Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> vol. 51 num. 7 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[What we know and do not know about women and kidney diseases; Questions unanswered and answers unquestioned: Reflection on World Kidney Day and International Woman’s Day]]> Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically women’s kidney health on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly. Girls and women, who make up approximately 50% of the world's population, are important contributors to society and their families. Gender differences continue to exist around the world in access to education, medical care, and participation in clinical studies. Pregnancy is a unique state for women, offering an opportunity for diagnosis of kidney disease, but also a state in which acute and chronic kidney diseases may manifest, and which may impact future generations with respect to kidney health. Various autoimmune and other conditions are more likely to impact women, with profound consequences for child bearing and the fetus. Women have different complications on dialysis than men, and are more likely to be donors than recipients of kidney transplants. In this editorial, we focus on what we know and do not know about women, kidney health, and kidney disease, and what we might learn in the future to improve outcomes worldwide. <![CDATA[Efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antidepressant treatments for patients with post-stroke depression: a network meta-analysis]]> The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antidepressants in treating post-stroke depression (PSD) by performing a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the current literature. Eligible studies were retrieved from online databases, and relevant data were extracted. The primary outcome was efficacy as measured by the mean change in overall depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes included discontinued treatment for any reason and specifically due to adverse events. Fourteen trials were eligible, which included 949 participants and 9 antidepressant treatments. Few significant differences were found for all outcomes. For the primary outcome, doxepin, paroxetine, and nortriptyline were significantly more effective than a placebo [standardized mean differences: −1.93 (95%CI=−3.56 to −0.29), −1.39 (95%CI=−2.59 to −0.21), and −1.25 (95%CI=−2.46 to −0.04), respectively]. Insufficient evidence exists to select a preferred antidepressant for treating patients with post-stroke depression, and our study provides little evidence that paroxetine may be the potential choice when starting treatment for PSD. Future studies with paroxetine and larger sample sizes, multiple medical centers, and sufficient intervention durations is needed for improving the current evidence. <![CDATA[Antiproliferative effect of urolithin A, the ellagic acid-derived colonic metabolite, on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2.2.15 cells by targeting Lin28a/let-7a axis]]> An abnormality in the Lin28/let-7a axis is relevant to the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which could be a novel therapeutic target for this malignant tumor. The present study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative and anti-invasive effects of urolithin A in a stable full-length HBV gene integrated cell line HepG2.2.15 using CCK-8 and transwell assays. The RNA and protein expressions of targets were assessed by quantitative PCR and western blot, respectively. Results revealed that urolithin A induced cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, which was accompanied by the cleavage of caspase-3 protein and down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Moreover, urolithin A suppressed the protein expressions of Sp-1, Lin28a, and Zcchc11, and elevated the expression of microRNA let-7a. Importantly, urolithin A also regulated the Lin28a/let-7a axis in transient HBx-transfected HCC HepG2 cells. Furthermore, urolithin A decelerated the HepG2.2.15 cell invasion, which was involved in suppressing the let-7a downstream factors HMGA2 and K-ras. These findings indicated that urolithin A exerted the antiproliferative effect by regulating the Lin28a/let-7a axis and may be a potential supplement for HBV-infected HCC therapy. <![CDATA[Epoetin alfa resistance in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study]]> Anemia is an inevitable complication of hemodialysis, and the primary cause is erythropoietin deficiency. After diagnosis, treatment begins with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). However, some patients remain anemic even after receiving this medication. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy with epoetin alfa (αEPO). We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients receiving treatment with αEPO at our reference hospital from July 2015 to June 2016. Clinical data was collected, and the response to αEPO treatment was evaluated using the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI). The ERI was defined as the weekly weight-adjusted αEPO dose (U/kg per week)/hemoglobin level (g/dL). A longitudinal linear regression model was fitted with random effects to verify the relationships between clinical and laboratory data and ERI. We enrolled 99 patients (average age, 45.7 (±17.6) years; male, 51.5%; 86.8% with hypertension). The ERI showed a significant positive association with serum ferritin and C-reactive protein, percentage interdialytic weight gain, and continuous usage of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) hypertension medication. The ERI was negatively associated with serum iron and albumin, age, urea reduction ratio, and body mass index. Our findings indicate that resistance to αEPO was related to a low serum iron reserve, an inflammatory state, poor nutritional status, and continuous usage of ARBs. <![CDATA[Hypoxia-induced hyperpermeability of rat glomerular endothelial cells involves HIF-2α mediated changes in the expression of occludin and ZO-1]]> This study aimed to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the expression of tight junction proteins and permeability alterations in rat glomerular endothelial cells (rGENCs) under hypoxia conditions. The expression level of HIF-2α and tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rGENCs were examined following 5% oxygen density exposure at different treatment times. HIF-2α lentivirus transfection was used to knockdown HIF-2α expression. Cells were divided into four groups: 1) control group (rGENCs were cultured under normal oxygen conditions), 2) hypoxia group (rGENCs were cultured under hypoxic conditions), 3) negative control group (rGENCs were infected with HIF-2α lentivirus negative control vectors and cultured under hypoxic conditions), and 4) Len group (rGENCs were transfected with HIF-2α lentivirus and cultured under hypoxic conditions). The hypoxia, negative control, and Len groups were kept in a hypoxic chamber (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2) for 24 h and the total content of occludin and ZO-1, and the permeability of rGENCs were assessed. With increasing hypoxia time, the expression of HIF-2α gradually increased, while the expression of occludin decreased, with a significant difference between groups. ZO-1 expression gradually decreased under hypoxia conditions, but the difference between the 24 and 48 h groups was not significant. The permeability of cells increased following 24-h exposure to hypoxia compared to the control group (P&lt;0.01). The knockdown of HIF-2α expression significantly increased occludin and ZO-1 content compared with hypoxia and negative control groups (P&lt;0.01), while permeability was reduced (P&lt;0.01). Hypoxia increased HIF-2α content, inducing permeability of rGENCs through the reduced expression of occludin and ZO-1. <![CDATA[Risk factors for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients]]> This study aimed to investigate the risk factors related to ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. From January 2011 to December 2015, a single-center retrospective study including 200 SAH patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥48 h was performed. The clinical data of these patients were collected and analyzed. The age range of the patients were 41–63 and 72 (36%) were male. The Glasgow coma scale score range was 5–15 and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II range was 31–52. One hundred and forty-eight (74%) patients had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons (WNFS) score ≥III. Aneurysm was secured with an endovascular coiling procedure in 168 (84%) patients and 94 (47%) patients presented VAP. Male gender (OR=2.25, 95%CI=1.15–4.45), use of mannitol (OR=3.02, 95%CI=1.53–5.94) and enteral feeding above 20 kcal·kg−1·day−1 (OR=2.90, 95%CI=1.26–6.67) after day 7 were independent factors for VAP. Patients with early-onset VAP had a longer duration of sedation (P=0.03), MV (P=0.001) and ICU length of stay (P=0.003) and a worse Glasgow Outcome Scale score (P&lt;0.001), but did not have a higher death rate. <![CDATA[Association study of <em>AFF1</em> rs340630 polymorphism with genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese population]]> This study was performed to examine whether the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1) rs340630 polymorphism is involved in the genetic background of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chinese population. Two different study groups of RA patients and controls (328 RA patients and 449 healthy controls in the first study group; 232 RA patients and 313 controls in the second study group) were included in our study. Overall, there was no significant difference in either genotype (P=0.71 and 0.64 in the first and second study group, respectively) nor allele (in the first study group: A vs G, P=0.65, OR=1.05, 95%CI=0.85–1.29; in the second study group: G vs A, P=0.47, OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.86–1.40) frequencies of AFF1 rs340630 polymorphism between RA patients and controls. Our study represents the first report assessing the association of AFF1 rs340630 polymorphism with RA risk. No significant evidence was found for the dominant or recessive models. Further case-control studies with larger sample sizes and fine-mapping studies are needed to clarify the role of AFF1 in the genetic basis of RA. <![CDATA[Protective effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats]]> The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of inactivated lactobacillus (ILA) on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. In this experiment, 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, IRI groups, and ILA group. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model was prepared. The rats were killed after 24 hours of recovery of blood flow of cerebral ischemia resulting from 60-min occlusion. The cerebral infarction volume and neurological scores were assayed by staining and behavioral observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assayed by biochemical kits. Cell apoptosis was assayed by Tunnel and the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, IkB, and A20 were assayed by western blot. The neurobehavioral scores in IRI rats were significantly lower compared to the control group while ILA improved the neurobehavioral scores of the ILA groups. The cerebral infarction volume and neural cell apoptosis of rats in the ILA groups decreased significantly compared with those in the IRI group. In addition, MDA level in the ILA groups decreased whereas SOD activity increased compared to the IRI group. Moreover, ILA also inhibited the expression of TLR-4 and promoted the expression of IkB and A20. ILA inhibited the apoptosis of neural cells, decreased cerebral infarction volume, and reduced oxidative stress through inhibition of TLR-4/NF-kappa B signaling, improving neurobehavioral scores. Thus from the present study it was concluded that ILA has protective effect on CIRI. <![CDATA[Non-invasive messenger RNA transcriptional evaluation in human kidney allograft dysfunction]]> The aim of the present study was to evaluate messenger RNA expression in kidney allograft recipients. Forty-four kidney transplant recipients were evaluated up to three months after grafting. After transplantation, peripheral blood samples were drawn sequentially for real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of perforin and TIM-3 genes. Biopsies were obtained to evaluate acute graft dysfunction and interpreted according to the Banff classification. Eight patients presented episodes of acute rejection. Recipients with rejection had significantly higher levels of TIM-3 mRNA transcripts compared to those without rejection (median gene expression 191.2 and 36.9 mRNA relative units, respectively; P&lt;0.0001). Also, perforin gene expression was higher in patients with rejection (median gene expression 362.0 and 52.8 mRNA relative units; P&lt;0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for the TIM-3 gene was 0.749 (95%CI: 0.670–0.827). Perforin gene mRNA expression provided an AUC of 0.699 (95%CI: 0.599 to 0.799). Overall accuracy of gene expression was 67.9% for the TIM-3 gene and 63.6% for the perforin gene. Combined accuracy was 76.8%. Negative predictive values were 95.3% for the TIM-3 gene, 95.5% for the perforin gene, and 95.4% in the combined analyses. Gene expression was significantly modulated by rejection treatment decreasing 64.1% (TIM-3) and 90.9% (perforin) compared to the median of pre-rejection samples. In conclusion, the longitudinal approach showed that gene profiling evaluation might be useful in ruling out the diagnosis of acute rejection and perhaps evaluating the efficacy of treatment. <![CDATA[MicroRNA-451a, microRNA-34a-5p, and microRNA-221-3p as predictors of response to antidepressant treatment]]> Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to be involved in early observations of depression. The aim of this study was to determine if serum levels of miRNA-451a, miRNA-34a-5p, and miRNA-221-3p can serve as indicators of disease progression or therapeutic efficacy in depression. We collected data from 84 depressed patients and 78 control volunteers recruited from the medical staff at the West China Hospital. Depression severity was rated using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Serum miRNA-451a, miRNA-34a-5p, and miRNA-221-3p levels were determined in samples from the depressed patients before and 8 weeks after antidepressant treatment as well as in samples from controls. Compared with the controls, the patients had lower miRNA-451a levels, higher miRNA-34a-5p and miRNA-221-3p levels, and increased HAMD scores whether they underwent antidepressant treatment or not. Eight weeks after antidepressant treatment, the patients exhibited increased miRNA-451a levels, decreased miRNA-34a-5p and miRNA-221-3p levels, and reduced HAMD scores. The serum level of miRNA-451a was negatively correlated with HAMD scores of the patients, while the serum levels of miRNA-34a-5p and miRNA-221-3p were positively correlated with HAMD scores whether the patients underwent antidepressant treatment or not. Paroxetine was markedly effective in 50 patients who also displayed an increased level of miRNA-451a but reduced levels of miRNA-34a-5p and miRNA-221-3p. In contrast, paroxetine was moderately effective or ineffective in 34 patients. In conclusion, depressed patients had lower serum miRNA-451a but higher serum miRNA-34a-5p and miRNA-221-3p, and these miRNAs are potential predictors of the efficacy of antidepressants.