Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Food Science and Technology]]> vol. 39 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Nutritional and health benefits of legumes and their distinctive genomic properties]]> Abstract Legumes are indispensable for human diet in respect to their valuable and nutritive bioactive molecules. Legumes and derivative foodstuffs are rich in fiber, proteins, vitamins and some valuable phytochemicals, which exhibit important biological activities. Due to their remarkable molecular content, they are receiving great attention by researchers. Recent developments in genomics and bioinformatics led to cumulative data about legume genomes. These data could provide important information to accelerate breeding and to develop new traits for biofortification. The main focus of this review is to present their distinctive genomic properties by summarizing significant studies conducted with relatively newly developed techniques revealing the beneficial effects of bioactive molecules from legumes on human health. <![CDATA[Morphological, mechanical and chemical aspects of processing tomatoes produced in Brazilian savanna]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of ten processing tomatoes cultivars (H9992, H9553, U2006, N901, E8755, BA5445, F170, HMX, AP533 and CVR) produced in the city of Morrinhos, Goiás State, Brazil, in order to assess the fruit quality and contribute with more subsidies for choosing tomato cultivars for processing by industries. H9992, H9553, N901, BA5445 and HMX genotypes have smaller fruits (length, volume and mass) and higher mechanical resistance of the fruit pulp. H9992, HMX and F170 genotypes also have higher resistance of fruit peel, indicating that these materials are less susceptible to losses during mechanical harvesting and transportation to the industry. Regarding the L* and b* parameters, the less yellow and darker H9992, H9553 and U2006 cultivars are the most recommended for the industry, which seeks genotypes with higher concentrations of lycopene and less carotenes. Processing tomatoes cultivar HMX, H9992, H9553 and U2006 have higher soluble solids, and potential to enable greater industrial efficiency. Therefore, cultivars H9992 and HMX standing out positively in most of the evaluated parameters: have smaller fruits (length, volume and mass), higher mechanical resistance of the fruit pulp, greater resistance of the fruit peel, higher soluble solids content. Therefore, new genetic material that presented better characteristics for industrialization is HMX. <![CDATA[Effect of high Cu<sup>2+</sup> stress on fermentation performance and copper biosorption of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> during wine fermentation]]> Abstract The effect of high Cu2+ stress on fermentation performance and copper biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae BH8 during wine fermentation was investigated in this paper. Under high Cu2+ stress, the cell growth and survival rate of yeast BH8 were inhibited. With different copper concentration, the effect on cell growth of yeast BH8 was different. What’s more, high Cu2+ stress could inhibit the fermentation property, alcohol production and reducing sugar utilization of yeast BH8 in Chardonnay grape must, but not significant. And the trend of the copper ion concentration falling down was consistent with the trend of yeast growth rising up, meanwhile the copper content was still much less than the initial concentration after fermentation. In addition, yeast BH8 showed a good fermenting property and copper removal ability under high Cu2+ stress. These results could provide certain reference and some new data for the wine industry to face the copper pollution risk. <![CDATA[Preservative effects of rosemary extract (<em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> L.) on quality and storage stability of chicken meat patties]]> Abstract The effect of different level of rosemary extract (RE) (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) cultivated in Jordan, and other preservative on quality and stability of ground chicken meat was investigated. Treatments, were involved 1) Control (No additive), 2) 300 ppm (RE), 3) 350 ppm RE, 4) 300 ppm L-Ascorbic acid (E-300), 5) 200 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250), 6) 5 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) for breast, and 14 ppm for thigh meat were prepared. TBARS, total carbonyl, and color values, were measured and analyzed at 0, 4, and 7 day. Samples of cooked thigh meat were prepared, and sensory evaluation was reported. Cooking loss %, ultimate pH, and total aldehydes were analyzed. Both RE and E-250 were showed the highest significant effect maintaining low values of TBARS and total carbonyl at 7 day. However, no significant differences were found among all treatments measuring ultimate pH values, and their cooking loss %. The RE and E-250 also showed the highest significant effect delaying aldehydes formation, and positively affect meat sensory attributes. In conclusion, RE (350 ppm) was very effective antioxidant and comparable to the other commercial antioxidants. Thus, RE could be a good substitution to many synthetic antioxidants used in meat industry. <![CDATA[Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries modifies phenolic components and antioxidant activity of grapes and wine]]> Abstract A comprehensive investigation was conducted to determine the effects of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on phenolic components and antioxidants of grape berries and wine. The results showed an increase in the concentration of cyanin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin derivatives, and two flavanols [namely (+)-catechins and (−)-epicatechins] of grapes, as well as flavonols in both grapes and wine due to the application of melatonin. These compounds are derivatives of the catalysate of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) in the flavonoid synthesis pathway of plants. It can be inferred that melatonin increased the activity of F3’H or expression of VvF3’H during grape berry maturation. In addition, two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries reduced the DPPH radical-scavenging ability and copper ion-reducing power of grapes and wine, whereas one melatonin treatment just reduced those in wine. This study will provide a practical strategy to change the phenolic composition of grapes and wine. <![CDATA[Optimization of gluten free biscuit from foxtail, copra meal and amaranth]]> Abstract Optimization of proportion for minimally processed foxtail millet flour (FMF) (55g or 85%) and copra meal flour (CMF) (10g or 15%) through preliminary trials were done sensorially to have gluten free premix. Optimized premix (60g or 60%) work upon further with amaranth flour (AF) (40g or 40%) in the same way to have gluten free composite mix that works as base material. Further selected independent variables i.e. AF (30-40g/100g premix), fat (35-42 g/100g composite mix) and skim milk powder (SMP) (4-6g/100g composite mix) were used for standardization of ingredients level to formulate biscuits through central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Numerically optimized formulation were found to 40g/100g, 4g/100g and 42g/100g values were optimized for AF, SMP and fat respectively using series of responses viz. maximum spread ratio, fiber content, overall acceptability and with minimum of breaking strength values. Resultant biscuit was shown to have favorable characteristics of overall acceptability (7.55) with desirable responses (0.794) for celiacs. <![CDATA[Quality assessment of the manufacture of new ripened soft cheese by <em>Geotrichum candidum</em>: physico-chemical and technological properties]]> Abstract A new type of ripened soft cheese by Geotrichum candidum was manufactured with pasteurized milk from Jersey and Holstein cow breeds. The physico-chemical (moisture, pH, acidity, protein, lipids and ash) and technological parameters (proteolysis, texture profile and color) during 21 days of ripening cheese (surface, center and whole), were evaluated. The differences in the cheese produced with Holstein cow milk were related to increased proteolysis (tyrosine and acid-soluble nitrogen) and the influence of the a* and b* color parameters. The cheeses prepared with Jersey cow milk showed a high fat content and lower proteolysis, which had a significant effect on the instrumental texture profile. Using chemometrics and two-way ANOVA was possible to distinguish the cheeses based on the breed of cow and ripening time. After two weeks, the cheeses already presented characteristics of the ripening by G. candidum. <![CDATA[Antioxidant effects of tea catechins on the shelf life of raw minced duck meat]]> Abstract The antioxidant effects of tea catechins (TC) on the shelf life of raw minced duck meat were investigated by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation, globulin precipitation, and TC residues during refrigeration (4 °C). TC was added to the raw minced duck meat at 0 (T0), 300 (T300), 500 (T500), 800 (T800), or 1000 (T1000) mg/kg. Treated samples were stored in a refrigerated (4 °C) display cabinet under aerobic conditions for 10 d. The levels of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), globulin precipitation, and TC residues were measured every 2 d. TC-treated duck meat displayed significantly lower (P &lt; 0.05) lipid peroxidation compared with the control under refrigerated aerobic conditions, indicating that the TCs have antioxidant activity. As the TC concentration increased, globulin precipitation decreased under aerobic conditions. At the same time, the level of TC residues first increased and then decreased. These results showed that addition of TC improved the lipid stability, decreased globulin precipitation, and decreased the level of TC residues in minced duck meat. Therefore, TCs are a promising additive for inhibiting the oxidation of duck meat, and could be used to maintain food product quality. <![CDATA[Phenolic compounds in native potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) cooking water, with potential antioxidant activity]]> Abstract For over two decades, there has been an increasing interest in finding natural antioxidants, because they can protect the human body from free radicals and retard the progress of many chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in potato cooking water from freeze–dried slices with peel and from whole potato stored for 20 days. Extracts were obtained with an aqueous solution composed of 50% methanol and 0.5% acetic acid. Fifteen secondary metabolites were monitored using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS / MS). A calibration curve (from 0.1 ng to 100 μg) was generated and the data was analyzed using the software “MassHunter Workstation” VB 06.00, the results were expressed as mg/100 g of sliced potato or raw potato. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed using XLSTAT 2015 Software. The potato cooking water contains phytonutrients with potential antioxidant activity to prevent non-transmissible degenerative diseases. The metabolite content in the cooking water of the Huagalina native potato is directly related to the freshness of the product before cooking. Potato cooking water could be considered a neutraceutical food. However, further research is required to identify any other substances that can be harmful to health depending on the amount consumed. <![CDATA[Effect of Harpin protein as an elicitor on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in two hydroponically grown lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa</em> L.) varieties.]]> Abstract Harpin protein was used as an elicitor in green (butterhead) and red (oak leaf type) varieties of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Its impact on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity was evaluated. Harpin protein was sprayed three days before harvesting in concentrations of 45, 60, and 120 mg/L. Green lettuce samples showed a positive response to Harpin by significantly increasing its phenolic content from 12 (control) to 16.43 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dry weight (DW) (120 mg/L Harpin treatment) which means a 36.9% increase. Chlorogenic acid was the only phenolic compound that increased its concentration after lettuce induction with Harpin treatment. Antioxidant capacity, evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods, also showed a significant increase (46.5 and 64.3%, respectively) in Harpin-treated green lettuce. The red lettuce variety showed none or a negative response to Harpin treatment for all parameters evaluated. These results show that elicitation may be an effective strategy to enhance phenolic content in lettuce varieties. <![CDATA[Evolution of soluble solid content and evaporation rate curves during the manufacture of <em>dulce de leche</em> (dl)]]> Abstract Dulce de leche is an evaporated dairy product that can be manufactured in different types of pots or pans. The manufacturing endpoint for dulce de leche can be determined by measuring the soluble solids content. We investigated the evaporation rates and the evaporative capacity of atmospheric pressure evaporators (pans) during the manufacture of dulce de leche. During manufacturing, four different formulations were subjected to soluble solids content determination by refractometry. In addition, the mass balance was used to determine the yield and evaporation rate. A low coefficient of variation and amplitude was found for soluble solids content, indicating standardization and uniformity during fabrication. We also observed a gradual increase in the latter throughout manufacture, without significant differences between the times. The evaporated water mass rate and its respective equation allow to reproduce the same characteristics of the experimental product in experimental and industrial production of dulce de leche. <![CDATA[The effect of saleps obtained from various Orchidacease species on some physical and sensory properties of ice cream]]> Abstract The study was aimed to investigate the effect of different salep properties on ice cream quality parameters. Therefore, salep samples obtained from six different Orchidaceae spp. were examined for glucomannan and starch contents. Statistically significant differences were observed between the glucomannan and starch levels, viscosity values (between 23.90 cP and 430.90 cP), and overrun levels (between % 32.62 and % 42.46) of ice cream mixes and melting qualities of ice cream samples according to species of the salep sample (p &lt; 0.05). It is concluded that high-glucomannan (&gt; 40%) containing salep samples, which were obtained from the species (O. mascula ssp. pinetorum, S. vomeracea ssp. vomeracea) have significantly desired effects on the viscosity values and overrun levels and contributes to the sensory qualities of Kahramanmaras type ice cream. Abundant production of good quality salep depends on the cultivation of high-glucomannan species in particular. <![CDATA[Prediction of pH and color in pork meat using VIS-NIR Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)]]> Abstract The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict the physicochemical characteristics of the porcine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was evaluated in comparison to the standard methods of pH and color for meat quality analysis compared to the pH results with Colorimeter and pH meter. Spectral information from each sample (n = 77) was obtained as the average of 32 successive scans acquired over a spectral range from 400 - 2498 nm with a 2 - nm gap for calibration and validation models. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for each individual model. An R2 and a residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 0.67/1.7, 0.86/2, and 0.76/1.9 were estimated for color parameters L*, a *, and b*, respectively. Final pH had an R2 of 0.67 and a RPD of 1.6. NIRS showed great potential to predict color parameter a * of porcine LD muscle. Further studies with larger samples should help improve model quality. <![CDATA[Pasting and gel texture properties of starch-molasses combinations]]> Abstract Molasses replacement by sugar are used in new product formulations for enrichment quality of products in the food industry. The influence of addition of wheat and corn starches on grape and carob molasses at different concentrations in distilled water (from 0 to 30% w/w) and holding temperatures (90 to 98 °C), pasting and gel texture properties were determined. Pasting parameters for carob molasses-starch combinations were higher than grape molasses-starch, due to presence of different sugar content in carob molasses. Textural properties of carob molasses-wheat starch interactions were affected more highly than grape molasses-wheat starch interactions. The starch varieties affected strongly the textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness) of gels. All sample gels lost viscous and soft sludge properties at increasing holding temperature especially 98 °C. These results showed that molasses and starch varities and different holding temperature could facilitate development of optimum final products with desired improved pasting and textural properties. <![CDATA[Effects of chitosan-tomato plant extract edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of chicken fillets during refrigerated storage]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan-tomato plant extract (C-TPE) edible coating (EC) applications on the physicochemical, microbiological, sensory and antioxidant capacity of chicken during storage. Edible coatings prepared with chitosan 1%, acetic acid 1%, glycerol and TPE (0.1 and 0.3%) were tested. The slices were submerged for 1 minute in different treatments (T1: C 1%; T2: C 1% + TPE 0.1%; T3: C 1% + TPE 0.3%; T4: control) and stored at 4 °C. At the end of the storage period, the treatments exhibited the greatest physicochemical and microbiological effects in the slices, reducing the microbial population relative to the control. The T2 treatment exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and overall acceptance. The results demonstrate that the application of C with the addition of a natural extract, such as those from the tomato plant, can be an alternative method for preserving chicken meat. <![CDATA[Protein beverages containing anthocyanins of jabuticaba]]> Abstract The objective of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of whey protein beverages containing anthocyanins from jabuticaba skins. Beverage formulations containing 0.5% (F1), 2.0% (F2), 4.0% (F3) and 6.0% (F4) of whey proteins and 2.0 mL of the concentrated phenolic extract from jabuticaba skins were developed. Physicochemical parameters (pH, acidity, total soluble solids, protein content, viscosity, color), antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins and total phenols of the beverages were determined. In addition, a sensory acceptance test and a stability study were performed. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein concentration significantly (p &lt; 0.05) affected the values of acidity, total soluble solids, total phenols and antioxidant capacity. The protein content also influenced the total color difference (ΔE) between formulations. The greater differences were observed in the formulation pairs containing low and high protein contents. The formulations F1, F2 and F3 were equally accepted on overall impression and color attributes. The stability study demonstrated that there was no significant change (p &gt; 0.05) in the total anthocyanins and in the physicochemical properties of F3 over storage time, which indicated a good stability and a great market potential of the whey protein beverages containing anthocyanins from jabuticaba skins. <![CDATA[Study of K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 activity concentrations in some seasoning and nuts obtained in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil]]> Abstract This work presents an investigation of the activity concentration (AC) of naturally occurring radionuclides in 26 samples of seasoning and nuts utilized for Brazilian population. The samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium detector. The analysis shows that K-40 AC was measured in all samples, and its AC ranges from 21.0 Bq/kg to 1288 Bq/kg. The highest K-40 AC was measured for cheiro verde, a Brazilian seasoning made of chives (Allium schoenoprasum) and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum), while annatto, made with the fruit of Bixa orelhana , presented the lowest AC. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa ) presented the highest AC for Ra-226 and Ra-228 with 24 Bq/kg and 25.7 Bq/kg, respectively, and black pepper (Piper nigrum) presented the highest Ra-224 AC, with 33.9 Bq/kg. Behavior of radionuclides present in the seasoning samples and dose percentage due to ingestion was evaluated. The highest effective dose for members of the public due to idealized intake of 1 kg of seasoning was 23.5 µSv/y due to Brazil nut and the lowest effective dose was found for annatto: 0.13 µSv/y. The Syrian seasoning was the only sample that presented a measurable amount of Cs-137, (6.1 ± 1.1) Bq/kg for AC and 0.08µSv/y for effective dose. <![CDATA[Effect of glucose oxidase addition on the textural characteristics of wheat-maize dough and bread]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding glucose oxidase (GOX) on wheat-maize dough and bread textural characteristics. It strengthens the importance and need of replacing wheat flour with maize flour in regions where extensive cultivation of wheat is not possible. For improving the rheological properties of bread, GOX was added to wheat and wheat-maize flours. Wheat and maize flours were used in several ratios, but the best results were obtained for (on flour basis): 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, where the highest values correspond to the wheat flour. Wheat-maize dough and bread volume were slightly influenced by GOX addition. Dough strength was higher in the case of dough without GOX addition than the samples enriched by GOX, while crumb strength of GOX enriched maize bread was higher than the samples without GOX. The obtained data might be useful for future studies, while it was demonstrated here the effect of GOX addition on wheat-maize dough and bread. <![CDATA[Effect of modified cassava starch on the rheological and quality properties of a dairy beverage prepared with sweet whey]]> Abstract The effect of sweet whey and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified cassava starch on the quality and rheological properties of fermented dairy beverages was evaluated. Sweet whey (45-65%) and OSA-modified cassava starch (0.8-1.2%) were added to determine an optimal fermented dairy beverage with the highest viscosity and the lowest syneresis possible. The optimal fermented dairy beverage corresponded to the addition of 40.9% sweet whey and 1.13% OSA-modified cassava starch with respect to the milk and sweet whey mixture. Moreover, the rheological and quality properties of the optimal fermented dairy beverage were compared to a commercial beverage (control) during 22 days of storage. No significant differences were found in soluble solids, acidity, pH and consistency index during the time evaluated, while the syneresis of both products showed an increase during storage. OSA-modified cassava starch can be used as a stabiliser in sweet whey fermented dairy beverages because it helps improve its quality properties. <![CDATA[Microbial characterization and diversity of artisanal Ranchero cheese with emphasis in <em>Lactococcus</em> strains]]> Abstract The aim of this work is to characterize the natural microflora of artisanal Ranchero cheese and to identify Lactococcus isolates. Ten artisanal Ranchero cheese samples made with raw milk were obtained from local producers located in different geographical areas. Aerobic mesophilic, Staphylococci, Psychrophilic , total coliforms, molds, yeast and, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactococcus , Streptococcus mesophilic and thermophilic, Lactobacillus , Enterococcus, Leuconostoc) were numbered through agar plating. LAB isolates were classified by genus. Then, nineteen randomly selected presumptive Lactococcus isolates were assigned to specie by PCR amplification and DNA sequence. A high number of aerobic mesophilic Staphylococci, Psychrophilic, total coliforms, molds, and yeast were found. Lactococci, mesophilic and thermophilic Streptococci and Lactobacilli were the dominant LAB. Enterococci and Leuconostoc were also present. The isolates were identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. garvieae . And both were found to be the dominant Lactococcus species that could be selected and used in a starter culture. Sanitation deficiencies in the production of artisanal Ranchero cheese were evident, which may translate into being a potential consumers health risk factor. <![CDATA[Physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of three native corn starches]]> Abstract Native starch was isolated from two corn landraces (blue and white) and a hybrid variety and then characterized for its physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties. The hybrid variety showed the highest starch yield, with its starch showing the highest fat, moisture and protein content but the lowest onset temperature of gelatinization. The hybrid corn starch also showed the highest G’ and G” values. The tested starches showed similar Tp, Tc, and ΔH values. The amylose contents ranged from 21.5 to 22.4%, with starch from blue corn showing the highest amylose content. All starches were white, with L values ranging from 93.6 to 99.5. The light absorbance of the starch gels increased with storage time. The obtained results demonstrated that the physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of corn starch are highly dependent on the corn type. <![CDATA[Development of a hamburger-type product derived from bovine liver]]> Abstract Changes in eating habits generated a demand for processed foods. The use of bovine liver in processed foods provides nutritional enrichment; the use of oatmeal promotes moisture and fat substitution. This study evaluated hamburger-type products derived from bovine liver. Three formulations were prepared using bovine liver and containing 0%, 5%, and 10% oatmeal. The products were evaluated for moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and ash contents and presence of thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase positive staphylococci, Salmonella sp., Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium sulfite reducers. Yield percentage, sensory acceptance, and purchase intent were evaluated through child and adult sensory panels. The products with oatmeal presented lower lipid content and higher carbohydrate content than products without oatmeal. The microbiological analysis showed products with counts &lt; 10 CFU/g for thermo-tolerant coliforms and coagulase positive staphylococci, and absence of Salmonella sp., Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium sulfite reducers. The child sensory panel classified the products using hedonic terms; this group demonstrated interest in consuming the products. The adult sensory panel classified the 5% oatmeal product with the best acceptability indexes. This group demonstrated satisfactory purchase intent. It is concluded that the use of bovine liver as a raw material for the production of hamburger-type products is feasible. <![CDATA[Characterization of the interactions between chitosan/whey protein at different conditions]]> Abstract This research investigated the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules in terms of pH and heating. The FTIR, rheological analysis, turbidity, and zeta potential measurements were used to assess this interaction. At pH 4.0, addition of low amount chitosan with chitosan/whey protein isolate (C/WPI) ratio of 1:5 effectively prevented the denaturation of whey proteins after heating, whereas high amount of chitosan (C/WPI,1:2) led to depletion flocculation. The combination of chitosan and whey proteins was electrostatic attracting at pH 5.5 and 6.0. At low chitosan addition, the complexes formed at pH 5.5 showed higher viscosity and the complexes formed at pH 6.0 showed a shear-thinning behaviour. At high chitosan addition, the complexes showed high viscosity at pH 6.0. Heating led to the decrease of viscosity and increase of turbidity. The results manifested that chitosan and whey protein formed different complexes at pH 5.5 and 6.0, and the complexation of C/WPI was influenced by heating and ratio of chitosan and whey proteins. <![CDATA[Improvement of physical and sensory properties of whipping cream by replacing sucrose with rebaudioside A, isomalt and maltodextrin]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to produce sugar-free whipping cream with desirable quality. Rebaudioside A and isomalt were used as a sucrose substitute and maltodextrin to adjust the taste and texture of the whipping cream. Samples containing different amounts of rebaudioside A, isomalt and maltodextrin (50% Rebaudioside A+50%Isomalt, 50% Rebaudioside A +50%Maltodextrin, 50% Rebaudioside A +25%Isomalt+25% Maltodextrin, 60% Rebaudioside A +40%Isomalt, 60% Rebaudioside A +40% Maltodextrin, 60% Rebaudioside A +20%Isomalt+20% Maltodextrin) were stored for two months. During storage, the syneresis of the samples decreased, but the viscosity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05). The lowest syneresis value was recorded for the sample containing 60% rebaudioside A + 20% isomalt + 20% maltodextrin and this sample had the best texture. The sample containing 60% rebaudioside A + 40% isomalt scored highest for flavor and overall acceptance. The sample containing 60% rebaudioside A + 40% isomalt and the one containing 60% rebaudioside A +20% isomalt + 20% maltodextrin had the best sensory and physical qualities, respectively. Therefore, rebaudioside A, isomalt and maltodextrin can be used as a sucrose substitute to sweeten and provide suitable texture to whipping cream. <![CDATA[Evaluation of various soaking agents as a novel tool for heavy metal residues mitigation from spinach]]> Abstract Heavy metals pollution is a global threat to the environment and ecosystem due to various human and natural activities. Heavy metal intake through vegetables and diet leads to numerous ailments such as nervous disorder, kidney damage tubular growth and bone disease. The present study was conducted to mitigate the residue of heavy metals Hg, Pb, Zn and As in spinach collected from self-grown supervised field by using different washing treatments. Amount of trace metals was measured in fresh and chemically washed spinach samples with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed that highest reduction of mercury, lead, zinc and arsenic residues with 10% citric acid was 23%, 28%, 54% and 22% respectively among the tested solutions. However, tap water treatment also reduced 7%, 7%, 15% and 6, respectively. Among various washing solutions citric acid proved maximum reduction potential followed by Lemon extract, sodium carbonate, reddish extract and hydrogen peroxide respectively. The percent reduction by various solutions ranged from 7 to 23%, 7 to 28%, 15 to 54% and 6 to 22% for elimination of mercury, lead, zinc and arsenic, respectively. More reduction was found in zinc followed lead, mercury and arsenic. <![CDATA[Production factors affecting antioxidant peptides from tilapia processing byproducts]]> Abstract This research aimed to elucidate significant factors affecting antioxidant capacity of protein hydrolysates from tilapia processing byproducts. Effects of protein type, substrate concentration (0.4-1.2%) and time of hydrolysis (0-60 min) on antioxidant abilities were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the alkaline-aided protein hydrolysate (APH) hydrolyzed by Protease G6 at 1.2% and 60 min hydrolysis was comparable to the control (minced tilapia muscle hydrolysates) and was more effective than the myofibrillar protein and sarcoplasmic protein hydrolysates. Principal component analysis showed that the APH exert their antioxidant capacity by peroxyl radical quenching ability. These findings provide evidence that the APH from fish byproducts can be alternatively used as a natural antioxidant. <![CDATA[Survival and proteolytic capacity of probiotics in a fermented milk enriched with agave juice and stored in refrigeration]]> Abstract In this study, the survival and proteolysis of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were measured in fermented milks enriched with agave juice and inulin. Fermentations were terminated at pH 4.5 and stored for 21 days at 4 °C. Survival was determined by viable count in MRS-agar. The production of free amino groups was performed by the TNBS method and peptide separation was performed by SDS-PAGE. During fermentation, pH decreased faster in milk with agave juice than with inulin. There was no significant difference in the concentration of free amino groups (0.632 ± 0.007 and 0.627 ± 0.007 mg/L) between the two fermentation systems for any microorganism. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in the presence of agave juice was higher than the recommended concentration for probiotic foods (7.59 log CFU/mL for L. rhamnosus GG and 8.26 log CFU/mL for L. casei Shirota). The production of free amino groups and peptides of low molecular weight continued in refrigeration and was higher in systems with agave juice. This could represent a proteolytic activation in the presence of this carbon source. The results showed that agave juice might be a functional ingredient with prebiotic character in symbiotic systems. <![CDATA[Anoxia stress and effect on flesh quality and gene expression of tilapia]]> Abstract We evaluated the effect of the length of stay out of water on stress, gene expression, pH variation, blood parameters, histological analysis and water holding capacity (WHC) in fillets of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivated in net-tanks. For this purpose, the fishes were maintained out of water under different periods of anoxia. Three and 6 min of anoxia in the pre-slaughter period increased the blood levels and mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 the Nile tilapia and produced fillets with a less firm texture (greater sarcomere length). The evaluated periods of anoxia did not markedly affect pH and WHC. These results demonstrate that a pre-slaughter period of acute stress of up to 6 min does not considerably affect the quality of meat. The fillets of fish slaughtered in the early evening had a higher WHC and lower plasma glucose level than those slaughtered at the other time periods (morning and afternoon). <![CDATA[Effect of active antimicrobial films on the growth of pathogenic bacteria in Mantı]]> Abstract The current study assessed antimicrobial films for use in active food packaging. Mantı, a tortellini-like Turkish food, was packaged with antimicrobial films to extend refrigerated storage time at 4 °C. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was separately incorporated with cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) and pomegranate methanolic extract (PME) to form antimicrobial diffusion films for use against two common food-poisoning bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the mantı pieces were separately inoculated with 5 log concentrations of both types of bacteria. The films and mantı were then inserted in polyethylene bags, which were filled with 100% N2 gas and monitored at 4 °C for 28 days. The results clearly show that both a low temperature storage (4 °C) and antimicrobial films controlled microbial growth in packages of mantı kept in a modified atmosphere (100% N2) for a 28-day period. The findings are promising from an industrial standpoint with regard to bakery foods that are packaged and preserved for short-term periods (&lt;30 days). <![CDATA[Development of a preservative for white fresh cheese from the addition of Peruvian Tara gum <em>Caesalpinia spinosa</em>]]> Abstract Over the time, fresh cheese undergoes changes in its physicochemical and sensorial properties, mostly associated to the loss of moisture, which directly affects the texture and yield. In this sutdy, we elaborated an alternative formulation for the preparation of cheese with Peruvian tara gum Caesalpinia spinosa, for moisture retention increasing, without loss of sensory acceptance. Different formulations were prepared by modifying amounts of salt and tara gum to achieve the highest sensory acceptability, without loss of texture, water and weight. Microbiological tests were performed in agreement with Peruvian regulations, showing limits of mold, yeast, coliform, Salmonella sp and bacteria below the stablished limit. Cheese with addition of tara gum presented a moisture content of 59.8 ± 0.6%, ensuring the physical properties of the cheese. One-hundred untrained individuals experienced the sensory acceptability test. In a nine-point hedonic scale, the acceptance for salt and texture were 8.2 for salt, while the appearance achieved. The optimal formulation for the preparation was 0.05% tara gum with a shelf life of 14 days in refrigeration. The prepared cheese is a promising alternative for production of fresh cheese with greater yield and sensory acceptability. <![CDATA[The effects of different feeding times and diets on the whole body fatty acid composition of goldfish (<em>Carassius auratus</em>) larvae]]> Abstract In this study, the effects on whole body fatty acid levels of goldfish larvae (Carassius auratus) caused by different feeding times T(1–4) and diets D(1–3) were investigated during the early larval stages which is the first 15 days’ of feeding. Fatty acid levels for all experimental groups were found to be: 1.54 to 3.45% for myristic acid, 17.57 to 22.68% for palmitic acid, 28.81 to 41.16% for total saturated fatty acids-∑SFA, 2.37 to 4.04% for palmitoleic acid, 13.79 to 39.21% for oleic acid, 22.60 to 47.59% for total monounsaturated fatty acids-∑MUFA, 3.62 to 7.69% for linolenic acid-ALA, 0.35 to 1.11% for arachidonic acid-ARA, 7.50 to 9.76% for total n-6 fatty acids-∑ n-6, 1.04 to 2.28% for linoleic acid-LA, 0.81 to 2.52% for eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA and 5.56 to 10.28% for docosahexaenoic acid-DHA. The total n-3 acids-∑ n-3, total polyunsaturated fatty acids-∑PUFA, PUFA/SFA ratio, ∑ n-6/∑ n-3 and DHA/EPA ratio of the experimental groups were determined to be 7.24 to 14.83%, 14.73 to 23.46%, 0.47 to 0.73, 0.58 to 1.04 and 3.21 to 8.7, respectively. In conclusion, the whole body fatty acid levels of goldfish larvae (Carassius auratus) determined in this study revealed the significant effects of different feeding times (T1–4) and different diets (D 1–3) using (P &lt; 0.05). <![CDATA[Effect of hot air drying on quality characteristics and physicochemical properties of bee pollen]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot air drying on quality characteristics, physicochemical properties, morphological structure and organoleptic characteristics of bee pollen, and compute the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy during hot air drying of bee pollen. Bee pollen samples were dried at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C. Effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values ranged from 1.38 × 10 −10 to 4.00 × 10−10 m2/s, and the activation energy (Ea) was found to be 42.96 kJ/mol. Protein, fat, total carbohydrates and vitamin C of bee pollen were affected by the drying temperature. Dried bee pollen samples had high solubility index, and had lower L* and b* values as compared with those of the fresh bee pollen. Total color difference (Δ E) was the lowest for the bee pollen dried at 40 °C. Morphological changes on dried bee pollen surfaces increased with increasing the drying temperature. Bee pollen dried at 40 °C took the highest sensory scores and retained its quality attributes better than the bee pollen samples dried at 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C. Hot air drying at 40 °C is recommended for the drying of bee pollen. <![CDATA[The effect of bioactive components of plant origin on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of functional sausages]]> Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bioactive compounds of natural origin on the quality of sausages. Four variants of sausages were manufactured: a control variant (C) and three variants with the addition of catuaba, galangal, roseroot, maca, guarana and polyfloral honey (E1, E2, E3). The pH values, colour and chemical parameters (total phenolic content, total antioxidant activity and anti-inflamantory activity) of the meat batters and finished products were determined. Additionally, texture and sensory analyses of the sausages were performed. It was found that regardless of slightly lower acceptability, sausages with bioactive components were characterised by increased antioxidant properties, higher total phenol values and higher anti-inflamantory activity. The best results were obtained when the highest level of bioactive compounds was used (1.734% of catuaba bark, 0.022% of ground great galangal root, 0.458% of ground roseroot, 0.614% of maca root extract (4:1), 0.600% of ground guarana and 1.146% of polyfloral honey). <![CDATA[Efficiency of γ-oryzanol against the complex <em>Fusarium graminearum</em> growth and mycotoxins production]]> Abstract The ability of γ-oryzanol against Fusarium graminearum growth and mycotoxins production were assessed and compared with the antioxidant properties in order to improve its application in food chain, beyond of the conventional. The γ-oryzanol extracted from rice bran and characterized by HPLC-UV and GG-FD. Its antifungal in vitro, effect on complex F. graminearum CQ244 (halo diameter, ergosterol and glucosamine production) and mycotoxin production (deoxinivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone) were determined by an adapted method adapted. The antifungal activity of γ-oryzanol was compared with azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin. MIC and specific inhibitory effects (%inhibition µg γ-oryzanol-1) were also estimated. The antioxidant activity of the γ-oryzanol (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and enzymatic inhibition) was compared with the gallic acid. Considering the MIC (1, 2 mg.g-1 ) specific inhibitory effects on fungal growth (0.045%.µg) and mycotoxin (DON 0.001%. µg and NIV 0.002%. ug). Therefore γ-oryzanol is also a potential natural antifungal that is able to difficult the synthesis of fungal cell wall. <![CDATA[Study of the parameters used in the encapsulation of commercial pectinase in calcium alginate and its effect on its catalytic activity]]> Abstract Despite the high catalytic properties of pectinases, the utilization of free enzymes always presents some hindrances such as low stability, a difficulty for product recovery and the impossibility of continuous use. Enzyme encapsulation is one of the methods used to overcome these limitations; however, some kind of effect is expected to occur on its catalytic activity. The objective of this work was to study the parameters involved in the process of encapsulation of a commercial pectinase product in calcium alginate and the effect of this encapsulation on its catalytic activity. The effect of the parameters of sodium alginate, calcium chloride, enzyme concentration and reaction time on enzymatic activity and encapsulation yield were also evaluated. The effect of pH and temperature on the activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme was studied. The highest yield of immobilization was obtained with a concentration of enzyme solution of 4%. Free and encapsulated enzymes showed similar behavior regarding the catalytic activity. The encapsulated enzyme had a narrower pH range (pH 4.0) than the free enzyme (pH 3.0 to 5.0). Besides, the encapsulated enzyme showed an increase in the stability in the pH range between 7 and 8 and above 10 to 12.