Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0100-879X20110003&lang=en vol. 44 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[<b>Evidence for the endophytic colonization of <i>Phaseolus vulgaris(</i>common bean) roots by the diazotroph <i>Herbaspirillum seropedicae</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8) CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4) cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6) CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris. <![CDATA[<b>Construction of a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen and mouse 4-1BBL genes and its effect on dendritic cells</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Our aim was to construct a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen (tPSMA) and mouse 4-1BBL genes and to determine its effect on dendritic cells (DCs) generated from bone marrow suspensions harvested from C57BL/6 mice for which the effect of 4-1BBL on DCs is not clear, especially during DCs processing tumor-associated antigen. Replication deficient adenovirus AdMaxTM Expression System was used to construct recombinant adenovirus Ad-tPSMA-internal ribosome entry site-mouse 4-1BBL (Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL) and Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Day 7 proliferating DC aggregates generated from C57BL/6 mice were collected as immature DCs and further mature DCs were obtained by lipopolysaccharide activated immature DCs. After DCs were exposed to the recombinant adenovirus with 250 multiplicity of infection, the expression of tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were detected by Western blot, and the apoptosis and phenotype of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12) in the supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proliferation of T cells was detected by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were expressed correctly. The apoptosis rate of DCs transfected with Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL was 14.6%, lower than that of control DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules [CD80 (81.6 ± 5.4%) and CD86 (80.13 ± 2.81%)] up-regulated in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-pulsed DCs, and the level of IL-6 (3960.2 ± 50.54 pg/mL) and IL-12 (249.57 ± 12.51 pg/mL) production in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-transduced DCs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in control DCs. Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL induced higher T-cell proliferation (OD450 = 0.614 ± 0.018), indicating that this recombinant adenovirus can effectively enhance the activity of DCs. <![CDATA[<b>Angiotensin II induces NF-</b><b>κ</b><b>B, JNK and p38 MAPK activation in monocytic cells and increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in a PKC- andRho kinase-dependent manner</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Angiotensin II (ANG II), the main effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is implicated in endothelial permeability, recruitment and activation of the immune cells, and also vascular remodeling through induction of inflammatory genes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be important inflammatory factors. Elucidation of ANG II signaling pathways and of possible cross-talks between their components is essential for the development of efficient inhibitory medications. The current study investigates the inflammatory signaling pathways activated by ANG II in cultures of human monocytic U-937 cells, and the effects of specific pharmacological inhibitors of signaling intermediates on MMP-9 gene (MMP-9) expression and activity. MMP-9 expression was determined by real-time PCR and supernatants were analyzed for MMP-9 activity by ELISA and zymography methods. A multi-target ELISA kit was employed to evaluate IκB, NF-κB, JNK, p38, and STAT3 activation following treatments. Stimulation with ANG II (100 nM) significantly increased MMP-9 expression and activity, and also activated NF-κB, JNK, and p38 by 3.8-, 2.8- and 2.2-fold, respectively (P < 0.01). ANG II-induced MMP-9 expression was significantly reduced by 75 and 67%, respectively, by co-incubation of the cells with a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C (GF109203X, 5 µM) or of rho kinase (Y-27632, 15 µM), but not with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (wortmannin, 200 nM), tyrosine kinases (genistein, 100 µM) or of reactive oxygen species (α-tocopherol, 100 µM). Thus, protein kinase C and Rho kinase are important components of the inflammatory signaling pathways activated by ANG II to increase MMP-9 expression in monocytic cells. Both signaling molecules may constitute potential targets for effective management of inflammation. <![CDATA[<b>CCN2/CTGF silencing blocks cell aggregation in embryonal carcinoma P19 cell</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) is a matricellular-secreted protein involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. The P19 cell line is an embryonic carcinoma line widely used as a cellular model for differentiation and migration studies. In the present study, we employed an exogenous source of CCN2 and small interference RNA to address the role of CCN2 in the P19 cell aggregation phenomenon. Our data showed that increasing CCN2 protein concentrations from 0.1 to 20 nM decreased the number of cell clusters and dramatically increased cluster size without changing proliferation or cell survival, suggesting that CCN2 induced aggregation. In addition, CCN2 specific silencing inhibited typical P19 cell aggregation, which could be partially rescued by 20 nM CCN2. The present study demonstrates that CCN2 is a key molecule for cell aggregation of embryonic P19 cells. <![CDATA[<b>Plasma concentrations and placental immunostaining of interleukin-10 and tumornecrosis factor-α as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and the placental development of diabetic rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Interleukin-10 (IL-10) appears to be the key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy and inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, there are no studies evaluating the profile of these cytokines in diabetic rat models. Thus, our aim was to analyze IL-10 and TNF-α immunostaining in placental tissue and their respective concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy in diabetic rats in order to determine whether these cytokines can be used as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development. These parameters were evaluated in non-diabetic (control; N = 15) and Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (N = 15). At term, the dams (100 days of life) were killed under anesthesia and plasma and placental samples were collected for IL-10 and TNF-α determinations by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The reproductive performance was analyzed. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were reduced in STZ rats compared to controls (7.6 ± 4.5 vs 20.9 ± 8.1 pg/mL). The placental scores of immunostaining intensity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Prevalence analysis showed that the IL-10 expression followed TNF-α expression, showing a balance between them. STZ rats also presented impaired reproductive performance and reduced plasma IL-10 levels related to damage during early embryonic development. However, the increased placental IL-10 as a compensatory mechanism for the deficit of maternal regulation permitted embryo development. Therefore, the data suggest that IL-10 can be used as a predictor of changes in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development in pregnant diabetic rats. <![CDATA[<b>Increased expression of keratinase and other peptidases by <i>Candida parapsilosis</i> mutants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Keratinases are enzymes of great importance involved in pathogenic processes of some fungi. They also have a widespread ecological role since they are responsible for the degradation and recycling of keratin. On the one hand, studying them furthers our knowledge of pathogenicity mechanisms, which has important implications for human health, and on the other hand, understanding their ecological role in keratin recycling has biotechnological potential. Here, a wild-type keratinolytic Candida parapsilosis strain isolated from a poultry farm was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate in order to generate mutants with increased keratinase activity. Mutants were then cultured on media with keratin extracted from chicken feathers as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Approximately 500 mutants were screened and compared with the described keratinolytic wild type. Three strains, H36, I7 and J5, showed enhanced keratinase activity. The wild-type strain produced 80 U/mL of keratinolytic activity, strain H36 produced 110 U/mL, strain I7, 130 U/mL, and strain J5, 140 U/mL. A 70% increase in enzyme activity was recorded for strain J5. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by zymograms with proteic substrates. A peptidase migrating at 100 kDa was detected with keratin, bovine serum albumin and casein. In addition, a peptidase with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was observed with casein in the wild-type strain and in mutants H36 and J5. Gelatinase activity was detected at 60 kDa. A single band of 35 kDa was found in wild-type C. parapsilosis and in mutants with hemoglobin substrate. <![CDATA[<b>Long-term melatonin treatment reduces ovarian mass and enhances tissue antioxidant defenses during ovulation in the rat</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g), were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9% NaCl + 0.04 mL 95% ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1) both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05). Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day) and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL) towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2%) and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7%), arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9%) and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9%). Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3%), catalase (23.6%) and glutathione-reductase (14.8%) activities and the reducing power (10.2% GSH/GSSG ratio). We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities. <![CDATA[<b>Central 5-HT<sub>2A</sub> receptors modulate the vagal bradycardia in response to activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors modulates the excitability of cardiac vagal motoneurones, but the precise role of 5-HT2A/2B receptors in these phenomena is unclear. We report here the effects of intracisternal (ic) administration of selective 5-HT2A/2B antagonists on the vagal bradycardia elicited by activation of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex with phenylbiguanide. The experiments were performed on urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats (250-270 g, N = 7-9 per group). The animals were placed in a stereotaxic frame and their atlanto-occipital membrane was exposed to allow ic injections. The rats received atenolol (1 mg/kg, iv) to block the sympathetic component of the reflex bradycardia; 20-min later, the cardiopulmonary reflex was induced with phenylbiguanide (15 µg/kg, iv) injected at 15-min intervals until 3 similar bradycardias were obtained. Ten minutes after the last pre-drug bradycardia, R-96544 (a 5-HT2A antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg), SB-204741 (a 5-HT2B antagonist; 0.1 µmol/kg) or vehicle was injected ic. The subsequent iv injections of phenylbiguanide were administered 5, 20, 35, and 50 min after the ic injection. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonism attenuated the vagal bradycardia and hypotension, with maximal effect at 35 min after the antagonist (pre-drug = -200 ± 11 bpm and -42 ± 3 mmHg; at 35 min = -84 ± 10 bpm and -33 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Neither the 5-HT2B receptor antagonists nor the vehicle changed the reflex. These data suggest that central 5-HT2A receptors modulate the central pathways of the parasympathetic component of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of stretching on the flexibility, muscle performance and functionality of institutionalized older women</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Stretching has been widely used to increase the range of motion. We assessed the effects of a stretching program on muscle-tendon length, flexibility, torque, and activities of daily living of institutionalized older women. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (>13), Barthel Index (>13) and Lysholm Scoring Scale (>84). Seventeen 67 ± 9 year-old elderly women from a nursing home were divided into 2 groups at random: the control group (CG, N = 9) participated in enjoyable cultural activities; the stretching group (SG, N = 8) performed active stretching of hamstrings, 4 bouts of 1 min each. Both groups were supervised three times per week over a period of 8 weeks. Peak torque was assessed by an isokinetic method. Both groups were evaluated by a photogrammetric method to assess muscle-tendon length of uni- and biarticular hip flexors and hamstring flexibility. All measurements were analyzed before and after 8 weeks by two-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at 5%. Hamstring flexibility increased by 30% in the SG group compared to pre-training (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 59.5 ± 9.0°, P = 0.0002) and by 9.2% compared to the CG group (76.5 ± 13.0° vs 64.0 ± 12.0°, P = 0.0018). Muscle-tendon lengths of hip biarticular flexor muscles (124 ± 6.8° vs 118.3 ± 7.6°, 5.0 ± 7.0%, P = 0.031) and eccentric knee extensor peak torque were decreased in the CG group compared to pre-test values (-49.4 ± 16.8 vs -60.5 ± 18.9 Nm, -15.7 ± 20%, P = 0.048). The stretching program was sufficient to increase hamstring flexibility and a lack of stretching can cause reduction of muscle performance. <![CDATA[<b>Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Braziliansubjects</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD) CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years) and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years). Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients <![CDATA[<b>Variants of transcription factor 7-like 2 (<i>TCF7L2</i>) gene and incident glucose intolerance in Japanese-Brazilians</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Common variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in different ethnic groups. The Japanese-Brazilian population has one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TCF7L2, rs7903146 and rs12255372, could predict the development of glucose intolerance in Japanese-Brazilians. In a population-based 7-year prospective study, we genotyped 222 individuals (72 males and 150 females, aged 56.2 ± 10.5 years) with normal glucose tolerance at baseline. In the study population, we found that the minor allele frequency was 0.05 for SNP rs7903146 and 0.03 for SNP rs12255372. No significant allele or genotype association with glucose intolerance incidence was found for either SNP. Haplotypes were constructed with these two SNPs and three haplotypes were defined: CG (frequency: 0.94), TT (frequency = 0.027) and TG (frequency = 0.026). None of the haplotypes provided evidence for association with the incidence of glucose intolerance. Despite no associations between incidence of glucose intolerance and SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene in Japanese-Brazilians, we found that carriers of the CT genotype for rs7903146 had significantly lower insulin levels 2 h after a 75-g glucose load than carriers of the CC genotype. In conclusion, in Japanese-Brazilians, a population with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, common TCF7L2 variants did not make major contributions to the incidence of glucose tolerance abnormalities. <![CDATA[<b>Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (<i>Schinus</i>) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A 7.4% vaginal extract of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) was compared with 0.75% vaginal metronidazole, both manufactured by the Hebron Laboratory, for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, used at bedtime for 7 nights. The condition was diagnosed using the combined criteria of Amsel and Nugent in two groups of 140 and 137 women, aged between 18 and 40 years. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Women were excluded from the study if they presented delayed menstruation, were pregnant, were using or had used any topical or systemic medication, presented any other vaginal infections, presented hymen integrity, or if they reported any history suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. According to Amsel’s criteria separately, 29 patients (21.2%) treated with the extract and 87 (62.1%) treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001). According to Nugent’s score separately, 19 women (13.9%) treated with the extract and 79 (56.4%) treated with metronidazole were considered to be cured (P < 0.001). Using the two criteria together, the so-called total cure was observed in 17 women (12.4%) treated with the extract and in 79 women (56.4%) treated with metronidazole (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the cure rate for bacterial vaginosis using a vaginal gel from a pepper tree extract was lower than the rate obtained with metronidazole gel, while side effects were infrequent and non-severe in both groups. <![CDATA[<b>Vancomycin-dependent <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> <i>van</i>A</b>: <b>characterization of the first case isolated in a university hospital in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this study, we report the characterization of a strain of Enterococcus faecium vanA, which grows only in the presence of vancomycin (VDEfm-UEL). The bacterium was isolated from the feces of a female patient who had undergone surgical treatment of Reinke’s edema and was receiving intravenous vancomycin therapy for infection with methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a postoperative complication. Antimicrobial dependence was further confirmed by the vancomycin E-test. VDEfm-UEL was also shown to be resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, levofloxacin, penicillin, rifampicin, and teicoplanin. The putative virulence genes efaA, gelE and esp were detected by PCR. The ddl gene from VDEfm-UEL was cloned and sequenced. Vancomycin dependence seems to be associated with the insertion of a nucleotide in that sequence, which results in a frame-shift mutation, introducing a premature stop codon. This is the first report of vancomycin-dependent E. faecium isolation in a university hospital in Brazil. <![CDATA[<b>Adherence to drug therapy in kidney disease</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Non-adherence to drug therapy has not been extensively studied in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of the present study was to identify determinants of non-adherence to drug therapy in patients with CKD, not on dialysis. A prospective cohort study involving 149 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months. Adherence to drug therapy was evaluated by the self-report method at baseline and at 12 months. Patients who knew the type of drug(s) and the respective number of prescribed pills in use at the visit preceding the interview were considered to be adherent. Patients with cognitive decline were assessed by interviewing their caregivers. Mean patient age was 51 ± 16.7 years. Male patients predominated (60.4%). Univariate analysis performed at baseline showed that non-adherence was associated with older age, more pills taken per day, worse renal function, presence of coronary artery disease, and reliance on caregivers for the administration of their medications. In multivariate analysis, the factors that were significantly associated with non-adherence were daily use of more than 5 pills and drug administration by a caregiver. Longitudinal evaluation showed an increase in non-adherence over time. Medication non-adherence was lower (17.4%) at the baseline period of the study than after 1 year of the study (26.8%). Compared to the baseline period, the percentage of adherent patients who became non-adherent (22%) was lower than the percentage of non-adherent patients who became adherent (50%). In CKD patients not on dialysis, non-adherence was significantly associated with the number of pills taken per day and drug administration by third parties. Adherence is more frequent than non-adherence over time. <![CDATA[<b>Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical utility of standard base excess in the diagnosis and interpretation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients</b>]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.