense processes. Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was demonstrated to play a key role against oxidative stress. Gastrodin (GSTD) is a well-known active compound isolated from the roots of Rhizoma gastrodiae, a plant used in ancient Chinese traditional medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate whether GSTD could alleviate H2O2-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). In LSECs exposed to 1 mM H2O2, treatment with GSTD (1, 10, or 50 µM) resulted in higher cell viability than the untreated control. Treated cells maintained a higher Bcl2/Bax ratio and suppressed caspase-9 expression compared with untreated cells, reducing cell apoptosis. GSTD was protective for H2O2-induced oxidative injury by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. HO-1 and Nrf2 expressions were synergistically upregulated by GSTD. Inhibition of HO-1 by 10 µM zinc protoporphyrin resulted in less protective effects on cell viability and malondialdehyde reduction by GSTD treatment in H2O2-exposed LSECs. Additionally, phosphorylated p38 in LSECs exposed to H2O2 was elevated by GSTD. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation by SB203580 did not induce Nrf2 and HO-1 expression after 1 or 10 µM GSTD treatment and the protective effect on cell viability and malondialdehyde reduction in H2O2-exposed LSECs was reduced. The data conclusively demonstrated that GSTD-induced HO-1 and Nrf2 expression is involved in protection of LSECs from H2O2-induced oxidative injury, which may be regulated by p38 phosphorylation. <![CDATA[Retraction notice for: “Comparison of Arndt-endobronchial blocker plus laryngeal mask airway with left-sided double-lumen endobronchial tube in one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese” [Braz J Med Biol Res (2018) 51(2): e6825]]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018001000950&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been implicated in several detoxifying and antioxidant defense processes. Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was demonstrated to play a key role against oxidative stress. Gastrodin (GSTD) is a well-known active compound isolated from the roots of Rhizoma gastrodiae, a plant used in ancient Chinese traditional medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate whether GSTD could alleviate H2O2-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). In LSECs exposed to 1 mM H2O2, treatment with GSTD (1, 10, or 50 µM) resulted in higher cell viability than the untreated control. Treated cells maintained a higher Bcl2/Bax ratio and suppressed caspase-9 expression compared with untreated cells, reducing cell apoptosis. GSTD was protective for H2O2-induced oxidative injury by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. HO-1 and Nrf2 expressions were synergistically upregulated by GSTD. Inhibition of HO-1 by 10 µM zinc protoporphyrin resulted in less protective effects on cell viability and malondialdehyde reduction by GSTD treatment in H2O2-exposed LSECs. Additionally, phosphorylated p38 in LSECs exposed to H2O2 was elevated by GSTD. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation by SB203580 did not induce Nrf2 and HO-1 expression after 1 or 10 µM GSTD treatment and the protective effect on cell viability and malondialdehyde reduction in H2O2-exposed LSECs was reduced. The data conclusively demonstrated that GSTD-induced HO-1 and Nrf2 expression is involved in protection of LSECs from H2O2-induced oxidative injury, which may be regulated by p38 phosphorylation.