Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> vol. 47 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review]]> This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out. <![CDATA[<em>CIAPIN1</em> gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity in a drug-resistant animal model <em>in vivo</em>]]> Overexpression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of CIAPIN1 gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) as a treatment for drug-resistant breast cancer and to investigate the effect of CIAPIN1 on the drug resistance of breast cancer in vivo. We used lentivirus-vector-based RNAi to knock down CIAPIN1 in nude mice bearing MDR breast cancer tumors and found that lentivirus-vector-mediated silencing of CIAPIN1 could efficiently and significantly inhibit tumor growth when combined with chemotherapy in vivo. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that both CIAPIN1 and P-glycoprotein expression were efficiently downregulated, and P53 was upregulated, after RNAi. Therefore, we concluded that lentivirus-vector-mediated RNAi targeting of CIAPIN1 is a potential approach to reverse MDR of breast cancer. In addition, CIAPIN1 may participate in MDR of breast cancer by regulating P-glycoprotein and P53 expression. <![CDATA[Delivery of the Sox9 gene promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an <em>in vitro</em> model]]> SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox9) gene is a cartilage-specific transcription factor that plays essential roles in chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genetic delivery of Sox9 to enhance chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). After they were isolated from human umbilical cord blood within 24 h after delivery of neonates, hUC-MSCs were untreated or transfected with a human Sox9-expressing plasmid or an empty vector. The cells were assessed for morphology and chondrogenic differentiation. The isolated cells with a fibroblast-like morphology in monolayer culture were positive for the MSC markers CD44, CD105, CD73, and CD90, but negative for the differentiation markers CD34, CD45, CD19, CD14, or major histocompatibility complex class II. Sox9 overexpression induced accumulation of sulfated proteoglycans, without altering the cellular morphology. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that genetic delivery of Sox9 markedly enhanced the expression of aggrecan and type II collagen in hUC-MSCs compared with empty vector-transfected counterparts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis further confirmed the elevation of aggrecan and type II collagen at the mRNA level in Sox9-transfected cells. Taken together, short-term Sox9 overexpression facilitates chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and may thus have potential implications in cartilage tissue engineering. <![CDATA[Compounds used to produce cloned animals are genotoxic and mutagenic in mammalian assays <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em>]]> The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero. <![CDATA[Notch ligand Delta-like 1 promotes the metastasis of melanoma by enhancing tumor adhesion]]> Notch signaling plays a vital role in tumorigenicity and tumor progression by regulating proliferation, invasion, and the tumor microenvironment. Previous research by our group indicated that Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is involved in angiogenesis in melanoma, and we noticed that it took a longer time to trypsinize Dll1-expressing B16 melanoma cells than the control cells. In this article, we extended our study to investigate the effects of Dll1 on tumor cell adhesion and metastasis. Dll1 overexpression activated Notch signaling in B16 tumor cells and significantly enhanced the adhering capacity of B16 tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. B16-Dll1 cells also had a higher metastatic potential than their counterpart in the mouse model of lung metastasis. Along with increased Dll1 expression, N-cadherin, but not E-cadherin, was upregulated in B16-Dll1 cells. These data suggested that Notch ligand Dll1 may enhance the adhesion and metastasis of melanoma cells by upregulation of N-cadherin. <![CDATA[Trypan blue exclusion assay by flow cytometry]]> Dye exclusion tests are used to determine the number of live and dead cells. These assays are based on the principle that intact plasma membranes in live cells exclude specific dyes, whereas dead cells do not. Although widely used, the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay has limitations. The dye can be incorporated by live cells after a short exposure time, and personal reliability, related to the expertise of the analyst, can affect the results. We propose an alternative assay for evaluating cell viability that combines the TB exclusion test and the high sensitivity of the flow cytometry technique. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of TB to emit fluorescence when complexed with proteins. According to our results, TB/bovine serum albumin and TB/cytoplasmic protein complexes emit fluorescence at 660 nm, which is detectable by flow cytometry using a 650-nm low-pass band filter. TB at 0.002% (w/v) was defined as the optimum concentration for distinguishing unstained living cells from fluorescent dead cells, and fluorescence emission was stable for 30 min after cell treatment. Although previous studies have shown that TB promotes green fluorescence quenching, TB at 0.002% did not interfere with green fluorescence in human live T-cells stained with anti-CD3/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) monoclonal antibody. We observed a high correlation between the percentage of propidium iodide+CD3/FITC+ and TB+CD3/FITC+ cells, as well as similar double-stained cell profiles in flow cytometry dot-plot graphs. Taken together, the results indicate that a TB exclusion assay by flow cytometry can be employed as an alternative tool for quick and reliable cell viability analysis. <![CDATA[Chronotype ontogeny related to gender]]> Chronotype is an established concept designed to identify distinct phase relationships between the expression of circadian rhythms and external synchronizers in humans. Although it has been widely accepted that chronotype is subjected to ontogenetic modulation, there is no consensus on the interaction between age and gender. This study aimed to determine the relationship between age- and gender-related changes in the morningness-eveningness character in a large sample of people. A total of 14,650 volunteers were asked to complete the Brazilian version of the Horne and Östberg chronotype questionnaire. The data demonstrated that, on average, women were more morning-oriented than men until the age of 30 and there were no significant differences between men and women from 30 to 45 years of age. In contrast to the situation observed until the age of 30, women older than 45 years were more evening-oriented than men. These results suggest that the ontogenetic development of the circadian timekeeping system is more plastic in men, as represented by the larger amplitude of chronotype changes throughout their aging process. The phase delay of adolescence and phase advance of the elderly seem to be phenomena that are more markedly present in men than in women. Thus, our data, for the first time, provide support that sharply opposes the view that there is a single path toward morningness as a function of age, regardless of gender. <![CDATA[Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions]]> The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. <![CDATA[Effects of eugenol on resting tension of rat atria]]> In cardiac and skeletal muscle, eugenol (μM range) blocks excitation-contraction coupling. In skeletal muscle, however, larger doses of eugenol (mM range) induce calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of eugenol are therefore dependent on its concentration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of eugenol on the contractility of isolated, quiescent atrial trabeculae from male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=131) and measured atrial ATP content. Eugenol (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mM) increased resting tension in a dose-dependent manner. Ryanodine [100 µM; a specific ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker] and procaine (30 mM; a nonspecific RyR blocker) did not block the increased resting tension induced by eugenol regardless of whether extracellular calcium was present. The myosin-specific inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), however, reversed the increase in resting tension induced by eugenol. In Triton-skinned atrial trabeculae, in which all membranes were solubilized, eugenol did not change resting tension, maximum force produced, or the force vs pCa relationship (pCa=-log [Ca2+]). Given that eugenol reduced ATP concentration, the increase in resting tension observed in this study may have resulted from cooperative activation of cardiac thin filaments by strongly attached cross-bridges (rigor state). <![CDATA[Development and validation of a genotype 3 recombinant protein-based immunoassay for hepatitis E virus serology in swine]]> Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified within the family Hepeviridae, genus Hepevirus. HEV genotype 3 (Gt3) infections are endemic in pigs in Western Europe and in North and South America and cause zoonotic infections in humans. Several serological assays to detect HEV antibodies in pigs have been developed, at first mainly based on HEV genotype 1 (Gt1) antigens. To develop a sensitive HEV Gt3 ELISA, a recombinant baculovirus expression product of HEV Gt3 open reading frame-2 was produced and coated onto polystyrene ELISA plates. After incubation of porcine sera, bound HEV antibodies were detected with anti-porcine anti-IgG and anti-IgM conjugates. For primary estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the assay, sets of sera were used from pigs experimentally infected with HEV Gt3. For further validation of the assay and to set the cutoff value, a batch of 1100 pig sera was used. All pig sera were tested using the developed HEV Gt3 assay and two other serologic assays based on HEV Gt1 antigens. Since there is no gold standard available for HEV antibody testing, further validation and a definite setting of the cutoff of the developed HEV Gt3 assay were performed using a statistical approach based on Bayes' theorem. The developed and validated HEV antibody assay showed effective detection of HEV-specific antibodies. This assay can contribute to an improved detection of HEV antibodies and enable more reliable estimates of the prevalence of HEV Gt3 in swine in different regions. <![CDATA[Detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA in various blood components after liver transplantation]]> The quantification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV DNA) by real-time PCR is currently a primary option for laboratory diagnosis of HCMV infection. However, the optimal sample material remains controversial due to the use of different PCR assays. To explore the best blood component for HCMV DNA surveillance after liver transplantation, whole blood (WB), serum (SE), and plasma (PL) specimens were collected simultaneously from targeted patients and examined for HCMV DNA using one commercially available assay. The HCMV DNA-positive rate with WB (16.67%) was higher than that with either SE or PL (8.33%, both P&lt;0.01). Quantitative DNA levels in WB were of greater magnitude than those in SE (WB-SE mean log-transformed difference, 0.99; 95%CI=0.74-1.25; P&lt;0.0001) and PL (WB-PL mean log-transformed difference, 1.37; 95%CI=1.07-1.66; P&lt;0.0001). Dynamic monitoring revealed that HCMV DNA in WB was positive sooner and had higher values for a longer period of time during therapy. With earlier positive detection, higher sensitivity, and yield of greater viral loads, WB compared favorably to SE or PL and hence is recommended as the superior material for HCMV DNA surveillance after liver transplantation. In addition, infant recipients require more intensive monitoring and prophylactic care because of their higher susceptibility to primary HCMV infection. <![CDATA[Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome]]> This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS). A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM) test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94) and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57) in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS. <![CDATA[Effect of vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on migraine attacks in pediatric patients]]> The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementary vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on the frequency of migraine attacks in pediatric migraine patients. Fifty-three children 8-16 years of age and diagnosed with migraine following the International Headache Society 2005 definition, which includes childhood criteria, were enrolled. Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of their 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Group 1 had normal 25(OH)D levels and received amitriptyline therapy alone; group 2 had normal 25(OH)D levels and received vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/day) plus amitriptyline; group 3 had mildly deficient 25(OH)D levels and received amitriptyline plus vitamin D (800 IU/day); and group 4 had severely deficient 25(OH)D levels and was given amitriptyline plus vitamin D (5000 IU/day). All groups were monitored for 6 months, and the number of migraine attacks before and during treatment was determined. Calcium, phosphorus alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25(OH)D levels were also determined before and during treatment. Results were compared between the groups. Data obtained from the groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The number of pretreatment attacks in groups 1 to 4 was 7±0.12, 6.8±0.2, 7.3±0.4, and 7.2±0.3 for 6 months, respectively (all P&gt;0.05). The number of attacks during treatment was 3±0.25, 1.76±0.37 (P&lt;0.05), 2.14±0.29 (P&lt;0.05), and 1.15±0.15 (P&lt;0.05), respectively. No statistically significant differences in calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or parathormone levels were observed (P&gt;0.05). Vitamin D given in addition to anti-migraine treatment reduced the number of migraine attacks.