Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> vol. 50 num. 10 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Potential benefit of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate for macrovascular complications in diabetes]]> Vascular problems are the most common complications in diabetes. Substantial evidence from epidemiological and pathophysiological studies show that hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea, is known to exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects. The protective effects of EGCG in diabetes are also evident. However, whether EGCG is beneficial against macrovascular complications that occur in diabetes remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that treatment of EGCG inhibits high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suppresses high glucose-mediated vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that EGCG might be an effective potential candidate to reduce the macrovascular complications in diabetes. <![CDATA[Antidepressant effects of Kai-Xin-San in fluoxetine-resistant depression rats]]> This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect and the mechanism of action of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) in fluoxetine-resistant depressive (FRD) rats. Two hundred male Wistar rats weighing 200±10 g were exposed to chronic and unpredictable mild stresses (CUMS) for 4 weeks and given fluoxetine treatment simultaneously. The rats that did not show significant improvement in behavioral indexes were chosen as the FRD model rats. These rats were randomly divided into four groups: FRD model control; oral fluoxetine and aspirin; oral KXS at a dose of 338 mg·kg–1·day–1; and oral KXS at a dose of 676 mg·kg–1·day–1. Rats continued to be exposed to CUMS and underwent treatment once a day for 3 weeks, then cytokine (COX-2, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-α) levels in the hippocampus and serum, and organ coefficients were measured. Both doses of KXS improved the crossing and rearing frequencies, sucrose-preference index, and body weight in FRD rats. KXS at a dose of 338 mg·kg–1·day–1reduced COX-2, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α levels, increased IL-10 level in the hippocampus, and reduced IL-2 and TNF-α levels in serum. KXS at a dose of 676 mg·kg–1·day–1reduced TNF-α level in the hippocampus, reduced IL-2 and TNF-α levels in serum, and increased IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the hippocampus and serum. There were no significant differences in organ-coefficients of the spleen among and between groups. The results suggested that oral administration of KXS in FRD rats was effective in improving behavior disorders by influencing various inflammatory pathways. <![CDATA[Antiviral activity of shikonin ester derivative PMM-034 against enterovirus 71 <em>in vitro</em>]]> Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in infants and children below 4 years of age. Shikonin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antibacterial activities derived from the roots of the Chinese medicinal herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This study aimed to examine the antiviral activity of PMM-034, a shikonin ester derivative, against EV71 in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Cytotoxicity of PMM-034 on RD cells was determined using WST-1 assay. Dose- and time-dependent effects of PMM-034 on EV71 replication in RD cells were determined using plaque reduction assay. mRNA expression levels of EV71/VP1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) were determined by real-time RT-PCR, and EV71/VP1 and phospho-p65 protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. PMM-034 exhibited only weak cytotoxicity against RD cells. However, PMM-034 exhibited significant antiviral activity against EV71 in RD cells with 50% inhibitory concentration of 2.31 μg/mL. The VP1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in cells treated with PMM-034. Furthermore, relative mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α significantly decreased in the cells treated with PMM-034, while the phospho-p65 protein expression was also significantly lower in the treated cells. These results indicated that PMM-034 suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RD cells, exhibiting antiviral activity against EV71, as evidenced by the reduced VP1 mRNA and protein levels in PMM-034-treated cells. Thus, PMM-034 is a promising candidate for further development as an EV71 inhibitor. <![CDATA[Application of data mining techniques to explore predictors of upper urinary tract damage in patients with neurogenic bladder]]> This study proposed a decision tree model to screen upper urinary tract damage (UUTD) for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). Thirty-four NGB patients with UUTD were recruited in the case group, while 78 without UUTD were included in the control group. A decision tree method, classification and regression tree (CART), was then applied to develop the model in which UUTD was used as a dependent variable and history of urinary tract infections, bladder management, conservative treatment, and urodynamic findings were used as independent variables. The urethra function factor was found to be the primary screening information of patients and treated as the root node of the tree; Pabd max (maximum abdominal pressure, &gt;14 cmH2O), Pves max (maximum intravesical pressure, ≤89 cmH2O), and gender (female) were also variables associated with UUTD. The accuracy of the proposed model was 84.8%, and the area under curve was 0.901 (95%CI=0.844-0.958), suggesting that the decision tree model might provide a new and convenient way to screen UUTD for NGB patients in both undeveloped and developing areas. <![CDATA[Proliferation and osteogenic activity of fibroblasts induced with fibronectin]]> The aim of this study was to determine the proliferation and osteogenic activity of fibroblasts induced with fibronectin and their possible dose-dependent relationship. The fibroblasts obtained by tissue explants adherent method were induced with fibronectin at different concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL for 14 days. The 3H-thymidine and 3H-proline incorporation test was used to evaluate the synthesis of DNA and collagen by fibroblasts, respectively. The mineralized nodules and osteocalcin secretion, as vital osteogenic indicators, were detected with tetracycline labeling and 125I-labeled competitive immunoassay, respectively. Fibronectin significantly increased the synthesis of DNA and collagen by fibroblasts, especially at the concentration of 40 μg/mL (P&lt;0.05). The increased secretion of osteocalcin in the supernatant was also statistically significant at the concentration of 40 μg/mL (P&lt;0.05). The mineralized nodules with trabecula-like structure derived from induced fibroblasts were positive for tetracycline labeling. The granulation tissue-derived fibroblasts induced with fibronectin exhibited increased proliferative, functional and osteogenic potential. Fibroblasts are considered a possible in situ stem cell in tissue engineering. <![CDATA[Meta-analysis of the association between PADI4 -92C/G polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis in the Chinese population]]> Many studies have evaluated the correlation between peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) -92C/G polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the results remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis in the Chinese population to provide comprehensive data on the association between PADI4 -92C/G polymorphism and RA. Eligible studies published before May 2016 were identified in PubMed and Chinese databases. The strengths of these associations were assessed by pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Eight studies documenting a total of 1351 RA cases and 1585 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a significant association between the PADI4 -92C/G polymorphism and RA was found in the Chinese population (G vs C: OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.02–1.71; GG+CG vs CC: OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.20–2.53). The subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area(s) and source of controls revealed significant results in South China, in hospital-based studies and population-based studies. In summary, this meta-analysis suggested that PADI4 -92C/G polymorphism may be associated with the RA incidence in the Chinese population, especially for South China. Further studies conducted on other ethnic groups are required for definite conclusions. <![CDATA[Is endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration with a stylet necessary for lymph node screening in lung cancer patients?]]> During endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), a needle is commonly used with a stylet, although recently the stylet has been omitted. This prospective study aimed to compare the quality of specimens obtained by EBUS-TBNA performed with and without a stylet. Between November 2013 and November 2014, 131 patients with lung cancer underwent EBUS-TBNA, with a total of 148 mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes sampled both with and without an inner-stylet, yielding 296 cytological specimens. Specimens were scored cytologically using five parameters: background blood or clot, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture. The procedure with a stylet required significantly longer operation time than without a stylet (14.5±0.8 vs 12.7±1.1 min, P&lt;0.001). Excellent specimens were obtained in 261/296 and 260/296 samples in the procedures with and without a stylet, respectively (P=0.9), while the remaining 35 and 36 samples, respectively, were adequate. The diagnosing and staging of lung cancer using EBUS-TBNA did not differ significantly between the groups. In conclusion, specimen collection by EBUS-TBNA without a stylet is easier and faster than the procedure using a stylet and absence of a stylet did not alter specimen quality or diagnostic accuracy. <![CDATA[Salinomycin enhances doxorubicin sensitivity through reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cholangiocarcinoma cells by regulating ARK5]]> Chemotherapy response rates in patients with cholangiocarcinoma remain low, primarily due to the development of drug resistance. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is widely accepted to be important for metastasis and progression, but it has also been linked to the development of chemoresistance. Salinomycin (an antibiotic) has shown some potential as a chemotherapeutic agent as it selectively kills cancer stem cells, and has been hypothesized to block the EMT process. In this study, we investigated whether salinomycin could reverse the chemoresistance of cholangiocarcinoma cells to the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. We found that combined salinomycin with doxorubicin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability compared with doxorubicin or salinomycin treatment alone in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (RBE and Huh-28). The dosages of both drugs that were required to produce a cytotoxic effect decreased, indicating that these two drugs have a synergistic effect. In terms of mechanism, salinomycin reversed doxorubicin-induced EMT of cholangiocarcinoma cells, as shown morphologically and through the detection of EMT markers. Moreover, we showed that salinomycin treatment downregulated the AMP-activated protein kinase family member 5 (ARK5) expression, which regulates the EMT process of cholangiocarcinoma. Our results indicated that salinomycin reversed the EMT process in cholangiocarcinoma cells by inhibiting ARK5 expression and enhanced the chemosensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells to doxorubicin. Therefore, a combined treatment of salinomycin with doxorubicin could be used to enhance doxorubicin sensitivity in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. <![CDATA[Methotrexate associated to lipid core nanoparticles improves cardiac allograft vasculopathy and the inflammatory profile in a rabbit heart graft model]]> Coronary allograft vasculopathy is an inflammatory-proliferative process that compromises the long-term success of heart transplantation and has no effective treatment. A lipid nanoemulsion (LDE) can carry chemotherapeutic agents in the circulation and concentrates them in the heart graft. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) associated to LDE. Rabbits fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet and submitted to heterotopic heart transplantation were treated with cyclosporine A (10 mg·kg–1·day–1 orally) and allocated to treatment with intravenous LDE-MTX (4 mg/kg, weekly, n=10) or with weekly intravenous saline solution (control group, n=10), beginning on the day of surgery. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks later. Compared to controls, grafts of LDE-MTX treated rabbits showed 20% reduction of coronary stenosis, with a four-fold increase in vessel lumen and 80% reduction of macrophage staining in grafts. Necrosis was attenuated by LDE-MTX. Native hearts of both LDE-MTX and Control groups were apparently normal. Gene expression of lipoprotein receptors was significantly greater in grafts compared to native hearts. In LDE-MTX group, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-18, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-12 was strongly diminished whereas expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 increased. LDE-MTX promoted improvement of the cardiac allograft vasculopathy and diminished inflammation in heart grafts.