Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> vol. 39 num. 2 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Processing, nutritional composition and health benefits of finger millet in sub-saharan Africa]]> Abstract Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) also known as tamba, is a staple cereal grain in some parts of the world with low income population. The grain is characterized by variations in colour (brown, white and light brown cultivars); high concentration of carbohydrates, dietary fibre, phytochemicals and essential amino acids; presence of essential minerals; as well as a gluten-free status. Finger millet (FM) in terms of nutritional composition, ranks higher than other cereal grains, though the grain is extremely neglected and widely underutilized. Nutritional configuration of FM contributes to reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and gastro-intestinal tract disorder when absorbed in the body. Utilization of the grain therefore involves traditional and other processing methods such as soaking, malting, cooking, fermentation, popping and radiation. These processes are utilised to improve the dietetic and sensory properties of FM and equally assist in the reduction of anti-nutritional and inhibitory activities of phenols, phytic acids and tannins. However, with little research and innovation on FM as compared to conventional cereals, there is the need for further studies on processing methods, nutritional composition, health benefits and valorization with a view to commercialization of FM grains. <![CDATA[Functional and technological attributes of probiotic yoghurt prepared with <em>Dahi</em> micro-flora during refrigerated storage]]> Abstract In the present investigation functional, technological, and rheological attributes of probiotic yoghurt were studied during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 28 days. The different preparations of probiotic yoghurts were made from dahi microflora which was documented as probiotics. Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e. S. thermophilus (S02FT), L. bulgaricus (TLB06FT) and L. acidophilus (LA06FT) were selected for formulations of probiotic yoghurt. Three sets of probiotic yoghurt including Y1: S02FT and TLB06FT (1:1ratio), Y2: S02FT and TLB06FT (1:2ratio) and Y3: S02FT, TLB06FT and LA06FT (1:1:1 ratio) along with Y0 as a control (non-probiotic strains) were prepared and stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The results showed that technological attributes of Y3 preparation had better lactic acid production (75% at 0 day and 93% at 28 days) as compared to control. Moreover, Y3 preparation had lesser synersis (20% at 0 day and 35% at 28days) as compared to other treatments i.e. Y1, Y2, Y0 that had 24, 70 and 18% synersis at 0 day of storage respectively). However, viscosity of Y3 probiotic yoghurt indicated higher values (3001 cP at 0 days and 1310 cP at 28 days) among the rest of preparations. Functional attributes of Y3 showed the better results such as viability of probiotics (40×10-6 CFU/ml at 0 day and 1.16×10-6 CFU/ml at 28 days) and antibacterial activity (7.5 mm at 0 days 7 mm at 28 days) compared to other preparations. Conclusively, Y3 formulation attained the higher sensory attributes due to its better lactic acid production, viscosity and lesser synersis values during entire study duration in formulated yoghurt. <![CDATA[Natamycin and nisin to improve shelf life and minimize benzene generation in lemon soft drinks]]> Abstract Benzoic acids preservatives may be converted to benzene in soft drinks. The use of alternative antimicrobial compounds, specifically nisin and natamycin, would reduce benzene formation. Initially, doses of nisin and natamycin were tested against Lactobacillus plantarum lactic bacteria and Zygosaccharomyces bailii yeast. Using 167 UI/mL of nisin and 0.017% w/v of natamycin no microbial growth was reached on lemon-flavored soft drinks. The benzene formation was analyzed in a standard formulation (380 mg/L of sodium benzoate and 180 mg/L of potassium sorbate) and nisin and natamycn formulation (167 UI/mL of nisin and 0.017% w/v of natamycin). The soft drinks were stored without UV exposure at 20 °C and with UV sunlight exposure at 30 °C, for 120 days at PET bottles. The initial benzene content was 1.29 μg/kg for standard and 0.09 μg/kg for nisin and natamycin formulation; these values increased to 11.00 μg/kg and 0.18 μg/kg, respectively. The sensory attributes did not differ from each formulation, either initially or after 120 days of storage. The lower benzene concentrations obtained using nisin and natamycin suggest that these compounds are attractive alternatives to benzoic acids, keeping the sensory quality and microbial stability during shelf life. <![CDATA[Determination of tocopherols and physicochemical properties of <em>faveleira</em> (<em>Cnidoscolus quercifolius</em>) seed oil extracted using different methods]]> Abstract This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties and tocopherol content in faveleira seed oil extracted using three methods (Bligh-Dyer, Soxhlet extractor, and cold-pressing). Each of the methods generated different yield percentages, with cold-pressing producing the least amount of oil. However, the cold-pressing method produced better quality oil with more desirable properties, including low acidity (1.56 ± 0.01% oleic acid) and low peroxide value (0.45 ± 0.09 mEq/1000 g). Cold-pressing resulted in higher quantities of tocopherols: 0.59 ± 0.12 mg/100 g of alpha-tocopherol and 20.97 ± 1.15 mg/100 g of beta + gamma-tocopherol. Faveleira seed oil, when extracted by cold-pressing, maintains better physicochemical quality, with the highest beta + gamma-tocopherol content. <![CDATA[Chemo-characterization and optimization of macro and micro nutrients for exopolysaccharides and mycelia growth in pleurotus tuberregium <em>(</em>RUMPH, EX FR)]]> Abstract Exoploysaccharides are potential nutraceutic, probiotic, phamarceutic and cosmesceutic natural products in fungi. Pleurotus tuberregium is an underutilized tropical fungus that is useful as food with recent reports of pharmacological activities. The present study evaluated and characterized environmental conditions and nutrients for optimal P. tuberregium mycelia growth (PtMG) and exopolysaccharides (PtEPS) production using batch culturing and diverse chemometric methods, respectively. Rank-sum analysis categorized the assessed conditions and nutrients into six stimulatory classes and most suitable nutrients and conditions for PtMG and PtEPS were co-identified with analysis of variance. Glucose, yeast, sodium chloride (NaCl) and tricalcium diphosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) were excellent stimulant (ES) for both PtEPS and PtMG under culturing condition of pH 6 at 30 °C for 15 d. The Chemo-phene trees generated by cluster analysis allowed visualization and clear-cut demarcation of the six stimulatory classes. The information embedded in the present study is useful for improving and developing culturing media for optimal PtMG and PtEPS yields, enabling maximal P. tuberregium utilization as food and medicine. <![CDATA[Effect of fruit ripening on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of apple beverages]]> Abstract The effect of the variety (Gala, Lis Gala and Fuji Suprema) and the ripening stage (unripe, ripe and senescent) of apples on the phenolic compounds (HPLC) and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH) of apple juices and ciders were evaluated. The phenolic content of the Gala and Lis Gala apple juices decreased from the unripe to ripe stages and increased from the ripe to the senescent stages, while in the case of Fuji Suprema these values decreased with senescence. Fermentation caused a reduction (17 to 50%) of phenolics and the most affected were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols. Principal component analysis confirmed the influence of variety, and the use of multivariate regression (PLS) made it possible to create significant models (p &lt; 0.05) to predict the antioxidant activity. The phenolic composition of the juices at different ripening stages was related to the variety of apple, which influenced the effect of fermentation on these compounds. <![CDATA[Identifying agriculture land acquisitions for alleviating future food security concerns]]> Abstract The total available land for food, fuel, or forests is finite, while land demand is increasing and expected to increase further in the coming decades; resulting in deterioration of food security. Therefore, the corporate world adopted a solution of acquiring international agricultural land. Consequently, the global demand for land has progressively risen, but the question requiring decision support is - which lands to acquire for food production to ensure future food security? Food Science and Technology has vital pivotal roles to play in improving this situation, as food science is inherently multidisciplinary and motivated by the use of new technologies. In this paper, we endeavour to address this multidisciplinary food science question, by considering 16 Middle East North Africa (MENA) region countries having extreme economic diversity and enormous variation in adaptive capacity. Our study parameters consist of CO2 fertilization, water scarcity and meta-parameter of climate change vulnerability. Using logical inference and principal of separate modifiability, major food security concerns were identified for 2030. <![CDATA[Analysis of selective potato varieties and their functional assessment]]> Abstract The number of attributes, related to the selection of potato varieties, was evaluated with reference to their potential in chip processing. Five commercial varieties of potato were analyzed regarding their physico-chemical, functional, and processing aspects. In general, Lady Rosetta subsequently, Chipsona were the most noticeable potato varieties considering their physical attributes. A significant correlation (R = 0.925) was estimated amongst geometric mean diameter and surface area. Maximum dry matter and starch contents were observed in Lady Rosetta followed by Chipsona. Desiree showed higher fat, sugar and mineral contents than all other selected potato cultivars. Promising correlation (R= 0.952) was estimated among total minerals and ash contents. Functional traits were recorded maximum in Desiree followed by Lady Rosetta. A significant correlation (R = 0.907) was described between total phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity. Lady Rosetta proved to be the most preferred potato variety considering post processing parameters followed by Chipsona. <![CDATA[Characterization and proposal of potential use in foods of coproducts from waxy maize wet milling]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal originated from waxy maize wet milling industry, in relation to its microbiological risk and physical, chemical and functional properties. The wet residues showed microbiological standards for human consumption. Maize gluten meal was characterized by having high protein content (32 g 100 g-1), lipids (16 g 100 g-1) and carbohydrates (45 g 100 g -1), whereas the maize gluten feed contains high content of dietary fiber (44 g 100 g -1). The maize gluten feed and maize gluten meal have high potential for application as food ingredient. The high dietary fiber, suggests its use as a promising ingredient to increase the availability of fibers, thereby increasing attractiveness and nutritional quality of food. Furthermore, the use of this coproduct of waxy starch may be an alternative to traditional fibers used in the production of bakery products already before with claimed functional and health properties. <![CDATA[Identification of roselle varieties through simple discriminating physicochemical characteristics using multivariate analysis]]> Abstract The objective of this work is to study the feasibility of a more objective and rigorous classification of the calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa based on their physicochemical profile. To do so, 19 analyses were carried out on 4 varieties of calices cultivated in Senegal: Vimto, Koor, Thaï and CLT92. Principal component analysis results showed that 15 physicochemical and biochemical parameters could be potentially used to discriminate the varieties of calices. Polyphenolic and anthocyanin contents were anti-correlated to protein content and could be used to differentiate the Vimto/CLT92 and the Koor/Thaï varieties. Within these two clusters, pH and lipid content could discriminate each variety. Finally, factorial discriminant analysis showed that total anthocyanin content, lipid content and chromaticity C* were the 3 parameters enabling the most efficient classification of calices according to variety and led to 100% classification accuracy. <![CDATA[Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and slaughter age on the shelf life of lamb meat]]> Abstract The shelf life extending effect of different modified atmospheres packages (MAP): vacuum (MAP-1), 69.6% N2 + 30% CO2 + 0.4% CO (MAP-2) and 70% O2 + 30% CO2 (MAP-3) on lamb meat at two slaughter ages (4 and 8-month-old) was assessed. pH decreased as slaughter age (SA) increased, and increased during longer storage time (ST), with no MAP effects. Lamb meat stored in MAP-1 and MAP-3 showed greater drip loss than that stored in MAP-2. Shear force was not influenced by SA and MAP treatments, but decreased during ST. Meat from 8-month-old lambs packaged in MAP-3 at longer ST resulted in lipid oxidation increase. MAP-2 enhanced color saturation and lamb meat redness, whereas MAP-3 showed lowest redness and chroma values, and highest aerobic psychrotropic count. Meat from 4-month-old lamb stored in MAP-3 presented shortest shelf life based on psychrotropic bacteria growth. The association of higher SA with high O2 MAP proved to compromise oxidative stability of lamb meat, adversely affecting its shelf life. Vacuum and CO packaging showed similar effects on lamb meat preservation; however, CO had advantage in maintaining fresh red color of meat. <![CDATA[Experimental study of dehydration processes of raspberries (<em>Rubus Idaeus</em> ) with microwave and solar drying]]> Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of solar and microwave drying on raspberries (Rubus Idaeus) cv. Heritage. The efficiency of drying was evaluated in terms of weight reduction in function of the time. The quality properties evaluated were color, texture, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content. The results showed that solar drying and microwave drying allowed a good preservation of surface color in the final product. However, the solar drying achieved a desirable texture in dried raspberries compared to microwave drying. Neither solar drying nor microwave drying allowed a high retention of the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, both processes allow obtaining final stable fruits (low water activity) at any time of the year. <![CDATA[Molecular detection of adulteration in commercial buffalo meat products by multiplex PCR assay]]> Abstract Authentication of commercial buffalo meat products has become a market concern. This study intended to develop and validate a highly species-specific multiplex PCR assay for authentication of buffalo meat products. Four pairs of species-specific primers were used to target mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. The assay generated the expected PCR products of 313, 255, 294 and 177 bp for buffalo meat, cattle meat, pork meat and duck meat, respectively. The multiplex PCR assay was sensitive enough to detect 1 pg pure DNA and 0.1% (w/w) adulterated meat under mixed matrices. Market survey revealed about 35.3% of buffalo meat products are adulterated with cattle meat, pork meat or duck meat in China. The adulteration was found in all food product types including minced meat, frozen rolls, boiled meat, meat ball, vacuum-packed meat and jerky. These findings showed that multiplex PCR assay are potentially reliable techniques for detection of adulteration in raw and processed buffalo meat products. <![CDATA[Characterization of cocoyam (<em>Xanthosoma</em> spp.) corm flour from the Nazareno cultivar]]> Abstract The present study assessed the physical, chemical, functional, and microbiological properties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma spp.) corm flour made from the Nazareno cultivar. The flour was initially submitted to a water-soaking process in order to reduce its high oxalate content. The soaked flour showed a high dietary fiber content (15.4% insoluble and 2.8% soluble fiber), and can be considered essentially an energy-rich food given its high starch content (60.5%), of which 85.04% was analyzed as amylopectin; it also showed a high potassium content (19.09 mg/g). The anti-nutritional component analysis showed low levels of oxalate (5.55 mg/g), saponins (0.10%) and tannins (0.07%), while phytates were not detected. The flour had a high water and oil absorption capacity (9 - 11 g/g at 90 and 100 °C; 1.2 g/g) and it gelatinized at between 81.81 - 89.58 °C. It was also microbiologically stable after storage for 9 months at room temperature. Development of a multipurpose flour from cocoyam corm could provide a value-added option for the local food industry. <![CDATA[Effect of using kefir in the formulation of traditional Tarhana]]> Abstract Tarhana is known as a fermented cereal product made traditionally from wheat flour and yoghurt. As a novelty, kefir was used as substitute for yoghurt in tarhana production partially and completely to investigate the effects on fermentation activity, nutritional, sensory and rheological properties of tarhana. Addition of kefir increased the fermentation activity as raise in acidity values was observed compared to tarhana samples prepared with yoghurt. Regarding dry tarhana samples, the highest acidity degree, protein, ash and phenolic contents were detected in samples prepared with 100% kefir. Counts of LAB groups (M17 and MRS agar) of tarhana enriched with 100% kefir was higher than that of other tarhana samples during the fermentation period. Moreover, kefir affected the scores of sensory properties of tarhana soups. Tarhana soups prepared with kefir gave the highest scores for mouth feel, odour and consistency attributes. Tarhana soup prepared with 50% yoghurt and kefir showed the lowest viscosity probably due to synergistic effect on starch hydrolysis by bacterial population from both ingredients. These results suggest that replacement of yogurt with kefir in the formulation of Tarhana may enhance some properties of the soup. <![CDATA[Optimization of parameters technological to process tucupi and study of product stability]]> Abstract Tucupi is a product obtained from the fermentation and cooking of cassava root wastewater which is widely used in the popular cuisine of the North region of Brazil. This study employed an experimental design to select tucupi processing (fermentation and cooking times) as a function of residual cyanidric acid content and assess the stability of the product obtained. Although the design did not generate a predictive mathematical model, the trend plots and physicochemical and sensory tests indicated 24 h of fermentation and 40 min of cooking as process parameters. The tucupi prepared had pH 3.71, titratable acidity of 0.7 g lactic acid/100 mL, 93.91% moisture, 0.5% ashes, 0.52% proteins, 0.24% lipids, 4.83% carbohydrates, total and free cyanide of 6.97 and 1.31 mg HCN/L, respectively. No Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus , or thermotolerant coliforms were observed, whereas counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (1.3x102 CFU/g) and molds and yeasts (1.3x102 CFU/g) were low. Over 50 days of follow-up (stored at 10°C), the microbial load remained stable and no significant difference was found in physicochemical characteristics, however, the sensory analysis indicated a decrease in quality at 49 days of storage. <![CDATA[Sensory characteristics of <em>Musculus longissimus thoracis et lumborum</em> of bovine Nelore adult matured]]> Abstract The goal of this paper was to perform the sensory evaluation of strip loin from adult Nelore cattle on the acceptance perspective of the consumer from Aracaju and purchase intention faged beef in different cutting thicknesses. Musculus longissimus thoracis and lumborum were used in three treatments with zero aging time with cutting thickness of 2.5 cm; 21 days aging with cutting thickness of 2.5 cm; and 21 days aging withcutting thickness of 7.5 cm. Eighty random consumers were invited to the sensory evaluationina local supermarket chain. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments and eight repetitions. The odour parameter did not differ (P &gt; 0.05) between treatments. There was a difference (P &lt; 0.004) between treatments regarding to flavour. The tenderness and the overall acceptance of the aged samples were higher (P &lt; 0.001) to non-aged samples with no difference (P &gt; 0.05) relative to the thickness. 85% of consumers from the city of Aracaju, based on the assigned scores, elected Musculus longissimus thoracis and lumborum from adult Nelore aged for 21 days a very attractive meat and demonstrated a positive purchase intention, regardless of the cutting thickness. <![CDATA[Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of procyanidins from perilla seed hull and their antioxidant activities <em>in vitro</em>]]> Abstract Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract procyanidins (PC) from the perilla seed hull. Four independent variables, namely, liquid-to-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, UAE time, and UAE temperature were investigated. Response surface methodology was performed on the basis of results of single-factor tests. The optimal conditions for PC extraction were as follows: a liquid-to-solid ratio of 15:1, an ethanol concentration of 62%, a UAE time of 29 min, and a UAE temperature of 53 °C. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of PC was 2.185 mg/g (n = 3), which is correlated with the predicted value of 2.2 mg/g. The extracted and purified PC showed excellent antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals in vitro. <![CDATA[Optimization of native Brazilian fruit jelly through desirability-based mixture design]]> Abstract Faced with the need to enhance the availability and add even more value to Brazilian native fruits, combined with the demand and the great importance of developing mixed fruit products, the objective of this work was to evaluate the processing potential of jabuticaba, pitanga and cambuci in the preparation of jellies, based on sensory and nutritional characteristics, through desirability-based mixture design. Given the high sensory and nutritional quality of the jellies obtained through this study we found that the development of mixed jelly containing the Brazilian Native fruits jabuticaba, pitanga and cambuci is perfectly feasible and of great interest. According to the sensory and nutritional characteristics the fruit mixed jelly should contain: 40-100% jabuticaba, 0-30% cambuci and 0-20% pitanga. <![CDATA[Study on the browning and structure properties of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut ( <em>Eleocharis tuberosa</em>)]]> Abstract In this paper, the microstructure, water properties and browning control of Chinese water chestnut (CWC) after harvest were studied. Results showed that the tuber cell contained a large number of starch granules (5-10 μm for each one). The water-holding capacity of tuber cell was weak and T2 relaxation time was 28.5-75.6 ms. Sucrose was the main sugar component in Chinese water chestnut, which account for 84.8% of total sugar. In addition, potassium sorbate, green tea polyphenol and chitosan decreased the browning of fresh-cut CWC compared with the other anti-browning agents such as acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, vitamin C and thyme oil. Moreover, chitosan coating combined with potassium sorbate and green tea polyphenol delayed weight loss and decay of fresh-cut tubers, also maintained a higher soluble solids and ascorbic acid content. The study provided an alternative method for controlling CWC browning, which would be helpful for the application of anti-browning agents in CWC processing. <![CDATA[Influence of preservation methods on the bioactivity of mangaba (<em>Hancornia speciosa</em> Gomes) from the Brazilian savannah]]> Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of raw mangaba fruit (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), in addition to the influence of preservation methods (freezing, lyophilization, and foam layer drying) on these biocompounds. Samples were evaluated for ascorbic acid, phenolic compound, and carotenoid content and total antioxidant activity by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods. The analyses were performed in triplicate for each sample and the results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. A significant correlation was observed between the content of total phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant activity, as determined by the FRAP method, which showed that the content of ascorbic acid contributed to the antioxidant activity of the samples. The lyophilization process produced the best results for ascorbic acid (372.80 mg/100 g), phenolic compounds (408.86 mg AGE/100 g), and carotenoids (0.19 mg/100 g). Therefore, as mangaba may be consumed as both a fresh fruit and in a processed form, new markets can be conquered, enabling the fruit to be used as functional food. <![CDATA[Sensory evaluation of fermented dairy beverages supplemented with iron and added by Cerrado fruit pulps]]> Abstract Anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common in the world being characterized as a significant public health issue. Therefore, its prevention and treatment are considered important before it becomes either chronic or grievous; the interventions with superior potential are the medical supplementation with iron salts as well as food mineral enhancement. The objectives of this study were to develop fermented dairy beverages supplemented with iron and added by Cerrado fruit pulps: cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica ), coquinho-azedo (Butia capitata), tamarindo (Tamarindus indica), and umbu ( Spondias tuberosa). In addition, the research intended to evaluate the acceptance of these beverages by children and adolescents from public schools in the city of Montes Claros (MG). The methodology consisted in the production of dairy beverages followed by the evaluation of their quality through physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Posteriorly, children and adolescents assessed the sensorial acceptance. The analyses performed presented satisfactory results for physicochemical and microbiological properties regarding the acceptance of the product. The cagaita and coquinho azedo based dairy beverages were the most accepted whether compared with tamarindo and umbu beverages. The fermented dairy beverage supplemented with iron and added by Cerrado fruits come up as a feasible alternative for dietary supplementation, and can promote beneficial effects in human health due to their sensorial acceptance. <![CDATA[Chromatic analysis for predicting anthocyanin content in fruits and vegetables]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to develop simple mathematical models for the prediction of the total anthocyanin content of fruits and vegetables, using colorimetry. Phenolic extracts of 13 species of fruits and vegetables were produced using 70% acidified ethanol and 70% ethanol. The quantification of the total anthocyanins of the extracts was performed by the spectrophotometric method, and the color characterization was done through the tristimulus colorimeter. The correlation between the L* value and the anthocyanin content was high (r = - 0.95) for extracts produced with 70% ethanol and diluted 20 times. Linear equations based on colorimetric coordinates, with R2 from 0.80 to 0.99, were obtained using 70% ethanol and 70% acidified ethanol as extraction solvent, with or without dilutions. Therefore, colorimetry, as a rapid method that does not involve the use of specific solvents, can be used to predict the total anthocyanin content of fruits and vegetables. <![CDATA[Investigation of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of some <em>Salvia</em> species commonly grown in Southwest Anatolia using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS]]> Abstract Aerial parts of Salvia albimaculata Hedge &amp; Hub.-Mor., Salvia potentillifolia Boiss &amp; Heldr. ex Bentham. and Salvia nydeggeri Hub.-Mor. from Soutwest Anatolia, Turkey were evaluated to determine their phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. According to the ultra performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis results, caffeic acid (3582.8 ± 2.5 μg/g, 2956.5 ± 4.6 μg/g and 2457.7 ± 3.1 μg/g) and 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (1846.2 ± 3.1 μg/g, 2019.1 ± 2.2 μg/g and 1901.3 ± 1.5 μg/g) were found to be in the highest concentrations in S. potentillifolia, S. albimaculata and S. nydeggeri, respectively. Total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were determined highest in ethyl acetate extracts of samples and varied from 62.4 ± 0.1 to 55.4 ± 0.0 µg PEs/mg and from 296.8 ± 1.4 to 198.4 ± 1.5 µg QEs/mg, respectively. Antioxidant activity of S. potentillifolia was found to be higher than the others for ABTS•+ and β-carotene linoleic acid assays (SC50 = 49.8 ± 0.9 and IC50 = 26.1 ± 0.6 µg /mL, respectively) while S. albimaculata was found to be higher for DPPH• assay (SC50 = 227.4 ± 1.1 µg/mL). <![CDATA[Comparative study of fatty acid profiles in the muscular tissue (<em>Longissimus dorsis</em> ) of bovines from Chile, Paraguay and Brazil]]> Abstract Per capita meat consumption in Chile is 89.1 kg per year in 2014, of which approximately 25 kg are beef. Some 50% of the beef consumed is imported as vacuum packaged meat from two species, Bos taurus, produced mainly in Chile, Argentina and Paraguay, and Bos indicus, which comes mainly from Brazil and Paraguay. The latter two countries account for the highest levels of beef imports in Chile. The objective of this investigation was to study and compare the fatty acid profiles of beef from Bos Taurus from Chile and Bos indicus from Paraguay and Brazil. Samples of vacuum packaged Longissimus dorsi muscle tissue were collected from private companies, two Chilean, three Paraguayan and two Brazilian. The fatty acid profiles were determined by GLC according to standardized regulations. There were differences in the fat profiles of the analyzed meats, mainly in the content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Brazilian and Paraguayan beef had similar fat compositions, with higher saturated fat content and lower monounsaturated fat content than the Chilean beef. The saturated and monounsaturated fat contents in the Chilean beef were similar. All the analyzed beef samples had a low content of trans and polyunsaturated fats. <![CDATA[Elaboration and characterization of pectin-gellan films added with concentrated supernatant of <em>Streptococcus infantarius</em> fermentations, and EDTA: effects on the growth of <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> in a Mexican cheese medium, and physical-mechanical properties]]> Abstract Films were prepared with 0.2% (w/v) gellan gum, 1% (w/v) citric pectin, 0.5% (w/v) glycerol, 5 mM CaCl2, 0.05 M Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and different concentrations of an antimicrobial activity-concentrated supernatant (AMC) obtained from fermentations of Streptococcus infantarius, which produces bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (i.e., treatments F1, F2 and F3 with 75, 90 and 120 arbitrary units (AU)/mL, respectively). The treatments were based on a minimum-inhibitory-concentration (i.e., AMC, 90 AU/mL, plus EDTA, 0.05 M) for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes growing in brain-heart-infusion medium at 35 °C. The films hindered the bacterium growth in selective media: E. coli -MacConkey, S. aureus-Baird Parker and L. monocytogenes -Oxford, during 30 days at 25 °C. Moreover, the F2 films entirely inhibited the growth of the tested bacteria in a Mexican cheese medium, in 7-day cultures at 35 °C; contrariwise, controls with no film exhibited bacterial growths in the range 107 -109 CFU/g. The physical-mechanical properties of the films were changed by the addition of EDTA-AMC, being (F2 film)/(control-film with no AMC nor EDTA): Young’s modulus (MPa), 1,394/707; Elongation at break (%), 1.9/9.3; Stress at break (MPa), 5.7/12.6; Water Vapour Permeability (10-11 g m Pa-1 s-1 m -2), 3/20, and Oxygen Permeability (10-12 g m Pa-1 s -1 m-2), 1.9/1.2. <![CDATA[Critical control points and food pathogen presence in dairy plants from Turkey]]> Abtract In the present study, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli 0:157 H:7 bacteria count, and presence of bacteria from Listeria and Salmonella genera were determined in the samples collected during separate 5-month-long periods from 15 separate points at five different dairy plants operating in different regions of Turkey. Walls and floors especially, raw material and end-product transport vehicles, tools and materials used in production and product packaging, and storage environments in some dairy plants were heavily loaded with bacteria. Among these microorganisms, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli 0:157 H:7 and food pathogens from Listeria and Salmonella genera in these environments can lead to microbiological quality loss and a range problems, including adverse effects on human health. The results of this study are of great importance in determining the lack of personal hygiene among plant personnel, violation of hygiene and sanitation rules, and the lack of quality management systems such as the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point). <![CDATA[The general and volatile properties and the quality of two newly selected Satsuma clones (11/1 İzmir and 30/ İzmir) grown under Mediterranean ecological conditions]]> Abstract The general and volatile properties, and the quality of two new Satsuma clones – 11/1 İzmir and 30/İzmir – selected under a Citrus Bud Wood Selection Program, were compared with Owari Satsuma samples grown under Adana ecological conditions. Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, flame ionization detection (GC/MS/FID) analysis was used in the identification and quantification of the aromatic compounds, and a sensory profile analysis was performed to complete the general understanding using chemical analysis. The general analysis showed that the clone samples have higher yields, are more intense in skin color and more acidic; however, the total soluble solids and total sugar amount are lower than the Owari Satsuma samples. The terpenes are the major aromatic compound class. Along with other terpenes, there were significant amounts of dl-limonene followed by γ-terpinene, β-elemene, linalool and α-terpineol. The sensory analysis showed that the Owari Satsuma samples are sweeter and riper, with a better floral, spicy-citrus flavor than both clones. Both clones had a lower “Overall liking” rating than the Owari Satsuma samples. <![CDATA[Gluten-free cookies elaborated with buckwheat flour, millet flour and chia seeds]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain an optimized gluten-free cookie formulation using alternative flours. For this, a 22 central composite rotatable design (CCRD), with varying concentrations of millet flour (MF) and chia seeds (CS), on a base of buckwheat flour (BF), was used. Control cookies were elaborated with 100% wheat flour (WF). The cookies were characterized for texture and other physical tests and by scanning electron microscopy of their internal structure. The response surfaces for the quality parameters of the cookies showed that the higher the proportion of MF used in the formulations, the lower the height and the greater the diameter, expansion factor, and hardness of the cookies. The addition of up to 10% CS showed no influence on the responses. The optimum point was defined as that with diameter, expansion factor, thickness, and hardness closer to the control cookie: 7.5% CS, 40% MF, and 52.5% BF. The substitution of wheat flour by buckwheat flour, millet flour, and chia seeds can be considered a suitable alternative for the preparation of gluten-free cookies. <![CDATA[Antioxidant activity and lipid oxidation in milk from cows with soybean oil and propolis extract added to their feed]]> Abstract The presence of PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in cow milk, including conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) isomers, makes milk susceptible to lipid oxidation, and may lead to the formation of volatile products responsible for a rancid smell. Consequently, including natural antioxidants in the diet of dairy cattle can assist in preventing lipid oxidation. In this study, soybean oil (a source of PUFA) and different ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis were included in the cows' feed, and the antioxidant activity and lipid oxidation of the animals' milk was assessed. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the DPPH method, potassium ferricyanide reduction and chelating ability. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also determined. Lipid oxidation was assessed by determining conjugated dienes and the production of aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal and octanal). Increased antioxidant activity was seen in the samples of milk from cows receiving propolis. Similarly, the addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to the diet of dairy cattle increased milk protection for two treatments with propolis against lipid oxidation in terms of production of propanal and hexanal. These results confirm the positive effect of applying this natural additive to the diet of lactating cows, improving the nutritional quality of the milk produced. <![CDATA[The effect of hot air, vacuum and microwave drying on drying characteristics, rehydration capacity, color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Kumquat (<em>Citrus japonica</em>)]]> Abstract Sliced kumquats were dried by using three different drying methods, microwave (375 W), hot air (70 and 80 °C), and vacuum (70 and 80 °C with 100 and 300 mbar) to determine drying characteristics, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content and color. All color parameters (L, a, b, Cab, ΔE and h° ) changed depending on the drying methods. Page and Modified Page models are the best fitted drying methods with the highest value of R2 (0.9994) and the lowest values of RMSE (0.000635-0.000735) and χ2 (0.000010-0.000013) compared to other models. Effective moisture diffusivity values for dried kumquats ranged from 1.54 × 10-8 to 8.24 × 10-8 in vacuum drying at 70 °C-300 mbar and microwave drying at 375 W, respectively. In comparison to the fresh sample, the dried samples showed an increase in both total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic content (3095.71 ± 101.41 mg GA/100g d.w) and antioxidant activity (10.51 ± 0.19 µmol TE/g d.w) with DPPH assay showed the highest levels for the vacuum drying at 70 °C-100 mbar method. Microwave dried samples had the highest antioxidant activity with CUPRAC assay as (17.58 ± 0.63 µmol TE/g d.w.). This study indicated that microwave drying and vacuum drying at 70 °C-100 mbar were able to yield high-quality kumquat slices. <![CDATA[Ion specificity in determining physico-chemical properties of drinking water]]> Abstract Drinking water plays a key role in regulating the daily salt intake, thus potentially affecting (either in positive or in negative direction) the incidence of diet-related pathologies, including nephrolithiasis. Being regarded as wholesome, bottled water is increasingly preferred to tap water. However, its physico-chemical characterization, as reported on the label, is usually limited to pH and conductivity measurements, along with ion content. Other parameters, which also are likely to influence the processes in which water is involved in the body, are usually neglected. In this work, the surface tension and density of tap water and two bottled mineral waters produced in Italy are investigated. These parameters are critically determined by the ion content. Density is connected to the total ion amount, while surface tension is differentially affected by the presence of specific ions: sulfate increases its value, while bicarbonate keeps it almost constant. These results furnish a reliable scientific basis for future investigation on the connection between the physico-chemical properties of drinking water and its effect on health. Particularly, since interfacial phenomena play a key role in kidney stone formation, our results suggest that dietary enrichment of selected ions due to water intake could affect nephrolithiasis. <![CDATA[Effect of the degree of acetylation, plasticizer concentration and relative humidity on cassava starch films properties]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to develop films with reduced hygroscopicity and improved mechanical properties from acetylated cassava starch. For that, an acetylation procedure using acetic anhydride as the esterification reagent was performed, resulting in starch acetates with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.6 (S0.6) and 1.1 (S1.1). Twelve films formulations were studied: native cassava starch (S), starch acetate S0.6 and S1.1, with two glycerol concentrations (0.25 g.100 g-1 (25) and 0.30 g.100 g-1 (30)). The films were conditioned at the relative humidities (RH) of 58% and 75% for 96 h before characterization. Water vapor permeability, water solubility, water sorption isotherms, microstructural analyses, and mechanical properties in different relative humidity and different glycerol concentration were performed. Starch acetate films (S1.1) resulted in lower water vapor permeability (2.35 ± 0.26 × 10-7g/m.s.Pa) and water solubility (21.2 ± 0.16 g.100 g-1) than native starch films (3.79 ± 0.26 × 10-7 g/m.s.Pa and 25.46 ± 0.12 g.100 g-1). S0.6 films showed higher tensile strength (8.42 ± 0.84 MPa) than S1.1 films (6.93 ± 0.55 MPa). The results indicated that acetylated starch can be used to produce films with improved mechanical properties, with less water solubility and permeability to water vapor, especially when starch acetate with 0.6 DS and low glycerol concentration are used. Chemical compounds used in this article: Starch, acetate (PubChem CID: 24832118); Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Acetic anhydride (PubChem CID: 7918); Sulfuric acid (PubChem CID: 1118); Glycerol (PubChem CID: 753). <![CDATA[Development and characterization of an immunoaffinity column for the detection of danofloxacin residues in milk samples]]> Abstract In this study, an immunoaffinity column was prepared by covalently coupling of polyclonal antibody against danofloxacin (DAN) with chitosan microparticles and its potential application to selective extraction of DAN from food samples was also evaluated. The produced antibody exhibited high sensitivity, with an IC50 value of 4.56 ng/mL towards DAN, and good specificity, with less than 0.5% of cross-reactivity towards DAN structurally related compounds. The developed immunoaffinity column had an approximate binding capacity of 2300 ng/mL gel and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.7% among columns. The immunoaffinity columns were then challenged with DAN-fortified milk samples, recoveries of DAN were found to be in the range of 83.8% to 98.8%, indicating the prepared immunoaffinity column is suitable for use as an efficient extraction method to detect DAN residues in food products. <![CDATA[Quality changes in reared, hot-smoked meagre (<em>Argyrosomus regius</em> Asso, 1801) during chill storage at 4 ± 1 °C]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate quality and nutritional changes in reared meagre after the use of hot smoking technology. Hot smoking method was applied to the meagre and the resulting smoked fish were used to produce fillets, which were stored in refrigerator after being vacuum packed. As a result of chemical component analysis, it was seen that the fat content was low. In particular, the PUFA contents of meagre were found to be very high (35.53% Control). During storage, changes in fatty acid composition and the chemical, sensory and microbiological changes were analyzed. In terms of the chemical quality indicated, pH, TBA and TMA values ​​didn’t exceed limit values during the storage of both fresh (6.25, 0.44 mgMDA/kg and 4.50 mg/100g) and hot smoked fish (6.23, 1.12 mgMDA/kg,5.57mg/100g respectively), ​​but the TVB-N value exceeded limit values at day 56 of storage for hot smoked samples (39.50mg/100g). According to microbiological limit values accepted for seafood ​​fresh and hot smoked meagre lost consumption characteristics after day 7 and day 35 of storage, respectively. Meagre was determined to be appropriate for the hot smoking process, based on the quality analyses, especially sensory analyses.