Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> vol. 41 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The reciprocal interaction between sleep and type 2 diabetes mellitus: facts and perspectives]]> Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by intolerance to glucose and peripheral resistance to insulin. This endocrine disease affects fundamental mechanisms of the central nervous system and jeopardizes the balance of vital functions such as the cardiovascular and circadian rhythm. The increased prevalence of metabolic disorders in our society is aggravated by endemic voluntary postponement of bedtime and by the current sedentary lifestyle, leading to epidemic proportions of obese people. Diabetes and chronic loss of sleep share the fact that both affect millions and one is detrimental to the other. Indeed, sleep deficits have marked modulatory effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and foster metabolic syndrome that culminates in sleep disorders like restless syndrome and sleep apnea, which in turn lead to poor sleep quality. We examine the hypothesis that these two worldwide emerging disorders are due to two interlinked cycles. In our paradigm, we establish an intimate relationship between diabetes and sleep disturbances and postulate possible mechanisms that provide support for this conjecture. In addition, we propose some perspectives about the development of the reciprocal interaction between predictor components of metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances that lead to poor sleep quality. The ability to predict the development and identify or associate a given mode of sleep disturbance to diabetes would be a valuable asset in the assessment of both. Furthermore, major advances in care coupled with healthy lifestyles can ensure a higher quality of life for people with diabetes. <![CDATA[<b>Antibodies to citrullinated peptides are not associated with the rate of joint destruction in patients with a well-established diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis</b>]]> Antibodies to citrullinated peptides are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and represent a significant risk factor for undifferentiated polyarthritis. This prognostic ability may be related to the very diagnostic performance of these autoantibodies, since RA is a more erosive disease than other forms of arthritis. The present study evaluated an association of antibodies to citrullinated peptides and the rate of joint destruction in patients with a well-established diagnosis of RA. Seventy-one patients with RA were evaluated in 1994 and again in 2002 (functional class, joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire score, hands X-ray). Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-perinuclear factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies) and Sharp's index were analyzed blindly. Delta Sharp was calculated as the difference in Sharp's index obtained in 1994 and 2002. During the follow-up the Health Assessment Questionnaire score increased from 0.91 ± 0.74 to 1.39 ± 0.72 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the number of swollen joints increased from 4.6 ± 5.71 to 6.4 ± 4.1 (P = 0.002). The frequency of autoantibodies and anti-CCP titer remained stable; however, serum RF concentration increased from 202.8 ± 357.6 to 416.6 ± 636.5 IU/mL (P = 0.003). Sharp's index increased from 56.7 ± 62.1 to 92.4 ± 80.9 (P < 0.001). No correlation was observed between Delta Sharp and the presence of RF, anti-perinuclear factor, and anti-CCP antibodies at baseline. Antibodies to citrullinated epitopes are specific and early markers for the diagnosis of RA but do not seem to be associated with the rate of joint destruction in patients with a well-established diagnosis of RA. <![CDATA[<b>Interrelationship between serum and sputum inflammatory mediators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease</b>]]> Little is known about airway inflammatory markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of the present study was to identify and try to correlate pulmonary and peripheral blood inflammatory markers in COPD. In a cross-sectional study on patients with stable COPD, induced sputum and blood samples were collected for the determination of C-reactive protein, eosinophilic cationic protein, serum amyloid A protein, a-1 antitrypsin (a-1AT), and neutrophil elastase. Twenty-two patients were divided into two groups according to post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second (%FEV1): group 1 (N = 12, FEV1 <40%) and group 2 (N = 10, FEV1 ³40%). An increase in serum elastase, eosinophilic cationic protein and a-1AT was observed in serum markers in both groups. Cytology revealed the same total number of cells in groups 1 and 2. There was a significantly higher number of neutrophils in group 1 compared to group 2 (P < 0.05). No difference in eosinophils or macrophages was observed between groups. Serum elastase was positively correlated with serum a-1AT (group 1, r = 0.81, P < 0.002 and group 2, r = 0.83, P < 0.17) and negatively correlated with FEV1 (r = -0.85, P < 0.03 and -0.14, P < 0.85, respectively). The results indicate the presence of chronic and persistent pulmonary inflammation in stable patients with COPD. Induced sputum permitted the demonstration of the existence of a subpopulation of cells in which neutrophils predominated. The serum concentration of all inflammatory markers did not correlate with the pulmonary functional impairment. <![CDATA[<b>Determination of myocardial infarction size in rats by echocardiography and tetrazolium staining</b>: <b>correlation, agreements, and simplifications</b>]]> Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and echocardiography (ECHO) are methods used to determine experimental myocardial infarction (MI) size, whose practical applicability should be expanded. Our objectives were to analyze the accuracy of ECHO in determining infarction size in rats during the first days following coronary occlusion and to test whether a simplified single measurement by TTC correctly indicates MI size, as determined by the average value for multiple slices. Infarction was induced in female Wistar rats by coronary artery occlusion and MI size analysis was performed after the acute (7th day) and chronic periods (after 4 weeks) by ECHO matched with TTC. ECHO and TTC showed similar values of MI size (% of left ventricle perimeter) in acute (ECHO: 33 ± 11, TTC: 35 ± 14) and chronic (ECHO: 38 ± 14, TTC: 39 ± 13 periods), and also presented an excellent correlation (r = 0.92, P < 0.001). Although measurements from different heart planes showed discrepancies, a single measurement acquired from the mid-ventricular level by TTC was a good estimate of MI size calculated by the average of multiple planes, with minimal disagreement (Bland-Altman test with mean ratio bias of 0.99 ± 0.07) and close to an ideal correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). In the present study, ECHO was confirmed as a useful method for the determination of MI size even in the acute phase. Also, the single measure of a mid-ventricular section proposed as a simplification of the TTC method is a satisfactory prediction of average MI extension. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, for coronary angiography</b>]]> The presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with coronary artery disease. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients referred for coronary angiography. This prevalence study was carried out at the Hemodynamics Unit of Hospital Santa Isabel, Salvador, Brazil, from December 2004 to April 2005. After approval by the Ethics Committee of the hospital, 397 patients with angiographic signs of coronary artery disease were enrolled. Diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease was made using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (£0.90). Statistical analyses were performed using the z test and a level of significance of a = 5%, 95%CI, the chi-square test and t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease was 34.3% (95%CI: 29.4-38.9). Mean age was 65.7 ± 9.4 years for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, and 60.3 ± 9.8 years for patients without peripheral arterial occlusive disease (P = 0.0000003). The prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease was 1.57 times greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.007) and 2.91 times greater in patients with coronary stenosis ³50% (P = 0.002). Illiterate patients and those with little education had a 44% higher chance of presenting peripheral arterial occlusive disease probably as a result of public health prevention policies of limited effectiveness. The prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Salvador, Bahia, for coronary angiography, was 34.3%. <![CDATA[<b>Protective effect of bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline on nocturnal asthma</b>]]> Inhalation of hypertonic saline (HS) causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Repeated inhalation of HS leads to substantially reduced bronchoconstriction, known as the refractory period. Refractoriness due to different stimuli has also been described (cross-refractoriness). Nocturnal asthma is defined as an increase in symptoms, need for medication, airway responsiveness, and/or worsening of lung function that usually occurs from 4 to 6 am. Our objective was to determine the effect of refractoriness on nocturnal asthma. The challenge test consisted of inhalations of 4.5% saline with increasing durations until a reduction of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (PD20HS) or total time of 15.5 min. Twelve subjects with nocturnal asthma were challenged with HS at 16:00 and 18:00 h and FEV1 was measured at 4:00 h. One to 2 weeks later, FEV1 was determined at 16:00 and 4:00 h. LogPD20HS at 18:00 h was significantly greater than logPD20HS at 16:00 h, 0.51 ± 0.50 and 0.69 ± 0.60 mg, respectively (P = 0.0033). When subjects underwent two HS challenges in the afternoon, mean (± SD) FEV1 reduction was 206 ± 414 mL or 9.81 ± 17.42%. On the control day (without challenge in the afternoon) FEV1 reduction was 523 ± 308 mL or 22.75 ± 15.40% (P = 0.021). Baseline FEV1 values did not differ significantly between the control and study days, 2.48 ± 0.62 and 2.36 ± 0.46 L, respectively. The refractory period following HS challenges reduces the nocturnal worsening of asthma. This new concept may provide beneficial applications to asthmatic patients. <![CDATA[<b>Breathing disorders in congestive heart failure</b>: <b>gender, etiology and mortality</b>]]> We investigated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) while awake as well as mortality. Eighty-nine consecutive outpatients (29 females) with congestive heart failure (CHF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <45%) were prospectively evaluated. The presence of SDB and of CSR while awake before sleep onset was investigated by polysomnography. SDB prevalence was 81 and 56%, using apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs >5 and >15, respectively. CHF etiologies were similar according to the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern. Males and females were similar in age, body mass index, and LVEF. Males presented more SDB (P = 0.01), higher apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.04), more light sleep (stages 1 and 2; P < 0.05), and less deep sleep (P < 0.001) than females. During follow-up (25 ± 10 months), 27% of the population died. Non-survivors had lower LVEF (P = 0.01), worse New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification (P = 0.03), and higher CSR while awake (P < 0.001) than survivors. As determined by Cox proportional model, NYHA class IV (RR = 3.95, 95%CI = 1.37-11.38, P = 0.011) and CSR while awake with a marginal significance (RR = 2.96, 95%CI = 0.94-9.33, P = 0.064) were associated with mortality. In conclusion, the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern of patients with Chagas' disease were similar to that of patients with CHF due to other etiologies. Males presented more frequent and more severe SDB and worse sleep quality than females. The presence of CSR while awake, but not during sleep, may be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with CHF. <![CDATA[<b>There is no difference in hepatic fibrosis rates of patients infected with hepatitis C virus and those co-infected with HIV</b>]]> Some studies have suggested that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection modifies the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, accelerating the progression of fibrosis and the development of cirrhosis. Our objective was to evaluate the fibrosis progression rate (FPR) in HCV/HIV-co-infected patients, and to identify factors that may influence it. HCV-mono-infected and HCV/HIV-co-infected patients with a known date of HCV infection (transfusion or injection drug use) and a liver biopsy were included. The FPR was defined as the ratio between the fibrosis stage (Metavir score) and the estimated length of infection in years and the result was reported as fibrosis units per year. The factors studied were gender, age at infection, consumption of alcohol, aminotransferase levels, histological activity grade, HCV genotype and viral load, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and the use of antiretroviral therapy. Sixty-five HCV-infected (group 1) and 53 HCV/HIV-co-infected (group 2) patients were evaluated over a period of 19 months. The mean FPR of groups 1 and 2 was 0.086 ± 0.074 and 0.109 ± 0.098 fibrosis units per year, respectively (P = 0.276). There was a correlation between length of HCV infection and stage of fibrosis in both groups. The age at infection, the aspartate aminotransferase level (r = 0.36) and the inflammatory activity grade were correlated with the FPR (P < 0.001). No difference in FPR was found between HCV-mono-infected and HCV/HIV-co-infected patients. <![CDATA[<b>The role of K121Q <i>ENPP1</i> polymorphism in diabetes mellitus and its complications</b>]]> The aim of the present study was to analyze the frequency of K121Q polymorphism in the ENPP1 gene of Brazilian subjects according to ethnic origin and to determine its possible association with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or diabetic complications. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1027 type 2 DM patients and 240 anonymous blood donors (BD). Ethnicity was classified based on self-report of European and African descent. The Q allele frequency was increased in African descendant type 2 DM patients (KK = 25.9%, KQ = 48.2%, and QQ = 25.9%) and BD (KK = 22.0%, KQ = 53.8%, and QQ = 24.2%) compared to European descendant type 2 DM patients (KK = 62.7%, KQ = 33.3%, and QQ = 4.1%) and BD (KK = 61.0%, KQ = 35.6%, and QQ = 3.4%). However, there was no difference in genotype distribution or Q allele frequency between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (European descendants: DM = 0.21 vs BD = 0.21, P = 0.966, and African descendants: DM = 0.50 vs BD = 0.51, P = 0.899). In addition, there were no differences in clinical, laboratory or insulin resistance indices among the three genotypes. The prevalence of DM complications was also similar. In conclusion, K121Q polymorphism is more common among Afro-Brazilian descendants regardless of glycemic status or insulin sensitivity indices. Likewise, insulin sensitivity and DM chronic complications appear not to be related to the polymorphism in this sample. <![CDATA[<b>Low occurrence of occult hepatitis B virus infection and high frequency of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 in hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazil</b>]]> Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been reported among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to evaluate the presence of occult HBV infection in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) with or without HCC in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum and liver tissue samples from 50 hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients with HCV-related LC who underwent liver transplantation at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital from 1993 to 2004 were divided into groups with LC only (N = 33) and with LC plus HCC (N = 17). HBV DNA was assayed for serum and paraffin-embedded liver tissue (tumoral and non-tumoral) using real time PCR and only 1 case with HCC had HBV DNA-positive serum. All liver samples were negative. HCV genotype 3 was detected in 17/39 (43.7%) cases. In conclusion, using a sensitive real time PCR directed to detect HBV variants circulating in Brazil, occult hepatitis B infection was not found among HCV-positive cirrhotic patients and was rarely found among HCV-positive HCC patients. These results are probably related to the low prevalence of HBV infection in our population. Furthermore, we have also shown that HCV genotype 3 is frequently found in Brazilian cirrhotic patients, particularly when they also have HCC. More studies involving a large number of cases should be carried out to confirm these data and to further characterize Brazilian HCV genotype isolates to elucidate genetic features that might be related to its carcinogenic potential. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical utility of standard base excess in the diagnosis and interpretation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients</b>]]> The aims of this study were to determine whether standard base excess (SBE) is a useful diagnostic tool for metabolic acidosis, whether metabolic acidosis is clinically relevant in daily evaluation of critically ill patients, and to identify the most robust acid-base determinants of SBE. Thirty-one critically ill patients were enrolled. Arterial blood samples were drawn at admission and 24 h later. SBE, as calculated by Van Slyke's (SBE VS) or Wooten's (SBE W) equations, accurately diagnosed metabolic acidosis (AUC = 0.867, 95%CI = 0.690-1.043 and AUC = 0.817, 95%CI = 0.634-0.999, respectively). SBE VS was weakly correlated with total SOFA (r = -0.454, P < 0.001) and was similar to SBE W (r = -0.482, P < 0.001). All acid-base variables were categorized as SBE VS <-2 mEq/L or SBE VS <-5 mEq/L. SBE VS <-2 mEq/L was better able to identify strong ion gap acidosis than SBE VS <-5 mEq/L; there were no significant differences regarding other variables. To demonstrate unmeasured anions, anion gap (AG) corrected for albumin (AG A) was superior to AG corrected for albumin and phosphate (AG A+P) when strong ion gap was used as the standard method. Mathematical modeling showed that albumin level, apparent strong ion difference, AG A, and lactate concentration explained SBE VS variations with an R² = 0.954. SBE VS with a cut-off value of <-2 mEq/L was the best tool to diagnose clinically relevant metabolic acidosis. To analyze the components of SBE VS shifts at the bedside, AG A, apparent strong ion difference, albumin level, and lactate concentration are easily measurable variables that best represent the partitioning of acid-base derangements. <![CDATA[<b>A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder</b>]]> Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD). Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo) or group B (reverse order). The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV) and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100%) and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%). Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses) during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001). MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.